Applications of Semiconductor devices – Switches. Electrical and Electronic Principles © University of Wales Newport 2009 ...
<ul><li>The following presentation is a part of the level 4 module  -- Electrical and Electronic Principles. This resource...
Mechanical Switches - Relays Conventional mechanical switches have the  following characteristics: The last parameter make...
Semiconductor switches are an alternative but are limited in some of their parameters: Poor values for: ON resistance OFF ...
Consider the set up below. To determine the quality of the ON/OFF switching we need to use the characteristics and plot a ...
Let us assume the input can be switched between 0V and 5V For 5V we want 10  A When the input = 0V  Ib = 0  A  Vce = 9v ...
This shows that the switch is far from ideal but there is a factor of nearly 3500 between ON and OFF. This device can only...
Switching using a Thyristor. D.C. Supply With no input the thyristor will be switched off – Ia will be very close to 0A an...
A.C. Supply . If the D.C. is replaced by an A.C. supply then when the thyristor is fired the load will see the positive ha...
Complete Half Cycle Thyristor switched on early in the half cycle Thyristor switched on late in the half cycle
The sine wave areas on the second two graphs represent the power that would be switched to the load. Control the switching...
When R is small    0  the phase lag will be small    0  When R is large       the phase lag will be large    90  If...
See below 90   phase lag. Firing voltage Supply voltage Load  voltage This gives us control over only half of the wave. I...
The centre tap transformer will generate two sine waves 180   of phase with each other. When R is small the firing voltag...
To control the whole of the cycle – positive and negative cycles we use two thyristors back to back. This is called a tria...
Opto-isolator  In electronics, an opto-isolator (or optical isolator, optocoupler or photocoupler) is a  device that uses ...
Unlike a transformer, the opto-isolator allows for DC coupling and generally provides significant protection from serious ...
An opto-isolator can also be constructed using a small incandescent lamp in place of the LED; such a device, because the l...
The photosensor may be a photocell, phototransistor, or an optically triggered SCR or Triac. Occasionally, this device wil...
Opto-isolators are used to protect hospital patients from accidental electric shock. Patients with IV's in their bodies ar...
Applications of  Semiconductor Devices- Switches This resource was created by the University of Wales Newport and released...
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Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches

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The following presentation is a part of the level 4 module -- Electrical and Electronic Principles. This resources is a part of the 2009/2010 Engineering (foundation degree, BEng and HN) courses from University of Wales Newport (course codes H101, H691, H620, HH37 and 001H). This resource is a part of the core modules for the full time 1st year undergraduate programme.

The BEng & Foundation Degrees and HNC/D in Engineering are designed to meet the needs of employers by placing the emphasis on the theoretical, practical and vocational aspects of engineering within the workplace and beyond. Engineering is becoming more high profile, and therefore more in demand as a skill set, in today’s high-tech world. This course has been designed to provide you with knowledge, skills and practical experience encountered in everyday engineering environments.

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Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches

  1. 1. Applications of Semiconductor devices – Switches. Electrical and Electronic Principles © University of Wales Newport 2009 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License .
  2. 2. <ul><li>The following presentation is a part of the level 4 module -- Electrical and Electronic Principles. This resources is a part of the 2009/2010 Engineering (foundation degree, BEng and HN) courses from University of Wales Newport (course codes H101, H691, H620, HH37 and 001H). This resource is a part of the core modules for the full time 1 st year undergraduate programme. </li></ul><ul><li>The BEng & Foundation Degrees and HNC/D in Engineering are designed to meet the needs of employers by placing the emphasis on the theoretical, practical and vocational aspects of engineering within the workplace and beyond. Engineering is becoming more high profile, and therefore more in demand as a skill set, in today’s high-tech world. This course has been designed to provide you with knowledge, skills and practical experience encountered in everyday engineering environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Switches- Relays </li></ul><ul><li>Switching Using a Thyristor - DC Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Switching Using a Thyristor - DAC Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Opto -isolator </li></ul><ul><li>Credits </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the resource below, there are supporting documents which should be used in combination with this resource. Please see: </li></ul><ul><li>Green D C, Higher Electrical Principles, Longman 1998   </li></ul><ul><li>Hughes E , Electrical & Electronic, Pearson Education 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Hambly A , Electronics 2 nd Edition, Pearson Education 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Storey N, A Systems Approach, Addison-Wesley, 1998 </li></ul>Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches
  3. 3. Mechanical Switches - Relays Conventional mechanical switches have the following characteristics: The last parameter makes mechanical switches of no use in computer circuitry or in power control. Excellent ON resistance less than 0.01  typical  0 Excellent OFF resistance open circuit   High drive capability depending upon switch 100s volts and 10s amps Input output isolation no electrical connection between input and output Speed of switching slow tenths of seconds at best.
  4. 4. Semiconductor switches are an alternative but are limited in some of their parameters: Poor values for: ON resistance OFF resistance High drive capability Input output isolation What is in the favour of such devices is speed of switching. These can be switched at 100 MHz  GHz. Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches
  5. 5. Consider the set up below. To determine the quality of the ON/OFF switching we need to use the characteristics and plot a load line . intersect on the Vce axis is at Vs = 9V intersect on the Ic axis is at Vs/Load = 2mA Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches Vs = 9V Rb Ic Ib Vout Vbe LOAD Vin 2N2222 Rc = 4.5k 
  6. 6. Let us assume the input can be switched between 0V and 5V For 5V we want 10  A When the input = 0V Ib = 0  A Vce = 9v Ic = .01mA R = 900k  When the input = 5V Ib = 10  A Vce = 0.5v Ic = 1.9mA R = 263  Ib = 10  A Ib = 8  A Ib = 6  A Ib = 4  A Ib = 2  A Ib = 0  A
  7. 7. This shows that the switch is far from ideal but there is a factor of nearly 3500 between ON and OFF. This device can only switch a couple of 10s of volts at a few milli amps. Larger transistors can do better. There is no electrical isolation between input and output but switching is rapid. FETs can be used in a similar way to switch devices ON and OFF and on the whole have similar characteristics and values. Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches
  8. 8. Switching using a Thyristor. D.C. Supply With no input the thyristor will be switched off – Ia will be very close to 0A and all of Vs will appear across the thyristor. If the thyristor is fired by applying a voltage on Vin then Vout drops to very near ground potential and the load will control Ia. If Vin is removed then the thyristor will remain on, keeping the load powered up. Uses – this is a latching device and can be used for applications such as alarms etc. Rb Ia Vout LOAD Vin Vs
  9. 9. A.C. Supply . If the D.C. is replaced by an A.C. supply then when the thyristor is fired the load will see the positive half cycle. When the input is removed then the thyristor will remain on until the supply drops to 0V – i.e. the end of the positive half cycle. We therefore have a half wave rectifying semiconductor switch. The real power of the thyristor for controlling AC comes from the periodic switching of the device at different points during the positive half cycle. This has the effect of supplying the load with different amounts of the half cycle. See below. Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches
  10. 10. Complete Half Cycle Thyristor switched on early in the half cycle Thyristor switched on late in the half cycle
  11. 11. The sine wave areas on the second two graphs represent the power that would be switched to the load. Control the switching point, and you control the load power. The control of the switching point is achieved by using a phase shift circuit as shown: Vin Vout The amount of phase lag between the two voltages depends upon the values of the resistor and the capacitor. Vin Vout
  12. 12. When R is small  0 the phase lag will be small  0  When R is large   the phase lag will be large  90  If the input to the R.C. network is derived from the AC driving the thyristor then if the output voltage is used to fire the thyristor then we will have 100% of the positive half wave when the angle is 0  and 50% of the half cycle when the angle is 90  . Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches
  13. 13. See below 90  phase lag. Firing voltage Supply voltage Load voltage This gives us control over only half of the wave. In order to have total control over the full half-wave we must use a centre tap transformer – as shown below:
  14. 14. The centre tap transformer will generate two sine waves 180  of phase with each other. When R is small the firing voltage is in phase with the supply and the thyristor fires as soon as the positive half cycle begins. Load receives maximum power When R is large the firing angle approaches 180  and the thyristor is turned on just as the positive half cycle ends. Load receives zero power. L O A D R C Rs D
  15. 15. To control the whole of the cycle – positive and negative cycles we use two thyristors back to back. This is called a triac. Structure Symbol
  16. 16. Opto-isolator In electronics, an opto-isolator (or optical isolator, optocoupler or photocoupler) is a device that uses a short optical transmission path to transfer a signal between elements of a circuit, typically a transmitter and a receiver, while keeping them electrically isolated — since the signal goes from an electrical signal to an optical signal back to an electrical signal, electrical contact along the path is broken. A common implementation involves an LED and a light sensor, separated so that light may travel across a barrier but electrical current may not. When an electrical signal is applied to the input of the opto-isolator, its LED lights, its light sensor then activates, and a corresponding electrical signal is generated at the output. ©André Karwath aka Aka ’ available via http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Opto-isolator_%28aka%29.jpg under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license. *The text on slides 16 – 20 is adapted from http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opto -isolator and is available under a Creative Commons Attribution- ShareAlike License Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches
  17. 17. Unlike a transformer, the opto-isolator allows for DC coupling and generally provides significant protection from serious over voltage conditions in one circuit affecting the other. With a photodiode as the detector, the output current is proportional to the amount of incident light supplied by the emitter. The diode can be used in a photovoltaic mode or a photoconductive mode. In photovoltaic mode, the diode acts like a current source in parallel with a forward-biased diode. The output current and voltage are dependent on the load impedance and light intensity. In photoconductive mode, the diode is connected to a supply voltage, and the magnitude of the current conducted is directly proportional to the intensity of light. *The text on slides 16 – 20 is adapted from http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opto -isolator and is available under a Creative Commons Attribution- ShareAlike License Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches
  18. 18. An opto-isolator can also be constructed using a small incandescent lamp in place of the LED; such a device, because the lamp has a much slower response time than an LED, will filter out noise or half-wave power in the input signal. In so doing, it will also filter out any audio- or higher-frequency signals in the input. It has the further disadvantage, of course, (an overwhelming disadvantage in most applications) that incandescent lamps have finite life spans. Thus, such an unconventional device is of extremely limited usefulness, suitable only for applications such as science projects. The optical path may be air or a dielectric waveguide. The transmitting and receiving elements of an optical isolator may be contained within a single compact module, for mounting, for example, on a circuit board; in this case, the module is often called an optoisolator or opto-isolator. *The text on slides 16 – 20 is adapted from http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opto -isolator and is available under a Creative Commons Attribution- ShareAlike License Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches
  19. 19. The photosensor may be a photocell, phototransistor, or an optically triggered SCR or Triac. Occasionally, this device will in turn operate a power relay or contactor. Applications Among other applications, opto-isolators can help cut down on ground loops and block voltage spikes. One of the requirements of the MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) standard is that input connections must be opto-isolated. *The text on slides 16 – 20 is adapted from http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opto -isolator and is available under a Creative Commons Attribution- ShareAlike License Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches
  20. 20. Opto-isolators are used to protect hospital patients from accidental electric shock. Patients with IV's in their bodies are particularly susceptible, sometimes succumbing to 'carpet shock.' They are used to isolate low-current control or signal circuitry from transients generated or transmitted by power supply and high-current control circuits. The latter are used within motor and machine control function blocks. The classical computer mouse is a common application, using infrared emitter led's and phototransistors to form optocouplers. They are used to translate the mousewheel velocity into digital motion information. The principle of operation does not require to utilize infrared light, though this frequency range is somehow resistant against interference with visible light. *The text on slides 16 – 20 is adapted from http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opto -isolator and is available under a Creative Commons Attribution- ShareAlike License Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches
  21. 21. Applications of Semiconductor Devices- Switches This resource was created by the University of Wales Newport and released as an open educational resource through the Open Engineering Resources project of the HE Academy Engineering Subject Centre. The Open Engineering Resources project was funded by HEFCE and part of the JISC/HE Academy UKOER programme. © 2009 University of Wales Newport Except where other wise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License . The JISC logo is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence.  All reproductions must comply with the terms of that licence. The HEA logo is owned by the Higher Education Academy Limited may be freely distributed and copied for educational purposes only, provided that appropriate acknowledgement is given to the Higher Education Academy as the copyright holder and original publisher. The name and logo of University of Wales Newport is a trade mark and all rights in it are reserved. The name and logo should not be reproduced without the express authorisation of the University.
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