Topics Some Context and Comment Principles of Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development A Graphical Aerial Comparison of Conventional Development to TND A Graphical Street Level Tour of a New Traditional Neighborhood The SmartCode
Context and Comment There is a disconnection between supply and demand America and The Great American Dream have changed . . . Percent of Households Younger Singles and Couples 29% Empty Nesters and Retirees 32% Traditional and Non-Traditional Families 39% And within these broad groups there are 66 identifiable geo-demographic groups, each with distinguishing characteristics and housing preferences. Yet most developers and builders supply only a mono-culture of single purpose, conventional suburban sprawl. Source: Zimmerman/Volk, “21st Century Households and the New Housing Paradigm”
Context and Comment There is a disconnection between supply and demand Most buyers of The Great American Dream may not be who we think they are . . .
Married couples with children are now only 21.6% of American households.
Traditional (one-worker) families are now less than 10% of all households.
59% of all U.S. households contain either one or two persons.
- Non-traditional households now outnumber traditional families in the suburbs. Still, most developers and builders continue to supply only conventional sprawl with very limit product types. Source: Zimmerman/Volk, “21st Century Households and the New Housing Paradigm”
Context and Comment Have Developers and Builders Lost Touch with America? Percent of Home Purchases in the Midwest Made by: - 9.3% Single men
38.6% of home purchasers are made by non-traditional households
61.4% of home purchases are made by couples
60% of all U.S. households have no children under age 18 residing at home
Source: National Association of Realtors, “Profile of Home Buyers and Sellers 2007”
So What Happened? Just the two largest generations in American history . . . The Baby Boomers . . . The Pig in the Python 78 Million born between 1946 and 1964 Ages today: 44 - 62 Entering the empty nest phase of life Housing choices: smaller homes, apartments, townhouses, condos The Millennials . . . The Piglet in the Python 75 Million born between 1977 and 1996 Ages today: 12-31 Entering the job market Housing choices: starter homes, apartments, lofts, condos The two generations converge 2004 to 2024 Boomers: Move Down/Move Back Millennials: Move Out/Move In Source: Zimmerman/Volk, “21st Century Households and the New Housing Paradigm”
Context and Comment Basic Demographics Source: Zimmerman/Volk, “21st Century Households and the New Housing Paradigm”
Who Are They? Mostly Different . . . But with One Thing in Common Millennials Predominantly single Highly social Early/unsettled careers Very mobile More likely to be renters Ethnically and culturally diverse Green Mostly one and two person households Boomers Predominantly couples The “Me” Generation Heading for retirement Settled at last More likely to be owners Politically and spiritually diverse Affluent Mostly one and two person households
What Do Boomer and Millennials Want? A Variety of Housing Choices and Price Points Average Residential Mix by Housing Type for New Traditional Neighborhoods Average Percent of all Unit Type Dwelling Units* Rental Lofts and Apartments 23% For Sale Lofts, Apartments, Town Houses, Duplexes 9% For Sale Row Houses, Attached Houses 9% For Sale Small Detached Houses 24% For Sale Mid-Range and Large Lot Detached Houses 22% For Sale Urban Types (Carriage Houses, Live/Work Units) 13% *Compiled from 30 market studies conducted between 2000 and 2006. TNDs range in size from 400 to 4,500 dwelling units. Source: Zimmerman/Volk quoted in Sustainable Urbanism by Douglas Farr, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008, page 136.
What Else Do They Want? Something new . . . Something better In addition to offering housing choices with both unit type and price point variety, capturing the Boomers and Millennials requires: Encouraging socio and economic diversity Developing and building sustainably Offering a very high quality of design This means enabling the creation of walkable, compact, wonderfully designed, mixed-use neighborhoods, not just more conventional suburban sprawl.
Yet What Do Developers Continue to Offer? Mono-pods of Single-Purpose Development By comparison to walkable, compact, wonderfully designed, mixed use neighborhoods that are our “Best Loved Places,” conventional suburban sprawl generally offers only mono-cultures of the same product type and price range in pods of engineered, single-purpose, homogenized, and generally uninspired development. Let’s explore what we have created . . .
Places where people only work . . . . Old Mill Office Park
Places where people only work . . . . Miracle Hills Office Park
Places where people only shop . . . . Village Pointe
Places where people only shop . . . . Westroads Mall
Places where people only live . . . . in moderate sized homes Pepperwood
Places where people only live . . . . in larger homes in Pacific Meadows
Places where people only live . . . . in large homes Barrington Park
Places where people only live . . . . in really REALLY large homes Linden Estates
Places where people only live . . . . in Apartments Richland Park
Places where people only live . . . . in Apartments A pod of four apartment pods at 93rd & Western
And the only way to get between the pods of single purpose development is the private automobile. . . .
What are the alternatives? Walkable, Compact, Mixed-use Development Growing numbers of Boomers and Millennials are becoming aware of and are seeking out alternatives to the mono-cultures of uniform product types and price points arranged as separated, single-purpose developments. Innovative types of development other than the conventional suburban sprawl respond to the drivers of both the Boomers and the Millennials in unique ways. So let’s explore the alternatives . . .
Innovative Types of Development New development types appeal to Boomers/Millennials Adaptive Reuse of existing structures: Example - old red brick warehouses converted into retail, offices, apartments above first floor retail like Tip Top Redevelopment: Examples - Midtown Crossing and Aksarben Village Urban Infill: Development of vacant parcels that were passed over Greyfields: Redevelopment of abandoned or under-utilized shopping centers and “ghost boxes” (a.k.a. defunct “big box“ stores) Brownfields: Redevelopment of industrial sites: Examples - Riverfront Place and the Rows at SOMA Greenfields: Conservation neighborhoods and new traditional neighborhoods (TNDs) on agricultural land: Example - Leytham
Traditional Neighborhood Development Traditional Neighborhood Definition Traditional Neighborhood Development (also called Neo-traditional Development or Urban Village Development or simply “TND”) revisits many features of urban neighborhoods developed before World War II, the single most distinguishing feature of which is the continuous fabric of intimately blended and mixed land uses arranged so that travel between them can be made by a variety of methods in addition to the usual private automobile. The Primary Characteristics of a TND:
There is a very high quality of architecture and urban design
Small parks, play grounds and amenities are close to every dwelling
An elementary school is close enough for most children to walk
The neighborhood is organized to be self-governing
1 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles The TND has increased density More dwellings, shops, civic buildings and services are closer together for ease of walking, to enable a more efficient use of infrastructure, services and resources, and to create a more convenient and enjoyable place to live. Middleton Hills Land Use Plan Project Size: 160 acres Percent Acresof Site Residential 80 50.0% Recreation/Amenities 20 12.5% Streets/Parking 20 12.5% Open Space 20 12.5% Commercial 2012.5% TOTAL 160 100.0% Total Dwelling units 635 Gross Project Density 4 units per acre Gross Residential Density 8 units per acre Average single family lot 4,000 square feet Smallest single family lot 32’ x 80’ = 2,560 square feet Middleton Hills, Madison, WI
2 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Community has a traditional neighborhood structure There is a discernable center and edge. There is a public space at the center. This is often a square or a green or a memorable intersection.. Baldwin Park, Orlando, FL Kentlands, Gaithersburg, MD A cup of coffee and a morning paper should be a five minute walk from most dwellings . . . or “It shouldn’t take a gallon of gas to get a gallon of milk . . . .”
3 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Diversity of uses and of people A mix of businesses, shops and offices within the residential neighborhood, within the block and even within the same building. Multiple price points and dwelling types appeal to a very wide range of both buyers and renters. Kentlands, Gaithersburg, MD Baldwin Park, Orlando, FL People of all ages, income levels and cultures may live in the community.
4 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Most dwellings are a 5 minute walk from the center This distance averages one quarter of a mile. This is called a “ped shed.” Black Horse, Gettysburg, PA Miles Point, St Michaels, MD Commercial/mixed use buildings can be placed throughout the TND intermixed with dwellings, and do not necessarily all have to be clustered right on the busiest, most trafficked streets or corners.
5 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Streets within the neighborhood are a connected network Streets are arranged to form blocks where possible. This provides a variety of routes and disperses traffic and eases walking. Cul-de-sacs are minimized. Mt. Laurel, Birmingham, AL Magnolia, LaGrange, GA These are examples of TND master plans which contain no cul-de-sacs.
6 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles There is a hierarchy of streets Boulevards, avenues, collector streets, narrower streets, roads and alleys form a hierarchy of streets. This creates a high quality pedestrian network which, together with a varied and interesting public realm makes walking pleasurable. From SmartCode & Manual v8.0 by Duany, Wright, Sorlien. Published by New Urban Publications Inc.
7 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Certain prominent streets are reserved for civic buildings Buildings for meeting, education, religion or culture are located at the termination of street or open vistas or at the Neighborhood Center. The Waters, Montgomery, AL Middleton Hills, Madison, WI Indicates “terminated vistas” focused on significant buildings.
8 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Streets are relatively narrow and tree shaded Corners are sharper. This slows traffic and creates an environment for pedestrians and bicycles. Non-standard street lighting is used. Glenwood Park, Atlanta, GA Stapleton Town Center, Denver, CO “The TND concept calls for street cross-sections that are typically no greater than two travel lanes plus on street parking, which translates into a maximum pavement width of 40 feet . . . and a right of way width of 70 feet. . . . TND calls for greatly reduced curb radii, typically 10 feet.” Walter Kulash, one of America’s foremost traffic engineers, in “Why TND Traffic Systems Work.”
9 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Buildings are placed close to the street Both businesses and dwellings are placed close to the street. This creates a strong sense of place. On-street parking is permitted. New Town at St. Charles, St. Charles, MO Baldwin Park, Orlando, FL The street scene is one of people and dwellings and not one of driveways and garages.
10 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Parking lots and garages rarely front streets Parking is relegated to the rear of most buildings, usually accessed by lanes or alleys. Driveways and garages do not dominate the streetscape. Garages off alleys at the rear of houses, Home Town, Aurora, IL Interior parking at row houses; Baldwin Park, Orlando, FL The New Traditional Neighborhood is a place for people first.
11 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles There is a variety of dwelling types in the neighborhood Apartments, condominiums, row houses, live/work units, ancillary structures, houses of different sizes. This lets younger and older people; singles and families, and people of different means all live in the neighborhood. Live/work units and row houses Single family homes/ancillary units Apartments Condominiums All of these, plus apartments over commercial spaces, are in Baldwin Park, Orlando, Fl.
12 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Ancillary buildings are permitted in back yards This may be a living unit or work space over the garage or in a free standing small structure on the premises. The space may be rented out. Vickery, Cumings, GA New Longview, Lees Summit, MO These ancillary buildings are not on separate lots, but are on the same lot as the house, sharing ownership and utility connections. They may be as large as 800 square feet and do not count in maximum density calculations.
13 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Lot sizes and house types vary, even on the same block Westhaven, Franklin, TN
13 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Lot sizes and house types vary, even on the same block Eight different fee simple dwelling types/sizes in this TND not including live/work units or condominiums. Westhaven, Franklin, TN
13 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Lot sizes and house types vary, even on the same block Eight different fee simple dwelling types/sizes in this TND not including live/work units or condominiums. Note alleys to the rear of all but the largest of lots. Westhaven, Franklin, TN
13 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Lot sizes and house types vary, even on the same block Eight different fee simple dwelling types/sizes in this TND not including live/work units or condominiums. Note alleys to the rear of all but the largest of lots. Four lot sizes on the same Block. Westhaven, Franklin, TN
13 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Lot sizes and house types vary, even on the same block Eight different fee simple dwelling types/sizes in this TND not including live/work units or condominiums. Note alleys to the rear of all but the largest of lots. Four lot sizes on the same Block. This increases both density and diversity. Westhaven, Franklin, TN
14 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Dwellings need not front onto streets Dwellings may front onto parks, court yards or even walk ways. Homes on a hillside, fronting a fenced walkway Kentlands, Gaithersburg, MD Homes fronting a courtyard or pocket park Baldwin Park, Orlando, FL This creates interesting and exciting dwelling siteing possibilities.
15 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles The quality architecture and urban design is very high Beauty, aesthetics, and comfort create a sense of place. Human scale architecture, architectural details and beautiful surroundings nourish the human spirit. Public open space is designed as civic art. All in CNU Charter Award winning Woodstock Downtown, Woodstock, GA.; Lew Oliver, Urban Designer
16 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Small parks and play grounds are close to every dwelling This distance should not be more than one fifth of a mile. Celebration, Orlando, FL Kentlands, Gaithersburg, MD Outdoor amenities can include greens, plazas, squares, amphitheaters, walk-through fountains, tot-lots, pocket parks, public art, sports fields, areas facing view corridors, orchards, follies, temples, gazebos, fire circles, walking trails, wild flower meadows, ponds, wet lands, etc.
17 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles Elementary school within walking distance for most An elementary school is close enough for most children to walk to from their dwelling. This should not be more than one mile. Rachel Carson Elementary School Kentlands, Gaithersburg, MD Westerly Creek Elementary School Stapleton, Denver, CO School sites are smaller than in CSD. 80% are multi-story and may share facilities with adjacent parks. Facilities may be used by the community before and after 9 to 3. Architecture is significant and may occupy a terminated vista or other prominent site.
18 Traditional Neighborhood Development - Principles The Neighborhood is organized to be self governing A formal association debates and decides on matters of maintenance, security and physical change. An institute or foundation pursues programming, education and entertainment for the community. “Those who inhabit a neighborhood are a community. They share a physical environment and a common interest in its future condition, as well as their own well-being. When neighbors communicate effectively about these interests, they may be referred to as a ‘community of place.’ . . . Community is more about relationships that bind people together than it is about the environment.” from A New Urbanist Lexicon by Rich McLaughlin, Architecture & Town Planner Minneapolis, MN
A Brief Review of TND Principles 18 Principles of TND - Review
Traditional neighborhood structure from center to edge
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development Inherent and Intangible TND Personal Benefits By bringing more of the activities of daily life into closer proximity (the five-minute walk or the “Popsicle Test”) people, especially the elderly and the young, gain independence. The integrated “live, work, play, shop, learn” aspect of TNDs reduces the number of automobile trips, traffic congestion, air pollution. When residents walk more they have a more healthy life style and less stress. TND residents save a lot of money by walking more and owning fewer cars. Streets and squares in “human scale” with defined spatial quality offer neighbors the opportunity to get to know and watch over one another generating feelings of community and security.
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development Inherent and Intangible TND Personal Benefits – Part 2 By offering more housing choices at more price points, including as a goal, a component of affordable or “work-force housing”, the TND offers more options and therefore has a more diverse mix of residents. When residents and business owners feel as though they belong to a place and can shape its evolution, they act in ways that benefit the community as a whole because they have “emotional equity” which is a very significant component of real estate value. More civic involvement, better governance, happier constituents. A higher architectural quality of the built environment brings more grace and beauty to everyday life in a TND. “The sum of human happiness increases because of New Urbanism.” Andres Duany, Principal, DPZ & Associates, Master Planning firm of Seaside and Kentlands and a charter member of The Congress for the New Urbanism.
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development Lower Land Cost per Dwelling Increased density and a well-integrated mix of land uses are important principles of the New Urbanism (NU), also called Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND). Since no buffers are required between different uses and because of the increased density, more units are created per acre compared to a conventional subdivision development (CND). This more efficient utilization of the land means lower land cost per unit.
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development Lower Infrastructure Costs per Dwelling Because of alleyways, more linear feet of streets and more intersections (due to the interconnected grid of streets), the total cost of infrastructure in a TND is higher than in a conventional subdivision development (CSD). This higher cost is reduced somewhat by building narrower streets and when infrastructure costs are divided by the greater number of units, infrastructure costs per unit can actually be lower in a TND than in a CSD. A study of costs conducted for the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation found that despite the greater total costs, infrastructure costs per dwelling unit were 24% lower after a portion of Barrhaven near Ottawa was redesigned using TND principles. “Development Dynamics” by Zimmerman and Volk in Wharton Real Estate Review, Vol. II, No. 2, Fall 1998
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development Lower Utility Costs Because of the more compact and denser nature of a TND, installation of utilities can cost less per dwelling and mixed-use unit. TNDs tend to foster more “green” building practices such as those promoted by “LEED®”* and “Energy Star,” so the built environment in TND projects tends to be more energy efficient thereby conserving natural resources and reducing pollution. *”Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design” Green Building Rating System
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development Lower Costs for Public Services A study of life-cycle costs over 75 years concluded that public sector costs relating to non-residential uses were 48% lower in the NU plan compared to the conventional plan. Cost for residential uses were 5% lower. The most significant savings related to roads, stormwater management and water distribution. However, not all costs were lower in the TND plan. For example, snow removal costs were considerably higher. Hemson Consulting Ltd., “Conventional and Alternative Development Patterns; Phase II: Municipal Revenues.” Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1997. Quoted by Zimmerman and Volk, “Development Dynamics.” “Public maintenance and infrastructure costs are lower for higher-density development because of greater economies of scale, shorter runs of lower tech infrastructure.” “Eight Factors” Zimmerman, Volk and Katz, 1999
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development Protect Environmental Systems & Conserve Resources TND projects tend to embrace and implement “Smart Growth” principles and preserve the “Green Infrastructure.” For example, increased density reduces sprawl and puts less pressure on taking productive farmland out of production while preserving wetlands, waterways, and wildlife habitat as community amenities. TND projects tend to use more eco-friendly storm water management systems such as (natural swales and pervious paving), minimum disturbance of natural terrain, use of native plants that require less irrigation, etc. Under development now is the LEED-ND (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development) rating system which will create design guidelines and a rating system for TND projects. This will encourage more environmental and conservation practices that will protect environmental systems and conserve natural resources and eco-systems.
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development Parking is Handled Creatively The number of required parking stalls varies by the transect zone. For example 2.0 parking stalls are required per residential dwelling unit (du) in T2 and T3, 1.5 stall per du in T4 and 1 stall per du in T5 and T6. Parking sharing factors vary from 1 to 1.7 to 1 depending on the use. Most streets have on-street parking.On-street parking along the frontage line of lots is counted toward that lot’s parking requirement. Parking is accessed by the alley or rear lane when such are available. Parking lots are masked from the frontage by a building or streetscreen. Required parking may be provided within ¼ mile of the site it serves. One bicycle rack is provided per 10 parking stalls. Adapted from the SmartCode v 8.0 by Duany, Wright and Sorlien
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development TND Lowers Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) Increasing land use density may reduce per-capita automobile use by only a few percent; but when combined with pedestrian and cycling improvement, the integrated “live, work, play, shop, learn” mix of uses, and creative parking management, TND design may cause a 15 to 25% reduction in VMT per household. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, “Land Use Impacts n Transport: How Land Use Patterns Affect Travel Behavior,” 2001. Holtzclaw reported that, after controlling for income levels, VMT in households in traditional higher density neighborhoods was nearly 50% lower than in more recent, standard suburban development. John Holtzclaw. Explaining Urban Density and Transit Impacts on Auto Use, page 25. The family that owns one less car saves an average of $8,759 per year. This translates to $730 more disposable income per month or the mortgage payment on $122,400 of home value at today’s rates.
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development TND has Superior Traffic Capacity “A network of small interconnected streets has more traffic capacity than the same street area arranged in a sparse hierarchy of large streets.” This superior capacity is unrelated to the REDUCTION in travel demand or SHORTENING of travel distances that also results from the TND pattern. These decreases in total vehicular travel are also an important advantage to TND, but we need to carefully isolate them in our analysis of TND traffic. The feature that we are focusing on is that for a given amount of traffic demand (i.e., same number of vehicular trips) the TND will simply out-perform the conventional street design.[Emphasis added.] The fundamental reason why a dense network of small streets out-performs a sparse hierarchy of streets is that streets become less (not more) efficient as their size increases. The reason is in the intersections.” Walter Kulash, Senior Transportation Engineer with Glatting Jackson Kercher Anglin Lopez Rinehart, Inc., in “Why TND Traffic Systems Work,” an address to the Eleventh Annual Pedestrian Conference, 1998.
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development TND Amenities Add Value Public spaces, both active and passive, created by Traditional Neighborhood planning are more numerous and of a generally higher quality than those in a CSD. Additionally, the amenities are closer (i.e., walking distance) to the residents of a TND. These amenities are built into TND projects as an off-set for higher-density and serve as substantial amenities for the community. These amenities add more value than their cost. TND amenities promote rising property values, more tax revenue per given area of land and a stable tax base. “Eight Factors” Todd Zimmerman, Laurie Volk and Peter Katz, 1999
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development TND Offers More Grace and Beauty in Everyday Life At the Project Level the TND is designed by master urban designers and architects. The Project is designed according to new urbanist principles. Civic uses and green space are designed into the project. At the Block Level the streetscape forms inviting and people oriented “out door rooms.” This public realm brings people together and fosters a sense of community that is often lacking in conventional subdivisions. At the Building Level a very high level of architectural design and of construction detailing creates buildings enhance the quality of life. This can be accomplished through the use of:
Building plans designed by several TND architects
Town architect to review plans and building practices for compliance
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development Greater Development and Design Flexibility Optimally designed streets and blocks can accommodate a range of housing types with the same lot depth, from apartment buildings and row houses to higher density single family to lower density single family. As market demand shifts, housing types on any give street can shift in response. Conventional subdivision developments produce single price point lots for single price point houses for homogenous buyers with the same income. In a TND, changes in market preferences can be accommodated by simple changes in lot widths because a TND is designed to have many different types of dwelling choices. “In the Nursery Park neighborhood at Harbor Town in Memphis, TN relatively larger lots were reduced in size when it was realized that more buyers preferred smaller lots. The smaller lots, in the aggregate, sold for more than the larger lots even after expenses to reconfigure them.” Zimmerman and Volk, “Development Dynamics.”
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development Housing Value Premium in a TND A well executed TND land plan can add value to the project either through unit price premiums, increased sales paces or a combination of the two. A study of 1,850 sales in Kentlands in Gaithersburg, MD, found a price premium of 13%. In Harbor Town in Memphis, TN the increase was 25%attributable directly to TND principles. The study compared the TND homes to similar properties in nearby conventional subdivisions and the study model held constant lot size, house size, property age, construction quality and other variables. The same authors found price differences at Seaside in Florida of 9% for waterfront lots and 87% for interior lots solely attributable to TND principles.Overall the TND premium was 11%. C. Tu and M. Eppli, “Valuing the New Urbanism,” Urban Land Institute, 1999 These comparatively higher values can mean higher and more stable property tax revenues, and more rapid sales rates can mean development loans are paid off more rapidly and property tax revenues are generated more quickly.
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development Higher Long Term Value for Income Property Once established in a mixed use TND, the real estate supporting retail, office and service uses increase in value, benefiting from a synergy of uses. Decades of investment experience have shown that frequently a stand-alone “A” quality multifamily or retail or office property slips to “B” and then to “C” quality as the property ages and development moves away. Institutional investors are realizing this as real estate assets in mixed-use central business districts of healthy 24-hour cities are now considered to be less risky than single use assets in their suburbs. Assets within mixed-use NU communities are similarly expected to retain their value. “Emerging Trends in Real Estate 1998.” Equitable Real Estate Investment Management, Inc., & Real Estate Research Corporation.
TND Benefits – A Review TND Offers a Number of Benefits Compared to CSD Compared to conventional subdivision development (CSD), TND offers a number of benefits:
[A note to the presenter . . . ] The following six slides summarize the 15 benefit slides numbered 43 through 58 above. These slides are “hidden,” but they may revealed and slides 43 through 58 can be hidden to shorten the presentation.
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development Inherent and Intangible TND Personal Benefits Mix of uses gives people, especially the elderly and the young, gain independence (the “Popsicle Test”). TNDsreduce the number of automobile trips, traffic congestion, air pollution. Walking creates a more healthy life style and less stress. TND residents save a lot of money by walking more and owning fewer cars because neighbors know and watch over one another. TND offers more housing options and therefore has a more diverse mix of residents.. Residents feel as though they belong to the place; they have “emotional equity” act in ways that benefit the community. There is more grace and beauty to everyday life in a TND.
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development TND density produces many economies of scale Lower land cost per dwelling unit: More but smaller single family lots Ancillary dwelling units Residential dwellings placed over commercial spaces Multifamilyintegrated into the neighborhood Lower infrastructure cost per unit. Lower costs of public services. Density reduces sprawl and reduces pressure on taking farm land out of production.
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development TND design protects environmental systems and conserves resources TND design preserves wetlands, natural waterways and wild life habitat. Moreeco-friendly storm water management. Minimum disturbance of the ground preserves natural terrain. Use of native plants that requiresless irrigation. LEED-ND (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development) rating system of the US Green Building Councilpromotes environmental and conservation values in both land planning and building design and construction thereby using less energy, conserving natural resources and reducing pollution.
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development The integrated “live, work, play, shop, learn” aspect of TNDs reduces reliance on and importance of the car TND design says people are more important than cars. Streets are narrower and parking is accessed by rear lanes or alleys wherever possible and is screened from view. Increased density, mix of uses and alternative transportation modes may reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) per household by 25% to 50%, reducing traffic congestion and air pollution. A dense network of interconnected streets moves traffic more efficientlythan cul-de-sacs feeding onto collector streets because a variety of routes are provided. The family that owns one less car saves an average of $8,759 per year. This translates to $730 per month more disposable income or the mortgage payment on $122,400 of home value at today’s rates.
Benefits of Traditional Neighborhood Development TND design and execution adds value to the real estate Public spaces and amenities, both active and passive, are more numerous, closer by (the 5 minute walk) and of a generally higher quality than those in a CSD. The public spaces and amenities add more value than their cost. A higher architectural quality of the built environment brings more grace and beauty to everyday life in a TND, again adding more value than cost. A study by C. Tu and M. Eppli, (“Valuing the New Urbanism,” Urban Land Institute, 1999) found home prices increase in TNDs compared to CSDs: Kentlands in Gaithersburg, MD 13% Harbor Town in Memphis, TN 25% Seaside, FL 9% for waterfront lots & 87% for interior lots The study compared the TND homes to similar properties in nearby CSDs. The study model held constant lot size, house size, property age, construction quality and other variables. TND principles caused the value increases.
TND Benefits – A Review TND Offers a Number of Benefits Compared to CSD Compared to conventional subdivision development (CSD), TND offers a number of benefits:
Conventional Subdivision Development A pod of single-purpose development Cul-de-sacs and lack of connectivity Houses set far back from street Garages and driveways front the street Lots and houses are all close to the same size
Traditional Neighborhood Development A variety of uses An interconnected network of streets A variety of dwelling types Building types vary even on the same block Green space close by every dwelling
Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) Principles Illustrated . . . A Graphical Street Level Tour of a New Traditional Neighborhood How many principles of traditional neighborhood development can you spot?
Street trees Terminated vista On street parking Narrow streets Wide sidewalks and no driveways
Houses need not front onto streets Wide variety of housing options Freedom to change homes as needed yet stay in the same neighborhood Socially richer and more varied Different family generations can live in the same neighborhood More visually interesting and rewarding surroundings
How do we get higher quality development? . . . a tool to enable great places Compact, walkable, mixed-use development is, at worst, illegal in some jurisdictions, and most typically is very difficult in nearly all others. New urbanists, architects and planners have created a tool to facilitate new urban development. That tool is the SmartCode.
The SmartCode . . . . . . a guide to making great places The SmartCode is a model, form-based, unified land development ordinance designed to create compact, mixed-use, diverse, walkable neighborhoods with the full range of the rural-urban transect. The SmartCode was originally developed in 2003 by Duany, Plater-Zyberk and Company and has been continuously refined and modified since its creation.
The SmartCode . . . . . . a model code Model Code – The SmartCode is a model code, with metrics designed to create a generic medium sized American city structured into walkable neighborhoods. It is meant to be locally customized by professional planners, architects, and attorneys. It may be mandatory, mandatory in certain zones or districts, or optional. The Omaha SmartCode would be optional.
The SmartCode . . . . . . a form-based code Form-based Code - The SmartCode is a form-based code. Conventional Euclidean zoning regulates land development by controlling land use. Form-based zoning has been developed over the last twenty years to overcome the problems of sprawl and pods of single- purpose use created by use-based codes. Form-based zoning regulates land development mostly by controlling urban form and with less emphasis on controlling land uses (although land uses are still regulated to those appropriate to each “T-zone.” More about “T-zones” next).
The SmartCode . . . . . . a form-based code, continued The SmartCode is considered a “form-based code” because it strongly addresses the physical form of building and development. Urban form features regulated under the SmartCode include the width of lots, size of blocks, building setbacks, building heights, placement of buildings on the lot, location of parking, street sections, etc. Conventional zoning codes are based primarily on use and density. They have caused systemic problems over the past sixty years by separating uses, thereby making mixed-use and compact, walkable neighborhoods essentially illegal.
The SmartCode . . . . . . a unified land development regulation Unified Land Development Regulation – The SmartCode is a unified land development code that can include:
The SmartCode . . . . . . creates compact walkable mixed-use neighborhoods Walkable Neighborhoods – One of the basic principles in the SmartCode is that towns and cities should be structured as a series of walkable neighborhoods. Walkable neighborhoods require a mix of land uses (residential, office, and retail), public spaces with a sense of enclosure to create “outdoor rooms”, and pedestrian-oriented transportation design.
The SmartCode . . . . . . Is Transect-based Rural-Urban Transect – The zones within the SmartCode are designed to create complete human habitats ranging from the very rural to the very urban with increasing density, complexity, and intensity of both design and use. Conventional zoning categories are based primarily on different land uses. SmartCode zoning categories (called “T-zones”) are based on their rural-urban character. All categories within the SmartCode allow some mix of uses. SmartCode zoning categories ensure that a community offers a full diversity of uses, building types, thoroughfare types, and civic space types, and that each has appropriate characteristics for its location.
Transect “T - Zones” Transect-zone descriptions T-1 Natural Zone consists of lands approximating or reverting to a wilderness condition, including lands unsuitable for settlement due to topography, hydrology or vegetation. T-2 Rural Zone consists of lands in open or cultivated state or sparsely settled. These include woodland, agricultural land, grassland, and irrigable desert. T-3 Sub-Urban Zone consists of low density suburban residential areas, differing by allowing home occupations. Planting is naturalistic and set-backs relatively deep. Blocks may be large and the roads irregular to accommodate natural conditions. T-4 General Urban Zone consists of a mixed-use but primarily residential urban fabric. It has a wide range of building types: single, sideyard, and rowhouses. Setbacks and landscaping are variable. Streets define medium-sized blocks. T-5 Urban Center Zone consists of higher density mixed-use building types that accommodate retail, offices, rowhouses and apartments. It has a tight network of streets, with wide sidewalks, steady street tree planting and buildings set close to the frontages. T-6 Urban Core Zone consists of the highest density, with the greatest variety of uses, and civic buildings of regional importance. It may have larger blocks; streets have steady street tree planting and buildings set close to the frontages. Special Districts consist of areas with buildings that by their function, disposition, or configuration cannot conform to one of the six normative Transect Zones.
The SmartCode . . . . . . other significant aspects Operates at Several Levels - The SmartCode can operate at the regional scale, neighborhood scale as well as the block level, the building level. Is Graphical in Nature - The SmartCode is heavily illustrated with drawings, charts and tables. Is Enduring - The SmartCode, once adopted as law, will stay in place, allowing the neighborhood to evolve and mature without losing its sense of order because what is intended for the community has already been specified. Important: The SmartCode is not a building code.
The SmartCode . . . . . . adopted all over the country (a small sample)
Flagstaff, Arizona - November 2007 - floating zone for areas designated Mixed Use or TND in Regional Plan
Montgomery, Alabama - January 2006 - optional; May 2007 - mandatory for downtown
San Antonio, Texas - December 2007 - mandatory for City South
Sarasota, Florida - June 2004 - mandatory for downtown
St. Charles, Missouri (New Town only) - June 2003 – optional
Taos, New Mexico - March 2009 - mandatory for Chemisa Verde
The SmartCode . . . . . . calibration in process in many other places Source: http://www.smartcodecomplete.com/learn/links.html
The Omaha SmartCode . . . . . . the goals Finish calibration of the Omaha SmartCode. Initial calibration was begun after the Leytham charrette and has continued. Present the calibrated Omaha SmartCode to the Planning Board by _[insert your goal here]______________for your consideration and, we would hope, adoption as an optional development tool for area developers. It is to be emphasized that the SmartCode would be entirely optional. Are there any other questions?
Contact Information and Websites Herb Freeman Full Circle Ventures, Inc. 16510 State Street Bennington, NE 68007 home 402.238.3095 cell 402.689.4000 email herb@FullCircleVentures.com Watch www.Leytham.com for continuing updates and new information as Leytham progresses. Be sure to register on the site to receive updates in the Leytham e-newsletter. Check out Herb’s new urban, new traditional neighborhood and sustainable development blog, www.NewHerbanism.Blogspot.com, for commentary and items of interest.