Introduction and History
Collected by
     Saeid Nezareh
       Information Science student


Tehran ,25th May 2009




                           ...
In this session we will cover

 Introduction about Cognitive
 Today Cognitive science
 Historical reviews of cognitive ...
How do minds work?
What would an answer to this question look like?
   What is a mind?
   What is intelligence?
   How ...
Cognition
Cognition – from Latin base cognitio – “know
together”
The collection of mental processes and activities
used in...
Cognitive Processes
 Learning and Memory
 Thinking and Reasoning (Planning, Decision Making,
 Problem Solving ...)
 Langua...
So What IS Cognitive Science?
 Some possible definitions:
    “The interdisciplinary study of mind and intelligence”
   ...
Disciplines of
Cognitive Science
 Anthropology
    The study of human life and culture.
      How people live? What the...
Disciplines of
Cognitive Science
 Neuroscience
   Studies the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of
    nerves
     ...
2 June 2009   12
Schools of Thought

 Aristotle and Tabula Rasa
 Wundt and Introspection
 Titchener/ Wundt and Structuralism
 James and...
Aristotle

               384-322 BC
               Greece
               Philosophy
               Notion of tabula r...
WillhelmWundt

                 1832-1920.
                 Germany
                 Background in medicine
           ...
Introspection

 “Self-observation”
 A method in which one looks carefully inward
  reporting on inner situations and exp...
Wundt’s criteria for introspection

1. The observer must know when the experience
   begins and ends.
     Observer is mas...
Edward Titchener

                                                        1867-1927.
                                    ...
Structuralism
(Wundt andTitchener)
 The study of the structure of the conscious
  mind.

 Focus on the sensations, image...
Structuralism

  Psychology as a counter-part to biology
        Classifying structures of the conscious mind similar in...
Difficulties with Structuralism

 Observers were highly trained, but self-
  reports were not consistent across people.

...
William James

                 1842-1910
                 Born in U.S.
                 Studied in U.S. and
          ...
Functionalism
(James)
 Focused on the functions of mental and
  physical capabilities of humans.
    Influenced by Darwi...
Hermann Ebbinghaus

                      1850-1909.
                      Germany
                      Professor of
 ...
Ebbinghaus’ studies of memory

 Memorized lists of nonsense syllables
   Example: cvc mhj plk wqf bnd khk
 Examined mem...
Memory Curve




               2 June 2009   27
John B. Watson

                  1878-1958.
                  America
                  Professor of
                 ...
B.F. Skinner

                1904-1990.
                America
                Professor of
                 Psycholo...
Behaviorism

 A response to Wundt’s introspection
 The scientific study of observable behavior
  only
 Behaviorism is “...
Reinforcement

 A stimulus that strengthens or weakens a
  behavior.
   positive
     praise
   negative
     punishm...
Operant conditioning

 The frequency of a behavior is modified by
  the consequences of the behavior
   Individuals “ope...
Challenges to Behaviorism

 Learning (i.e. operant conditioning) could not
  override instinct
   Ex. Pigs learning to p...
Challenges to Behaviorism

 Ebbinghaus’ memory studies
   Observable, rigorous methods allowed the study of
    mental p...
Noam Chomsky

                1928-
                America
                Professor of Linguistics




2 June 2009   ...
Allen Newell and Herbert Simon




  1927-1992                           • 1916-2001
  Computer Science,                ...
Information processing
   Sequence of mental operations
         Encoding
         Storage
         Retrieval
   Symb...
Timeline-Cognitive Science History




                                     2 June 2009   38
6/2/2009
Cognitive Science
Cognitive Science
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Transcript of "Cognitive Science"

  1. 1. Introduction and History
  2. 2. Collected by Saeid Nezareh Information Science student Tehran ,25th May 2009 6/2/2009 2
  3. 3. In this session we will cover  Introduction about Cognitive  Today Cognitive science  Historical reviews of cognitive science
  4. 4. How do minds work? What would an answer to this question look like?  What is a mind?  What is intelligence?  How do brains work? Neurons Brain structure  What’s the difference between the brain and the mind?
  5. 5. Cognition Cognition – from Latin base cognitio – “know together” The collection of mental processes and activities used in perceiving, learning, remembering, thinking, and understanding  and the act of using those processes
  6. 6. Cognitive Processes Learning and Memory Thinking and Reasoning (Planning, Decision Making, Problem Solving ...) Language Vision-Perception Social Cognition Dreaming and Consciousness
  7. 7. So What IS Cognitive Science? Some possible definitions:  “The interdisciplinary study of mind and intelligence”  “Study of cognitive processes involved in the acquisition, representation and use of human knowledge”  “Scientific study of the mind, the brain, and intelligent behaviour, whether in humans, animals, machines or the abstract”
  8. 8. Disciplines of Cognitive Science  Anthropology  The study of human life and culture.  How people live? What they think? What they produce? How they interact with their environment?  Artificial Intelligence  The development of artifacts that perform similar functions as human thought.  Education  Focuses on improving methods of human learning and development.  Linguistics  The scientific study of language.  Origins of language. Acquisition of language. Relationships between languages. Language change over time. 2 June 2009 10
  9. 9. Disciplines of Cognitive Science  Neuroscience  Studies the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of nerves  The brain and the nervous system.  Philosophy  “love of knowledge” from Greek philosophia.  Metaphysics: the investigation of reality.  Epistemology: study of the origins, validity, and limits of knowledge.  Psychology  The scientific study of behavior and the mind. 2 June 2009 11
  10. 10. 2 June 2009 12
  11. 11. Schools of Thought  Aristotle and Tabula Rasa  Wundt and Introspection  Titchener/ Wundt and Structuralism  James and Functionalism  Ebbinghaus and human memory research.  Watson/ Skinner and Behaviorism  Information Processing 2 June 2009 13
  12. 12. Aristotle  384-322 BC  Greece  Philosophy  Notion of tabula rasa  Mind as “clean slate” which experience writes upon. 2 June 2009 14
  13. 13. WillhelmWundt  1832-1920.  Germany  Background in medicine  First experimental psychology laboratory (Europe).  Leipzig, around 1879  Founded first psychological journal  Philosophical Studies 2 June 2009 15
  14. 14. Introspection  “Self-observation”  A method in which one looks carefully inward reporting on inner situations and experiences. 2 June 2009 16
  15. 15. Wundt’s criteria for introspection 1. The observer must know when the experience begins and ends. Observer is master of situation 2. The observer must maintain quot;strained attention.“ Mind does not wander 3. The phenomenon must bear repetition. 4. The phenomenon must be capable of variation Useful for descriptions and experimentation. 2 June 2009 17
  16. 16. Edward Titchener  1867-1927.  Born in England.  Studied in Germany under Wundt  Head of psychological lab Cornell University in U.S. *Photo courtesy of http://vlp.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de 2 June 2009 18
  17. 17. Structuralism (Wundt andTitchener)  The study of the structure of the conscious mind.  Focus on the sensations, images, and feelings that are elements of consciousness. 2 June 2009 19
  18. 18. Structuralism  Psychology as a counter-part to biology  Classifying structures of the conscious mind similar in approach to classifying species in biology. 2 June 2009 20
  19. 19. Difficulties with Structuralism  Observers were highly trained, but self- reports were not consistent across people.  Contents of reports were not observable and thus hard to study scientifically. 2 June 2009 22
  20. 20. William James  1842-1910  Born in U.S.  Studied in U.S. and Europe.  Started first experimental psychology lab (U.S.)  around 1875, Harvard 2 June 2009 23
  21. 21. Functionalism (James)  Focused on the functions of mental and physical capabilities of humans.  Influenced by Darwin’s notion of survival of the fittest.  Emphasized techniques such as intelligence and aptitude tests.  Use controlled environments to test learning and problem solving abilities. 2 June 2009 24
  22. 22. Hermann Ebbinghaus  1850-1909.  Germany  Professor of Philosophy  Studied memory in his spare time. 2 June 2009 25
  23. 23. Ebbinghaus’ studies of memory  Memorized lists of nonsense syllables  Example: cvc mhj plk wqf bnd khk  Examined memory over time  Many of his methods are still used today.  Due to simplicity and reproducibility 2 June 2009 26
  24. 24. Memory Curve 2 June 2009 27
  25. 25. John B. Watson  1878-1958.  America  Professor of Psychology  Founder of behaviorism 2 June 2009 28
  26. 26. B.F. Skinner  1904-1990.  America  Professor of Psychology  Behaviorism 2 June 2009 29
  27. 27. Behaviorism  A response to Wundt’s introspection  The scientific study of observable behavior only  Behaviorism is “antimentalistic”  Since mental processes can’t be seen, they have no place in psychology  Reinforcement and operant conditioning important concepts. 2 June 2009 30
  28. 28. Reinforcement  A stimulus that strengthens or weakens a behavior.  positive  praise  negative  punishment 2 June 2009 31
  29. 29. Operant conditioning  The frequency of a behavior is modified by the consequences of the behavior  Individuals “operate” in the environment and encounter reinforcement. Person Operates on… Consequences (i.e. behavior) reinforce… Environment 2 June 2009 32
  30. 30. Challenges to Behaviorism  Learning (i.e. operant conditioning) could not override instinct  Ex. Pigs learning to put coins into a piggy bank eventually degenerated.  “The Misbehavior of Organisms”  World War II  Focus more on human performance less on learning.  Timing and accuracy of behavior important.  Concepts of attention, vigilance, and signal detection theory emerge. 2 June 2009 33
  31. 31. Challenges to Behaviorism  Ebbinghaus’ memory studies  Observable, rigorous methods allowed the study of mental processes.  Measure time and accuracy  Atheoretical methods showed that an overarching theory was not always necessary.  Linguistics-- Chomsky versus Skinner  Skinner: language is the result of reinforced learning.  Chomsky: emphasized novelty and rules of grammar in language.  Generative grammar: use rules of language to generate novel sentences. 2 June 2009 34
  32. 32. Noam Chomsky  1928-  America  Professor of Linguistics 2 June 2009 35
  33. 33. Allen Newell and Herbert Simon  1927-1992 • 1916-2001  Computer Science, • Economics, Artificial Intelligence Mathematics, • Nobel Prize – decision making Image courtesy of turing.acm.org 2 June 2009 Image courtesy of www.post-gazette.com 36
  34. 34. Information processing  Sequence of mental operations  Encoding  Storage  Retrieval  Symbol manipulation  Metaphor of the mind as a computer 2 June 2009 37 Images courtesy of www.dell.com
  35. 35. Timeline-Cognitive Science History 2 June 2009 38
  36. 36. 6/2/2009
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