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The BEng & Foundation Degrees and HNC/D in Engineering are designed to meet the needs of employers by placing the emphasis on the theoretical, practical and vocational aspects of engineering within the workplace and beyond. Engineering is becoming more high profile, and therefore more in demand as a skill set, in today’s high-tech world. This course has been designed to provide you with knowledge, skills and practical experience encountered in everyday engineering environments.

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- 1. Amplifier Compensation Electronic Engineering © University of Wales Newport 2009 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License .
- 2. <ul><li>The following presentation is a part of the level 5 module -- Electronic Engineering. This resources is a part of the 2009/2010 Engineering (foundation degree, BEng and HN) courses from University of Wales Newport (course codes H101, H691, H620, HH37 and 001H). This resource is a part of the core modules for the full time 1 st year undergraduate programme. </li></ul><ul><li>The BEng & Foundation Degrees and HNC/D in Engineering are designed to meet the needs of employers by placing the emphasis on the theoretical, practical and vocational aspects of engineering within the workplace and beyond. Engineering is becoming more high profile, and therefore more in demand as a skill set, in today’s high-tech world. This course has been designed to provide you with knowledge, skills and practical experience encountered in everyday engineering environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Variation of Gain and Phase Shift with Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Multistage Amplifiers </li></ul><ul><li>The Control of Gain using Negative Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Problems associated with phase shift and NFB. </li></ul><ul><li>Credits </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the resource below, there are supporting documents which should be used in combination with this resource. Please see: </li></ul><ul><li>Clayton G, 2000, Operational Amplifiers 4th Ed, Newnes </li></ul><ul><li>James M, 2004, Higher Electronics, Newnes </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
- 3. Variation of Gain and Phase Shift with Frequency <ul><li>In both the Bipolar Transistor and FET devices the gain is dependent upon frequency. </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between Gain and Frequency in each case is: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>where ALF is the low frequency gain </li></ul><ul><li>C is the effective input capacitance </li></ul><ul><li>R is the effective resistance </li></ul><ul><li> is the angular frequency = 2 f </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
- 4. <ul><li>This equation can be split up into a gain magnitude and a phase shift: </li></ul>this gives Example If ALF = 100, R = 10 k and C = 10nF plot the gain against frequency curve and phase against frequency curve. Note plot gain in dB. dB gain = 20 log (actual gain) Amplifier Compensation
- 5. Frequency Gain dB gain Phase 100 99.80 39.98 -3.60 200 99.22 39.93 -7.16 400 96.98 39.73 -14.11 700 91.54 39.23 -23.74 1000 84.67 38.55 -32.14 2000 62.26 35.88 -51.49 4000 36.97 31.36 -68.30 7000 22.17 26.91 -77.18 10000 15.72 23.93 -80.95 20000 7.93 17.99 -85.44 40000 3.98 11.99 -87.71 70000 2.27 7.13 -88.69 100000 1.59 4.03 -89.08 200000 0.80 -1.99 -89.53 400000 0.40 -8.01 -89.76 700000 0.23 -12.87 -89.86 1000000 0.16 -15.96 -89.90
- 7. <ul><li>Rather than carry out the detailed analysis and calculations each time we wish to plot a response, can we find a simple way of drawing the response which is quick, simple and accurate enough for whatever investigation we are undertaking? </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the gain curve. </li></ul><ul><li>It is flat at low frequencies and rolls off at a constant rate at high frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Where do these two straight lines cross? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the significance of this value? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the slope of the line </li></ul><ul><li>What is the value of phase at this point? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the maximum error? </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
- 8. <ul><li>Asymptotic Approximation for the gain curve. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a straight line at the low frequency gain up to the break frequency f C . </li></ul><ul><li>From this point on draw a line at -20dB/dec. </li></ul>
- 9. <ul><li>Asymptotic Approximation for the phase curve. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a little more complex and a little less accurate. </li></ul>
- 10. <ul><li>Draw a straight line at 0 phase shift up to one-tenth the break frequency 0.1 f C . </li></ul><ul><li>From 0.1 f C to 10 f C draw a line which rolls off at -45 /dec. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a straight line at 90 phase shift above 10 f C . </li></ul>
- 11. Multistage Amplifiers. <ul><li>Many amplifiers will consist of more than one amplification stage. This is so that larger gains can be achieved which permit feedback control of gain. In addition the different amplification stages may possess different characteristics which will allow the overall amplifier to interface to its input and output more effectively. </li></ul>The overall gain would be A1 x A2 or A1 + A2 if the two gains are expressed in dBs. A1 A2
- 12. <ul><li>We now have two break frequencies f C1 and f C2 . </li></ul><ul><li>How do we plot this? </li></ul><ul><li>Gain curve - assume f C1 is at a lower frequency than f C2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a straight line at the low frequency gain (A1 and A2) up to the break frequency f C1 . </li></ul><ul><li>From this point draw a line at -20dB/dec. up to f C2 . </li></ul><ul><li>From this point on draw a line at -40dB/dec. </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
- 13. <ul><li>Phase curve - </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a straight line at 0 phase shift up to one-tenth the break frequency 0.1 f C1 . </li></ul><ul><li>From 0.1 f C1 to 10 f C1 draw a line which rolls off at -45 /dec. </li></ul><ul><li>From 0.1 f C2 to 10 f C2 draw a line which rolls off at -45 /dec. </li></ul><ul><li>If the f C1 and f C2 roll off regions overlap, roll off at -90 /dec within this region </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a straight line at 180 phase shift above 10 f C2 . </li></ul><ul><li>If we have more than two stages follow the same reasoning as above. </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
- 14. <ul><li>Example. </li></ul><ul><li>An amplifier has two stages of amplification. The first stage has a gain of 350 and a break frequency of 15 kHz, the second stage has a gain of 85 and a break frequency of 300 kHz. Construct the gain and phase bode plots over the range 1 kHz to 10 MHz. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall gain = 350 x 85 = 29750 = 89.47 dB </li></ul><ul><li>Scale – gain 0 to 90 dB </li></ul><ul><li>- phase 0 to -180 ° </li></ul><ul><li>- frequency 1 kHz to 10 MHz </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
- 15. Straight line up to 15 kHz at 89.5 dB Straight line from this point at -20 dB/dec up to 300 kHz x Now from this point the line rolls off at -40 dB/dec x Gain Curve f C1 f C2
- 16. Gain Curve f C1 f C2 Now the phase curve Effect of f C1 Effect of f C2 Line at 0 ° up to 1/10 f C1 Now a line at -45 °/dec up to 1/10 f C2 x Now a line at -90 °/dec up to 10 f C1 x Now a line at -45 °/dec up to 10 f C2 x Line at -180 ° above 10 f C2 Phase Curve
- 17. The Control of Gain using Negative Feedback <ul><li>As we have seen we can create large amplifier gains by cascading a number of amplifier stages together. </li></ul><ul><li>A typical gain may be 250. </li></ul><ul><li>With two stages this rises to 62 500 </li></ul><ul><li>With three stages this rises to 15 625 000 </li></ul><ul><li>The problem with doing this is that we have little control over the final gain value also the value is effected by: </li></ul><ul><li>variation in components hfe values </li></ul><ul><li>changes in the supply voltage </li></ul><ul><li>changes in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>ageing etc. </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
- 18. <ul><li>To control the gain we adopt a process of sampling the output then feeding it back to the input then subtracting it from the input. </li></ul><ul><li>This process is called Negative Feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be shown in a block diagram below. </li></ul>We can derive a relationship between Vout and Vin. (i) (ii) (iii) A B Vout Vin Vf Va
- 19. <ul><li>By substituting values for Va and Vf from (i) and (ii) into equation (iii) we get </li></ul><ul><li>This is the equation for an amplifier with negative feedback NFB. </li></ul><ul><li>If A is large then >> 1 and this gives us a gain of: </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. independent of A and controlled solely by B. </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
- 20. <ul><li>Let us get back to our Bode example. </li></ul><ul><li>If the gain of the amplifier is controlled with NFB, determine the bandwidth of the amplifier if the gain is: </li></ul><ul><li>a) 70 dB </li></ul><ul><li>b) 50 dB </li></ul><ul><li>c) 30 dB </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
- 21. Gain Curve f C1 f C2 Phase Curve
- 22. <ul><li>Gain Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>a) 70 dB 150 kHz </li></ul><ul><li>b) 50 dB 700 kHz </li></ul><ul><li>c) 30 dB 2.1 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Note that as the gain changes so does the phase shift. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the phase shifts at these three gains? </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
- 23. Gain Curve f C1 f C2 Phase Curve
- 24. <ul><li>Gain Bandwidth Phase Shift </li></ul><ul><li>a) 70 dB 150 kHz -123 ° </li></ul><ul><li>b) 50 dB 700 kHz -152 ° </li></ul><ul><li>c) 30 dB 2.1 MHz -174 ° </li></ul><ul><li>What we can say is that as the gain is reduced the Bandwidth increases </li></ul><ul><li>Also we can say that as the gain is reduced the phase shift (lag) increases. </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
- 25. Problems associated with phase shift and NFB. <ul><li>Consider the amplifier below with feedback – no phase shift </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation A B Vout Vin Vf Va
- 26. <ul><li>Consider the amplifier below with feedback – 180 ° phase shift </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation A B Vout Vin Vf Va
- 27. <ul><li>What can be seen is that as the phase shift increases and approaches 180 ° the negative feedback becomes positive feedback and the gain increases – this leads to instability. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the critical value? </li></ul>135 ° Any value above this is unacceptable. Where does this occur on our plot? Amplifier Compensation
- 28. Gain Curve f C1 f C2 Phase Curve -20dB/dec -40dB/dec
- 29. <ul><li>135 ° occurs at the point when the gain curve changes from -20dB/dec roll-off to -40dB/dec. </li></ul><ul><li>Any gain line hitting the -20dB/dec will produce a stable amplifier. </li></ul><ul><li>Any gain line hitting the -40dB/dec will produce an unstable amplifier. </li></ul><ul><li>We therefore do not normally have to worry about the phase curve when considering the stability of an amplifier. </li></ul>Amplifier Compensation
- 30. Amplifier Compensation This resource was created by the University of Wales Newport and released as an open educational resource through the Open Engineering Resources project of the HE Academy Engineering Subject Centre. The Open Engineering Resources project was funded by HEFCE and part of the JISC/HE Academy UKOER programme. © 2009 University of Wales Newport This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License . The JISC logo is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence. All reproductions must comply with the terms of that licence. The HEA logo is owned by the Higher Education Academy Limited may be freely distributed and copied for educational purposes only, provided that appropriate acknowledgement is given to the Higher Education Academy as the copyright holder and original publisher. The name and logo of University of Wales Newport is a trade mark and all rights in it are reserved. The name and logo should not be reproduced without the express authorisation of the University.

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