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Smarter Cities: The Social Nexus

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Adjunct Assistant Professor of Urban Planning, Anthony Townsend's Social Nexus article from Scientific American. This article explores how to find creative solutions for cities by harnessing citizen …

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Urban Planning, Anthony Townsend's Social Nexus article from Scientific American. This article explores how to find creative solutions for cities by harnessing citizen networks.

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  • 1. SMARTER The Social Nexus The best way to harness a city’s potential for creativity and innovation is to jack people into the network and get out of the way By Carlo Ratti and Anthony Townsend O   N JANUARY 25 THE STREETS OF CAIRO erupted in protest against then president Hosni Mubarak’s repres- sive Egyptian regime. Over the next 72 hours the government shut down the country’s Internet service and mobile-phone system in an attempt to squelch the rebellion—to no avail: a rich ecosys- tem of Facebook conversations, Twitter outbursts and chat-room plans had already unified millions of Cairo’s people, who continued the relentless up- rising. The government backed down and restored communications to keep the country’s economy on space.” Contrast those transformations with a hand- ful of large urban development projects that have been vying to be crowned the model “smart city” of the future. Furthest along is Masdar in the United Arab Emirates, a walled community intended for 50,000 residents in the desert outside of Abu Dhabi, in which every building, streetlight and personal electric “pod” vehicle has been preplanned and pre- loaded with high-tech gear, largely to maximize en- ergy efficiency. At Masdar, as well as New Songdo City in South Korea and PlanIT Valley in Portugal, real estate developers, global information-technolo- gy companies and governments are attempting to life support, but the masses kept up the pressure build urban centers from scratch that are filled with until Mubarak resigned 14 days later. technologically enhanced infrastructure and servic- Just weeks before, during Tunisia’s “Jasmine es. The designers say their grand conceptions will Revolution,” dissident blogger and protest orga- determine how future cities will be built. nizer Slim Amamou used the mobile social app But as models, these top-down projects pale in Foursquare to alert his friends of his January 6 ar- comparison to the emergent form of intelligence IN BRIEF rest. By “checking in” to Foursquare’s virtual de- that is bubbling up from millions of newly cyber- Truly   smart   cities   will   piction of the jail in Tunis where he was being connected residents. Truly smart—and real—cities emerge  as  inhabitants  and   held, Amamou revealed his location to a global are not like an army regiment marching in lock- their  many  electronic  de- web of supporters and immediately grabbed the step to the commander’s orders; they are more like vices  are  recruited  as  real- international spotlight. The news stories sparked a shifting flock of birds or school of fish, in which time  sensors  of  daily  life.   further uprisings, and longtime president Zine El individuals respond to subtle social and behavior- Networking   the   ubiqui- Abidine Ben Ali was soon ousted. al cues from their neighbors about which way to tous   sensors   and   link   ing   Across the archipelago of places where the “Arab move forward. Although the mobs in Cairo and them   to   government   da- Spring” revolts played out, citizens used new Inter- Tunis appeared unruly, their actions resulted from tabases   can   enhance   a   - net applications and ubiquitous mobile phones to digital coordination of human activity on an un- ciency  and  services. wage a battle over the soul of their cities, shifting re- precedented scale. Hundreds of thousands of peo- sources back and forth from cyberspace to “city- ple appeared in Tahrir Square in Cairo because42 Scientific American, September 2011 Illustration by Oliver Munday ©  2011  Scientific  A merican
  • 2. Illustration by Artist Name September 2011, ScientificAmerican.com 43 ©  2011  Scientific  A merican
  • 3. text messages and tweets summoned them—re- flecting an immensely powerful, democratic and organic alternative vision of the smart city. Rather than focusing on the installation and control of network hardware, city governments, technology companies and their urban-planning advisers can exploit a more ground-up approach to creating even smarter cities in which people become the agents of change. With proper technical-sup- Carlo  Ratti  teaches  at   the  Massachusetts   port structures, the populace can tackle problems Institute  of  Technolo- such as energy use, traffic congestion, health care gy’s  department  of   and education more effectively than centralized urban  studies  and   dictates. And residents of wired cities can use their planning,  where  he   distributed intelligence to fashion new community directs  the  Senseable   City  Laboratory.  He   activities, as well as a new kind of citizen activism. also  practices  architec- ture  and  urban  design   GOING BEYOND URBAN EFFICIENCY in  Turin,  Italy. WHY ARE COUNTRIES racing haphazardly to imple- Anthony  Townsend   ment smart cities? Why is IBM forecasting a $10 is     research  director  at   billion market in this arena by 2015? What is hap- the  Institute  for  the   pening at an urban scale today is similar to what Future,  a  Palo  Alto,   happened two decades ago in Formula One auto California) and provide better services to citizens. Calif.,  think  tank  that   racing. Up to that point, success on the circuit was Two recent projects devised by the Senseable develops  strategic   forecasts  and  scenari- primarily credited to a car’s mechanics and the City Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of os.  He  is  writing  a   driver’s capabilities. But then telemetry technolo- Technology illustrate the intelligence that is possi- book  about  the  future   gy blossomed. The car was transformed into a ble. Trash Track reveals how garbage flows through of  urbanization  and   computer that was monitored in real time by thou- a city’s waste-management system, indicating how computing  for     sands of sensors, becoming “intelligent” and bet- to create a more efficient “removal chain” (as op- W.  W.  Norton.   ter able to respond to the conditions of the race. posed to the supply chain). Electronic tags that In a similar way, over the past decade digital transmit information over cellular networks are at- technologies have begun to blanket our cities, form- tached to pieces of trash to see where the items go. ing the backbone of a large, intelligent infrastruc- In one Seattle test the lab tracked more than 2,000 ture. Broadband fiber-optic and wireless telecom- items, including recyclable materials such as glass, munications grids are supporting mobile phones, metal and plastic; household hazardous waste smartphones and tablets that are increasingly af- such as rechargeable batteries; and electronics fordable. At the same time, open databases—espe- such as monitors. Some items traveled across the cially from the government—that people can read U.S. (one printer cartridge went 6,152 kilometers!). and add to are revealing all kinds of information, Some ended up in legally compliant destinations, and public kiosks and displays are helping literate and some did not. The results reveal ways to mini- and illiterate people access it. Add to this foundation mize carbon dioxide emissions by transporting36.7 a relentlessly growing network of sensors and digi- waste more efficiently. And Seattle could use the in- tal-control technologies, all tied together by cheap, formation to promote behavioral changes among powerful computers, and our cities are quickly be- its citizens, encouraging them to recycle more or to coming like “computers in open air.” properly dispose of hazardous materials. MILLION The vast amount of data that is emerging is the The second project, LIVE Singapore, uses real- starting point for making efficient infrastructure time data recorded by the myriad communicationsThe  number  of  people   programmable so that people can optimize a city’s devices, microcontrollers and sensors found in ourwho  live  in  the  Tokyo- daily processes. Extracting information about real- urban environment to analyze the pulse of the city,Yokohama  urban  area,   time road conditions, for example, can reduce traffic moment to moment. The results suggest new ways the  most  populated     and improve air quality. In Stockholm’s road-pricing to understand and optimize the city, ultimately to in  the  world scheme, cameras automatically identify license help people experience it like never before. LIVE SOURCE:  Demographia plates of vehicles entering the city center and charge Singapore’s open-platform software allows people drivers’ accounts up to 60 kronor ($9.50) a day, de- to develop different applications in a collaborative pending on where the cars go. The system has re- way. Work has begun on apps that tell commuters duced the waiting time for vehicles traversing the how they can reach their homes fastest, how resi- central district by up to 50 percent and has reduced dents can reduce their neighborhood’s energy con- pollutant emissions by up to 15 percent. Similar tech- sumption and how inhabitants can get hold of a nologies can help lessen water use (one example is taxi when a rainstorm is crossing the island and being used by the Sonoma County Water Agency in the vehicles all seem to have disappeared. 44 Scientific American, September 2011 ©  2011  Scientific  A merican
  • 4. The potential for developing more of this kind of about what people want, causing such plans to be Roll out: Controlled efficient infrastructure is vast—and a good fraction brittle in the face of change. So many “smart home” by a smartphone, the can be unleashed through smart systems. It is thus projects have failed over the past few decades pre- Copenhagen Wheel no surprise that many large corporations, such as cisely because designers made the wrong assump- (red disk) provides IBM, Cisco Systems, Siemens, Accenture, Ferrovial tions about how people would want to integrate pedal assistance but and ABB, are setting their sights on the urban space. technologies into their daily lives and did not build also sends tempera- in the capacity to adapt to unforeseen situations. ture, humidity, noise LESSONS FROM Second, top-down visions ignore the enormous and pollution data to THE NETWORKED PAST innovative potential of grass-roots efforts. We have a real-time environ- IT IS FITTING that Cairo has become a modern model all witnessed how the decentralization of design mental database. of urban transformation because the ancient world transformed the World Wide Web into a fascinat- Nitrogen oxide levels holds the key to understanding what makes cities ing milieu for social interaction. By providing fin- in Copenhagen are thrive. The invention of agriculture 10,000 years ished solutions rather than new raw materials for displayed at the left. ago begot the first fixed settlements. As farming building the physical and social fabric of smarter produced more food than was needed for survival, cities, top-down designs rob themselves of any ca- towns and villages developed specialized labor pability to invent new ideas for how to make cities forces and institutions. Markets, temples and pal- better. If we compare the bounty of ideas that have aces created social networks organized for com- come from city-sponsored app contests such as merce, worship and government. Over time the in- New York City’s BigApps challenges with the vague teractions within these networks became more lay- promises for how high-definition videoconferenc- ered and complex. It turns out that sociability, not ing will be used in New Songdo City, it is clear that efficiency, is the true killer app for cities. the biggest innovations will come from the bottom. Furthermore, although landmark buildings Finally, a focus solely on efficiency ignores fun- shape our historical understanding of many me- damental civic goals such as social cohesion, quali- tropolises, in reality most of the physical stuff in cit- ty of life, democracy and the rule of law. Improving ies was built by everyday people. City building was sociability through technology, however, does tar-CHRISTINE  OUTRAM  AND  XIAOJI  CHEN  (visualization  and  Web  interface) highly democratized, decentralized, free-flowing get these needs, while also unlocking new ap-COURTESY  OF  MIT’S  SENSEABLE  CITY  LAB/MAX  TOMASINELLI  (bike);     and adaptive, just like its social and economic life— proaches to efficiency. For example, the app Dopplr a rich tapestry of communal architecture whose de- allows users to calculate and share the carbon foot- sign achievements were the result of collective ef- print of their travel, which may inspire more sus- fort rather than celebrity “starchitects.” tainable behavior. This organic growth of classical cities holds sev- eral lessons for future smart cities. First, by impos- BUILDING FROM THE BOTTOM-UP ing a preordained design, centralized planners of- IF WE FOCUS on sociability as the starting point for ten fail to create a city that is tailored to inhabitants’ design and tapping citizens as the source of inno- needs, that reflects their culture or that creates the vation, how do we go about crafting a smarter city? rich mix of activities that distinguishes great places. An ideal beginning is to leverage the growing ar- Centralized plans also make many assumptions ray of smart personal devices we all wield and re- September 2011, ScientificAmerican.com 45 ©  2011  Scientific  A merican
  • 5. cruit people as the sensors of a city rather than re- surroundings and health. As recently as 2009, Paris lying only on formal systems embedded into infra- had fewer than a dozen ozone-monitoring stations. structure. The traffic function on Google Maps is a To greatly expand this official data stream, the good example. Instead of building a costly network Green Watch project, overseen by Internet think of dedicated vehicle sensors along roadways, Google tank Fing, distributed 200 smart devices to Pari- constantly polls a large network of anonymous vol- sians. The devices sensed ozone and noise levels unteers whose mobile devices report their up-to- as their wearers went about their daily lives, and the-minute status, which reveals where traffic is the ongoing measurements were shared publicly flowing, slowed or stopped. The information is de- through the Citypulse mapping engine. In the first livered to drivers via mobile mapping applications trial more than 130,000 measurements were taken in various ways—as colored overlays indicating in a single city district. The experiment showed traffic speeds, as estimated driving times that ac- how a grassroots sensing network could be de- count for delays or as a factor in determining alter- ployed almost in an instant—at dramatically lower native routes. These handy data allow users to see cost than expanding the city’s archaic fixed sta- the circulatory network of the city in real time and tions. The project also showed that citizens could to understand the constantly changing cost in time become deeply engaged in environmental monitor- of getting from point A to point B. Although Google ing and regulation. Ultimately, sensors for grass- is certainly not a grassroots platform, this example roots networks will be built into everyday objects: shows how peer-to-peer sharing of sensory data phones, vehicles and clothing. can have a huge impact in helping to manage ur- Bottom-up approaches are also leveraging the ban infrastructure. This scenario also shows how sociability of cities to change patterns of activity. As smart cities can be both sociable and more efficient the booming popularity of local shopping networksDry passage: without imposing order from above; you choose such as Groupon and LivingSocial shows, connect-Sensors and actuators the best route based on your peers’ observations in- ing local businesses and city dwellers through mo-in Zaragoza, Spain, stead of being directed by traffic engineers. bile social networks is a powerful catalyst for ac-turn off select water Google’s traffic app leverages a large base of ex- tion. These new ways of scripting the city can cre-jets as a pedestrian isting consumer devices. But bottom-up approach- ate more lasting kinds of social touch points, too.approaches—one es to sensing can also provide rapid, cheap deploy- The Foursquare mobile social network that Ama-example of responsive ment of new kinds of sensors that measure and re- mou used in Tunis can also turn going out on thearchitecture. cord data about people’s activities, movements, town into a kind of mobile game. It crowns the most frequent visitor to every café, bar and restau- rant as the “mayor”—a reference to the “self-ap- pointed public characters” described in 1961 by ur- banist Jane Jacobs in The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Like the corner gossips that Ja- cobs argued were so critical to neighborhood cohe- sion and safe streets, Foursquare’s mayors remind us that even the most intelligent of digital cities are vital because they are filled with interesting and accessible people. Another way to put citizens in the driver’s seat is to instrument buildings, plazas and even sculptures with embedded sensors and actuators. These devic- es will create capabilities for passersby to alter how the built city behaves. For example, the Digital Wa- ter Pavilion in Zaragoza, Spain, is a public sculpture whose walls are created by jets of water that can dis- play patterns and react to people. As individuals walk through the space, the jets turn on and off, al- lowing pedestrians to proceed without getting wet. COURTESY  OF  DIGITAL  WATER  PAVILLION/RAMAK  FAZEL This programmable world will extend beyond the physical city. Today many municipalities offer telephone hotlines reached by dialing 311 that give citizens rapid access to city government informa- tion and services, as well as the ability to file reports about everyday issues. These systems will evolve into wiki-like information repositories that allow citizens to team up and help themselves. For in- stance, one resident, using Boston’s mobile 311 app 46 Scientific American, September 2011 ©  2011  Scientific  A merican
  • 6. (dubbed Citizen’s Connect), responded to a plea for rapid progress, we need to build mechanisms for help in removing an errant possum from another scanning, evaluating and cross-fertilizing good Bostonian’s garbage can in less than half an hour— ideas—ways to spread the best methods for crowd- well before the city’s own Animal Control unit could sourcing public services or using citizens as sen- mobilize to respond. On successfully evicting the sors, just as we have in the past spread the best critter, the Good Samaritan left a comment on the ideas for bus rapid transit or bike sharing. 311 system that the matter was resolved. As govern- Here is where mayors, architects, planners and ment information systems that enable citizens to technologists might play their most effective role add and edit information become more wide- in shaping truly smart cities—by marshaling and spread, they will support innovation in how servic- integrating the great engineering resources of top- es are delivered and funded in caregiving, educa- down approaches with the innovation of grass- tion and other nonemergency functions. Successes roots initiatives. Governments in cities as diverse in online social gaming can provide lessons in how as New York City, London, Singapore and Paris are to motivate and reward volunteers. Citizens will taking tentative first steps by making formerly pri- have to make sure, however, that city government vate government data warehouses public. These does not view “crowdsourcing” work from the mass- resources are empowering entrepreneurs to come es as a convenient way to offload its obligations. up with mobile software applications that meet More natural computer interfaces will let non- citizen needs. But it is not clear how the entrepre- techies, disabled persons and the illiterate partici- neurs will sustain these efforts. The grassroots de- pate more fully in civic life, making it smarter still. velopers bring engagement and creativity to the Although gestural interfaces that recognize individ- table, but corporations and politicians are needed ual faces are new, the Institute for Creative Technol- to scale and sustain the large systems that the in- ogies at the University of Southern California has novations run on. After all, the revolutions of Cai- developed a gestural controller for Gmail that, if ro and Tunis played out on a mobile infrastructure combined with speech synthesis and recognition, built by Vodafone and other global companies. could allow the illiterate poor, the elderly and the It is also up to civic leaders to listen to citizens disabled to use e-mail and explore the Web. As these and together frame their own smart city vision. Ev- technologies spread to cybercafés throughout poor ery community faces a unique set of circumstanc- urban communities, such as the national network of es, as well as resources to address them. Some local more than 600 Pontos de Cultura (culture hotspots) experiments will morph into “best practices,” data in Brazil’s favelas, we will see an urban movement sets, computer models and visualizations that can emerge for more inclusive smart services. be repurposed elsewhere, but many of the best Part of what makes cities smart is a system of smart city solutions will be like the best urban ex- checks and balances, and networked cities are periences: unique, local and unreplicable—as they changing the way citizens monitor city hall. Hy- should be! perlocal news sites such as EveryBlock aggregate Web content and public data about individual SMART CITIES FOR ALL TIME streets, cover local issues and monitor local govern- IS MASDAR REALLY a glimpse into how we will live to-M O R E   T O   E X P L O R E ment more thoroughly than traditional newspapers morrow? Or will it suffer the same fate as the ma-Growth,  Innovation,  Scaling,   or television. Web sites such as Oakland Crimespot- chine universe of Fritz Lang’s 1927 film Metropo-and  the  Pace  of  Life  in  Cities.     ting in California enable residents to analyze and lis—another vision that will inspire designers butLuís  M.  A.  Bettencourt  et  al.  in  Proceedings  of  the  National  Acade- create interactive maps of detailed crime data by will ultimately fail to materialize? Masdar is per-my  of  Sciences  USA,  Vol.  104,  No.   using information mined from ubiquitous, real- haps a bit of both. It is providing an effective tem-17,  pages  7301–7306;  April  24,  2007.   time social media streams and government data- plate for how to use pervasive computing to opti-Planet  of  Civic  Laboratories:  The   bases. Crime information systems akin to New York mize urban systems, from transport to energy. YetFuture  of  Cities,  Information,  and  Inclusion.  Anthony  Townsend  et   City’s CompStat have long allowed police depart- after five years and more than $1 billion, Masdar isal.  Institute  for  the  Future,  2010.   ments to create detailed maps of criminal activity, also showing shortcomings of the centralized ap-www.iftf.org/inclusion     but better access to crime data will empower citi- proach; a large replanning exercise will effectivelyBuilding  a  Smarter  Favela:  IBM   zens to analyze policing and public safety, perhaps turn it into a more conventional real estate develop-Signs  Up  Rio.  Greg  Lindsay  in  Fast   leading to different kinds of community policing. ment. More than smart systems that improve effi-Company;  December  27,  2010.  www.fastcompany.com       ciency are needed to make the city “smart.”Massachusetts  Institute  of  Tech-   A PLANET OF CIVIC LABORATORIES Taking a more bottom-up view of how cities ac-nology’s  Senseable  City  Labora- IF THE RISK of visions like Masdar is their elitism tually develop gives us an opportunity to radicallytory:  http://senseable.mit.edu and singular focus on efficiency, their advantage is rethink what intelligent, connected communities ofSCIENTIFIC  A MERICAN   clarity of purpose. The bottom-up smart city is a the future could look like and how they can be de-ONLINEAnimations  of  smart  city     continual work in progress; its organic flexibility signed, built and lived in. By empowering people toapps  can  be  viewed  at     is also its biggest flaw. But as civic laboratories for devise ways to run their daily lives as smartly as   urban innovation, these seemingly chaotic places possible, we can make their extended community—sep2011/ratti are becoming part of a global movement. To make the actual embodiment of a city—smarter, too. 48 Scientific American, September 2011 ©  2011  Scientific  A merican

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