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Classes of Amplifier Electronic Engineering © University of Wales Newport 2009 This work is licensed under a  Creative Com...
<ul><li>The following presentation is a part of the level 5 module  -- Electronic Engineering. This resources is a part of...
Amplification Classes Amplifiers are divided into classes. Each class describes how the amplifying device reacts to an app...
Class A The circuit below shows a simple amplifier  The bias components have been left out of the circuit. The bias point ...
The complete range of input variation produces a corresponding change in Ib. This produces a corresponding change in Ic wh...
No input  Small input   Maximum input   The amplifying device, in this case a transistor, conducts all the time. Ideally, ...
The efficiency of the circuit is very low, less than 50% as the transistor conducts even when the input is zero. Current f...
Class B Same circuit as before but the bias point selection is different. The bias point is selected so that the transisto...
No input  Small input   Maximum input   Note: The amplifier produces 180   phase shift so this is why we see negative hal...
The overall result of the above effects is that the Class B arrangement tends to have difficulty whenever the signal wavef...
This places the amplifier designer/user in a dilemma. The Class A amplifier uses devices that always pass high currents, a...
Class C. Once again what makes an amplifier Class C is the bias point selection. As the bias point is selected below the t...
Class AB The bias point is selected so that the device conducts for more than the positive half cycle but not for the whol...
Classes of Amplifier This resource was created by the University of Wales Newport and released as an open educational reso...
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Classes of amplifier

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The following presentation is a part of the level 5 module -- Electronic Engineering. This resources is a part of the 2009/2010 Engineering (foundation degree, BEng and HN) courses from University of Wales Newport (course codes H101, H691, H620, HH37 and 001H). This resource is a part of the core modules for the full time 1st year undergraduate programme.
The BEng & Foundation Degrees and HNC/D in Engineering are designed to meet the needs of employers by placing the emphasis on the theoretical, practical and vocational aspects of engineering within the workplace and beyond. Engineering is becoming more high profile, and therefore more in demand as a skill set, in today’s high-tech world. This course has been designed to provide you with knowledge, skills and practical experience encountered in everyday engineering environments.

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  1. 1. Classes of Amplifier Electronic Engineering © University of Wales Newport 2009 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License .
  2. 2. <ul><li>The following presentation is a part of the level 5 module -- Electronic Engineering. This resources is a part of the 2009/2010 Engineering (foundation degree, BEng and HN) courses from University of Wales Newport (course codes H101, H691, H620, HH37 and 001H). This resource is a part of the core modules for the full time 1 st year undergraduate programme. </li></ul><ul><li>The BEng & Foundation Degrees and HNC/D in Engineering are designed to meet the needs of employers by placing the emphasis on the theoretical, practical and vocational aspects of engineering within the workplace and beyond. Engineering is becoming more high profile, and therefore more in demand as a skill set, in today’s high-tech world. This course has been designed to provide you with knowledge, skills and practical experience encountered in everyday engineering environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Amplification Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Class A </li></ul><ul><li>Class B </li></ul><ul><li>Class C </li></ul><ul><li>Class AB </li></ul><ul><li>Credits </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the resource below, there are supporting documents which should be used in combination with this resource. Please see: </li></ul><ul><li>Clayton G, 2000, Operational Amplifiers 4th Ed, Newnes  </li></ul><ul><li>James M, 2004, Higher Electronics, Newnes </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
  3. 3. Amplification Classes Amplifiers are divided into classes. Each class describes how the amplifying device reacts to an applied input. The amplifying device may be: a transistor (BJT), a field effect transistor (FET) or even a valve. The amplifying devices can be biased to operate as either Class A, Class B or Class C. Each of these are examined below. Classes of Amplifier
  4. 4. Class A The circuit below shows a simple amplifier The bias components have been left out of the circuit. The bias point is selected so that the output “sits” at the mid point of the supply and the input is on a relatively linear section of the input characteristic – see below: Classes of Amplifier Output 20v
  5. 5. The complete range of input variation produces a corresponding change in Ib. This produces a corresponding change in Ic which is converted into an output voltage by the load resistor shown in the circuit diagram. If we were to monitor the output for various input levels we would observe the following: Classes of Amplifier 0.6v Vbe Ib Bias point
  6. 6. No input Small input Maximum input The amplifying device, in this case a transistor, conducts all the time. Ideally, with no input signal present the transistor would be biased to keep the output at 10v (half supply). This allows the output to “swing” by + and – 10v. Classes of Amplifier
  7. 7. The efficiency of the circuit is very low, less than 50% as the transistor conducts even when the input is zero. Current flows through the load in order to produce the 10v drop. This means that energy is being dissipated in the form of heat. Advantages: Good quality output signal as the transistor is operating on a linear portion of it’s characteristic. Disadvantage: Poor efficiency limits its use as a power amplifier – tends to be used for pre-amplifiers only. Classes of Amplifier
  8. 8. Class B Same circuit as before but the bias point selection is different. The bias point is selected so that the transistor is just at the point of turning on. This means that if a positive input is applied the transistor conducts but if a negative input is applied no conduction takes place. This would produce the following: Classes of Amplifier 0.6v Vbe Ib Bias point
  9. 9. No input Small input Maximum input Note: The amplifier produces 180  phase shift so this is why we see negative half cycles on the output. As the circuit stands it is of little use as an amplifier but what we can do is to combine two transistors, each of which conducts in the opposite half cycle.
  10. 10. The overall result of the above effects is that the Class B arrangement tends to have difficulty whenever the signal waveform changes polarity and we have to switch off one transistor and turn on the other. The result is what is called Crossover Distortion and this can have a very bad effect on small level or high speed waveforms. This problem is enhanced due to Non-Linearities in the transistors – i.e. that the output current and voltage don’t vary linearly with the input level – which are worst at low currents. Classes of Amplifier
  11. 11. This places the amplifier designer/user in a dilemma. The Class A amplifier uses devices that always pass high currents, and small signals only modulate these by a modest amount, avoiding the above problems. Alas, Class A is very power inefficient. Class B is far more efficient, but can lead to signal distortions. The solution is to find a ‘half-way house’ that tries to take the good points of each and minimise the problems. The most common solution is Class AB amplification, see later. Advantages: More efficient than Class A – quoted value is 78% Disadvantages: Cross over distortion Normally requires a positive and negative supply.
  12. 12. Class C. Once again what makes an amplifier Class C is the bias point selection. As the bias point is selected below the turn on point for the transistor, only a portion of the positive half cycle will be amplifier. This makes it of no use as an audio amplifier. Where it finds its use is in circuits where a short burst of energy is required every cycle. An example of this is a tuned circuit that will oscillate but does require an energy boost to keep it going. 0.6v Ib Bias point
  13. 13. Class AB The bias point is selected so that the device conducts for more than the positive half cycle but not for the whole wave. We have a situation where both transistors in the push pull arrangement are conducting simultaneously. The effect of this is to reduce/eliminate the distortion whilst ensuring that the efficiency is better than Class A, but not as good as Class B.
  14. 14. Classes of Amplifier This resource was created by the University of Wales Newport and released as an open educational resource through the Open Engineering Resources project of the HE Academy Engineering Subject Centre. The Open Engineering Resources project was funded by HEFCE and part of the JISC/HE Academy UKOER programme. © 2009 University of Wales Newport This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License . The JISC logo is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence.  All reproductions must comply with the terms of that licence. The HEA logo is owned by the Higher Education Academy Limited may be freely distributed and copied for educational purposes only, provided that appropriate acknowledgement is given to the Higher Education Academy as the copyright holder and original publisher. The name and logo of University of Wales Newport is a trade mark and all rights in it are reserved. The name and logo should not be reproduced without the express authorisation of the University.
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