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Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
Educational ICTs in developing countries
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Educational ICTs in developing countries

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In this presentation, Prof Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams, explores how to frame research of educational technologies in developing countries.

In this presentation, Prof Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams, explores how to frame research of educational technologies in developing countries.

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  • Hello everyone – Although I am not with you today, I thought I would share some ideas around how to think through the research on information communication technologies in developing countries by explaining a conceptual framework.
  • The key purpose of a conceptual framework is to provide a shared language of how various concepts are understood. In other words when some one talks about the “pedagogical value” of ICTs in teaching and learning in higher education, what exactly to they mean by “pedagogical value”. This is really important in any research document – your essays, your research proposals, your final thesis. The second reason for devising a conceptual framework to locate current issues and debates in a coherent manner that links logically to the available literature. The third reason is to use the conceptual framework to group the key areas and elements within the broader debates so that there is some ways of grouping similar ideas together making it easier to see the relationships between the various aspects The fourth reason for having an underpinning conceptual framework is that it makes it easier to identify points of leverage for change using educational technology to address educational challenges
  • On way to think about the various issues that impact upon the use of ICTs in Education is to identify the key factors involved. Conole and Oliver have created a conceptual framework that I have adapted. It endeavours to show in a graphical manner the main factors that influence the uptake of ICTs for teaching and learning. The outer circle represents the Context – in our case developing countries, which include the policy related issues – primarily from government, the social and cultural issues within the society at large and the availability of funds in general to support connectivity at a country level. The inner circles represent the key internal illustrate how the organisational issues, technical and pedagogical issues intersect. Organisational issues include institutional strategies, policies and procedures. The Pedagogical & Epistemological include teaching methods and the content of the curriculum. Technical refers to the ICTs that can support the teaching and learning activities and include general hardware, software and connectivity as well as specific educational software for example Learning Management systems, Eportfolios,
  • These factors – the organisational, pedagogical, technical for example can be cinsidered at many different levels. You can for example focus on just one course and investigate the pedgogical issues around the use of a particular technology or you could be looking the use of a technology within an entire discipline (say ICT in Mathemetics) or maybe at the insitutional level you might want to be investigating the use of various ICTs by students and academics at a univesrity.
  • When we plot the factors against the levels we can more easily plot where exactly your research interest might lie and then infer from that the informing literature.
  • It will also help you define the level of your research – in other words in your minor dissertation you are likely to focus on the intitutional, disciplinary or course level as the scope for national, regional or global level is usually too wide for a minor dissertation.
  • It will also help you define the key issues to be addressed; the intervention you may need to undertake – in other words some activities you are going to develop – e.g. a series of video lectures or using mobile phones in the classroom; and what exactly you are going to be investigating – in other words are you going to be looking at the social issues around the use of mobile phones – maybe the gender differences within once course
  • in other words are you going to be looking at the social issues around the use of mobile phones – maybe the gender differences within once course
  • Or maybe how e-Learning policies are being adopted at a particular institution.
  • Let’s take a few examples. I will look at the institutional level only. For the rest, please see the report written by Czerniewicz and Jaffer. Let’s look at the social, political and economic issues and debates these can include
  • Other examples at the intitutional level
  • Let’s turn to the pedagogical
  • A final thought: Where is your potential project located? What are the key issues and debates? Does your project rely on an intervention? What particular aspect will you research?
  • Transcript

    • 1. ICTs in Developing Countries Contextual framework for research Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams June 2011 MEd ICT EDN6102S
    • 2. Purpose of a conceptual framework
      • To provide a shared language how various concepts are understood
      • To locate current issues and debates in a coherent manner
      • To group the key areas and elements within the broader debates so that there is some ways of grouping similar ideas together making it easier to see the relationships between the various aspects
      • To identify points of leverage for change using educational technology to address educational challenges
    • 3. Political Economic Social Organisational Technical Pedagogical & Epistemological Adapted from Conole & Oliver 2007:13 Key factors
    • 4. Key levels National Regional Global Disciplinary Institutional Course
    • 5. Levels Key factors Social, political and economic Organisational Pedagogical & epistemological Technical Global Regional National Institutional Disciplinary Course
    • 6. Probable focus area for MEd ICT minor dissertations Levels Key factors Social, political and economic Organisational Pedagogical & epistemological Technical Global Regional National Institutional Disciplinary Course
    • 7.
      • Issues & debates
      • Interventions
      • Investigations
      Levels Key factors Social, political and economic Organisational Pedagogical & epistemological Technical Global Regional National Institutional Disciplinary Course
    • 8. Levels Key factors Social, political and economic Organisational Pedagogical & epistemological Technical Global Regional National Institutional Disciplinary Course Use of mobile phones to increase student engagement: Gender differences in Sociology 101
    • 9. Levels Key factors Social, political and economic Organisational Pedagogical & epistemological Technical Global Regional National Institutional Adoption of e-learning policies at a higher education institution Disciplinary Course
    • 10. Institutional: Social, political & economic
      • Institutional issues and debates
        • Changing student needs and social divides (rural/urban, gender, class, disability)
        • Enabling the policy environment
        • Understanding economic constraints and sustainability
      • Institutional interventions
        • Strategies for the inclusion of under-represented groups
        • Development of institutional e-learning policies
        • Inclusion of e-learning policies in relevant university policies
        • Development of a long-term sustainability plan
        • Linkages between institutional policies, regulations and quality assurance mechanisms
    • 11. Institutional: Organisational
      • Institutional issues and debates
        • Institutional structures to support student needs
        • Institutional structures to enhance contribution of staff
        • Integration of ICTs in higher education institutions
        • Recognition for e-learning developments
        • Incentives for e-learning activities and innovation
        • Intellectual Property Rights and alternative licensing
      • Institutional interventions
        • The development of institutional policies to enable staff in the use of ICTs for teaching
        • The development of institutional structures to enable staff in the use of ICTs for teaching
        • The development of institutional policies to support students in the use of ICTs for learning (eg computer literacy, information literacy, graduate competencies)
        • The development of institutional structures to support students in the use of ICTs for learning
    • 12. Institutional: Organisational (cont.)
      • Institutional investigations
        • How well does the University support staff to develop and students to use (and contribute to) e-learning materials?
        • What recognition systems are in place to acknowledge the development of e-learning materials? Are they adequate? Which interests do they serve and what are the implications of this?
        • What is the role of IPR policy in the production and dissemination of institutional resources? What are the implications of current and potential policies?
        • How well does the University support staff in obtaining appropriate copyright for e-learning materials?
        • How effective are dissemination mechanisms for the dissemination of institutional resources?
    • 13. Institutional: Pedagogical
      • Institutional issues and debates
        • Relationship between e-learning policy and curriculum development
        • Quality assurance mechanisms
        • Use of e-learning for assessment and evaluation
        • Linkages between infrastructure and strategy
      • Institutional interventions
        • Ensure synergy between e-learning policy & curriculum development
        • Create quality assurance strategy
        • Ensuring that there is appropriate infrastructure to support strategy decisions for teaching and learning (classroom facilities, data projectors, wireless access etc)
        • Providing rewards for good teaching with technology
    • 14. Institutional: Pedagogical (cont.)
      • Institutional investigations
        • How well do e-learning policies relate to and support curriculum development?
        • How exactly is quality of e-learning courses ensured?
        • How exactly do staff and students use e-learning to support their teaching and learning activities?
        • What pedagogical value do existing ICT-mediated practices bring into the current classroom activities?
        • What existing ICT-mediated social practices do students bring to the classroom context which can be leveraged for teaching and learning?
        • Which ICT tools add value to pedagogical activities?
    • 15. Institutional: Technical
      • Institutional issues and debates
        • Institutional ICT infrastructure & support
        • Institution-wide learning management systems
        • Other software for teaching and learning
        • On-campus/off campus accessibility
      • Institutional interventions
        • Improvement of ICT support for students and staff
        • Creation of institution-wide learning management systems
        • Creation of institutional repository for sharing teaching and learning resources beyond university
        • Wireless access
    • 16. Institutional: Technical (cont.)
      • Institutional investigations
        • How well do existing structures support the use of e-learning?
        • What is the role of the LMS in terms of the different disciplinary communities within the university?
        • What long term scenarios need to be planned for?
        • How effective is the fit between the infrastructure and the strategic direction of the institution?
        • What are the enabling and constraining technological and practical factors for e-learning use?
    • 17. Where is your potential project located? What are the key issues and debates? Does your project rely on an intervention? What particular aspect will you research? Levels Key factors Social, political and economic Organisational Pedagogical & epistemological Technical Global Regional National Institutional Disciplinary Course
    • 18.
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