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  • 1. "Technology Trigger"
    The first phase of a Hype Cycle is the "technology trigger" or breakthrough, product launch or other event that generates significant press and interest.
    2. "Peak of Inflated Expectations"
    In the next phase, a frenzy of publicity typically generates over-enthusiasm and unrealistic expectations. There may be some successful applications of a technology, but there are typically more failures.
    3. "Trough of Disillusionment"
    Technologies enter the "trough of disillusionment" because they fail to meet expectations and quickly become unfashionable. Consequently, the press usually abandons the topic and the technology.
    4. "Slope of Enlightenment"
    Although the press may have stopped covering the technology, some businesses continue through the "slope of enlightenment" and experiment to understand the benefits and practical application of the technology.
    5. "Plateau of Productivity"
    A technology reaches the "plateau of productivity" as the benefits of it become widely demonstrated and accepted. The technology becomes increasingly stable and evolves in second and third generations. The final height of the plateau varies according to whether the technology is broadly applicable or benefits only a niche market
  • See
  • “Ajax” is an acronym which stands for Asynchronous Javascript and XML. Knowing what the letters stand probably doesn’t make it any more clear, so let’s look at a graphic to see what this is all about. In the typical web application, each time you click on a link, your browser contacts a server, which sends back a whole new page. When you click on the next link, this round trip happens again, refreshing the page every time. That is what Ajax is trying to fix.
    An Ajax application starts off the same way, when it brings in the initial page. But after that, Javascript on the page makes background calls back to the server, and uses that new data to update only a portion of the page. This delay is much less noticeable, and therefore the application feels more responsive.
    Ajax, by its very nature, requires discrete services that are well-tuned to the needs of the web page, so you can minimize processing on the client side. These might not be the services you happen to have though. It may drive requirements for new services from your IT department
  • Reference -
  • Talk.ppt - PowerPoint Presentation

    1. 1. Presented by: Prof Mark Baker ACET, University of Reading Tel: +44 118 378 8615 E-mail: Web: The Influence and Impact of Web 2.0 on e-Research Infrastructure, Applications and Users 16th June, 09
    2. 2. Outline • e-SI Web 2.0 theme. • What is Web 2.0? • Web 2.0 Technologies: – Clouds, REST, AJAX, Google tools, – Security concerns, – Wikis, Blogs, RSS, Tagging, – Social networking, – Flickr, Slideshare, YouTube, – Twitter, LinkedIn, – Web Semantics, Twine, • Summary/Conclusions. 16th June, 09
    3. 3. Web 2.0 theme 16th June, 09
    4. 4. Web 2.0 theme • Want to study and understand “The Influence and Impact of Web 2.0 on e-Research Infrastructure, Applications and Users”… • Core team: – Prof Mark Baker, SSE, University of Reading, – Prof David de Roure, ECS, University of Southampton, – Prof Carole Goble, CS, University of Manchester, – Prof Paul Watson, Newcastle University, – Prof Richard Sinnot, Glasgow University, – Dr Rob Allan, Daresbury Laboratory – Dr Daniel S. Katz, University of Chicago, USA – Dr. Liz Lyon, UKOLN – Dr Marina Jirotka, Oxford University Computing Laboratory – Dr Claire Warwick, Department of Information Studies, UCL. 16th June, 09
    5. 5. Web site 16th June, 09
    6. 6. Web 2.0 theme • Services: – Clouds, – Virtualisation, – Security, – Tools and utilities, – Web of Data • Applications: – Neurology, – Gaming, – Various Mashups, – Data intensive, – MoSes – Genomics 16th June, 09 • User/Usability: • On-line surveys, • Explore a range of application areas. • Guardian/BBC, • Teaching/Learning, • Publishing, • Google/Yahoo! • GAP analysis, • HCI/Usability, • New activities.
    7. 7. General Introduction • Various technologies seem to appear in waves, some are taken up and are successful, and others die out quickly. • I have been working in the parallel, distributed computing and HPC arena for 20+ years: – Seen lots of interesting technologies come and go! • CORBA, Jini… etc… – Spent a lot of time working on grid technologies (1995 onwards) and e-Science… now interested in e-Research! • However, the Web 2.0 area seems to have been one of those domains of interest that has taken off like a rocket! • It continues to change, and is moving towards Web 3.0! mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    8. 8. What is Web 2.0? • Tim O'Reilly first coined the term back in 2004: – The terms became more significant after the O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004. • Tim O'Reilly said that “Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the Internet as a platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform”… • Many of us back in those days really wondered exactly what Web 2.0 was…!? – At that stage we thought the Web 2.0 stack was fairly empty… but since those days the extent that people collaborate, communication, and the range of tools and technologies have rapidly changed. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    9. 9. What is Web 2.0? • Another description from Tim O'Reilly… – Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; – Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: • Delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it, • Consuming and remixing data from multiple sources, including individual users, while providing their own data and services in a form that allows remixing by others, • Creating network effects through an "architecture of participation," and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experiences. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    10. 10. Web 2.0 • Web 2.0 has many aspects: – Business Models that survived and have promise for the future. – Approaches such as services instead of products, the Web as a platform, ... – Concepts such as folksonomies, syndication, participation, reputation, .... – Technologies such as AJAX, REST, Tags, Micro- formats, ... – And many others ... mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    11. 11. What is Web 2.0 ? • A concept not a product. • A way of thinking. • A way of working – collaborative and social. • About: – Sharing information with others, – Information coming to you, – Deciding how you receive and view the information. • All sorts of technologies but…. • Examples: – Blogs, RSS, Wikis, social bookmarking (e.g. Furl,, Connotea) Flickr, Facebook, MySpace, web based forums, email discussion lists, YouTube, Second Life…… 16th June, 09
    12. 12. Gartner Hype Curve mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    13. 13. Gartner's 10 strategic technologies for 2009 • The "potential for significant impact on the enterprise in the next three years": 1. Virtualization, 2. Cloud computing, 3. Servers (beyond blades), 4. Web oriented architectures, 5. Enterprise mashups, 6. Specialised systems, 7. Social software / networking, 8. Unified communications, 9. Business intelligence, 10. Green IT. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    14. 14. Web 2.0 Web 1.0  Web 2.0 DoubleClick  Google AdSense Ofoto  Flickr Akamai  BitTorrent  Napster Britannica Online  Wikipedia personal web sites  Blogging Evite  and Events and Venues Database Domain name speculation Search engine optimisation Page views  Cost per click Screen scraping  Web Services Publishing  Participation Content management systems  Wikis Directories (taxonomy)  Tagging ("folksonomy") Stickiness  Syndication From Tim O’Reilly’s “What is Web 2.0”on O’ReillyNet, 9/30/2005; hat-is-web-20.html?page=1 mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    15. 15. Web 2.0 Areas of Interest • Services: – Cloud Computing, – RESTful systems, – AJAX, – Google tools and utilities, – Security. • Applications: – Wikis, – Blogs, – RSS, – Tagging, – Social Networks, – Flickr, Slideshare, YouTube, – Twitter, 16th June, 09
    16. 16. Cloud Computing 16th June, 09
    17. 17. What is Cloud Computing? • Cloud Computing is a general term used to describe a new class of network based computing that takes place over the Internet, basically a step on from Utility Computing. • In other words, this is a collection/group of integrated and networked hardware, software and Internet infrastructure. • Using the Internet for communication and transport provides hardware, software and networking services to clients. • These platforms hide the complexity and details of the underlying infrastructure from users and applications by providing very simple graphical interface and APIs. 16th June, 09
    18. 18. What is Cloud Computing? • In addition, the platform provides on demand services, that are always on, anywhere, anytime and any place. • Pay for use and as needed, elastic (scale up/down in capacity and functionality). • The hardware and software services are available to the general public, enterprises, corporations and business markets. 16th June, 09
    19. 19. Cloud Architecture 16th June, 09
    20. 20. Virtual Machines • VM technology allows multiple virtual machines to run on a single physical machine. Hardware Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) / Hypervisor Guest OS (Linux) Guest OS (NetBSD) Guest OS (Windows) VM VM VM AppApp AppAppApp Xen VMWare UML Denali etc. Performance: Para-virtualization (e.g. Xen) is very close to raw physical performance! 16th June, 09
    21. 21. What is the purpose and benefits? • Cloud computing enables companies and applications, that are system/service dependent to execute… legacy applications (F77 and libraries)! • Potentially provide a more efficient means of executing applications. • By using the Cloud infrastructure on “pay as used and on demand”, all of us can save in capital and operational investment! • Clients can: – Put their data on the platform instead of on their own desktop PCs and/or on their own servers. – They can put their applications on the cloud and use the servers within the cloud to do processing and data manipulations that they require. 16th June, 09
    22. 22. Cloud-Sourcing • Why is it becoming a Big Deal: – Using high-scale/low-cost providers, – Any time/place access via web browser, – Rapid scalability; incremental cost and load sharing, – Can forget need to focus on local IT. • Concerns ( – Performance, reliability, and SLAs, – Control of data, and service parameters, – Application features and choices, – Interaction between Cloud providers, – No standard APIs – mix of SOAP and REST! – Privacy, security, compliance, trust… 16th June, 09
    23. 23. What is REST ? • REST is the acronym for “Representational State Transfer“ – an architectural model for the Web! • Principles of REST: – Resource centric approach, – All relevant resources are addressable via URIs, – Uniform access via HTTP – GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, • REST style services: – Easy to access from code running in web browsers, any other client or servers - popular in the context of AJAX, – Takes advantage of the Web caching infrastructure, – Can serve multiple representations of the same resource. • See - htm mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    24. 24. 16th June, 09 Tycho A Resource Discovery Framework and Messaging System for Distributed Applications
    25. 25. 16th June, 09 Tycho Design • Tycho is a based on a publish, subscribe and bind paradigm. • Design Philosophy: – We believed that the system should have an architecture similar to the Internet, where every node provides reliable core services, and the complexity is kept, as far as possible, to the edges. – We have kept Tycho’s core small, simple and efficient, so that it has a minimal memory foot-print, is easy to install, and is capable of providing robust and reliable services. – More sophisticated services can then be built on this core and are provided via libraries and tools to applications. • Allows Tycho to be flexible and extensible so that it will be possible to incorporate additional features and functionality.
    26. 26. 16th June, 09 Tycho Architecture • Tycho consists of the following components: – Mediators that allow producers and consumers to discover each other and establish remote communications, – Consumers that typically subscribe to receive information or events from producers, – Producers that gather and publish information for consumers. • There is an asynchronous messaging API. • In Tycho, producers and/or consumers (clients) can publish their existence in a Virtual Registry (VR). Registry Consumer Registry Core Mediator Producer Core Consumer Producer WAN (HTTP) LAN (Socket) WAN (P2P)
    27. 27. What is AJAX ? • AJAX is the acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. • The purpose is to create more dynamic and responsive web pages • It is also about building web clients in a Service Oriented Architecture that can connect to any kind of server: J2EE, PHP, ASP.Net, Ruby on Rails, etc. • AJAX involves existing technology and standards: – JavaScript and XML • Pattern: Page view displayed in a web browser where it retrieves data or mark-up fragments from a service and refreshes just a part of the page. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    28. 28. What is AJAX ? • AJAX is non-trivial, it requires deep and broad skills in web development .... but the benefits to be gained can be huge compared to classic web applications. • AJAX enables major improvements in responsiveness and performance of web applications, e.g. used at Yahoo! Mail, Google Maps,, and others. • AJAX is NOT hype – it is very real and very useful for highly interactive applications. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    29. 29. AJAX compared to classic Web UIs Browser Server Browser Server service In the typical web application, each request causes a complete refresh of the browser page An Ajax application begins the same way. After the initial page loads, Javascript code retrieves additional data in the background and updates only specific sections of the page mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    30. 30. iGoogle mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    31. 31. iGoogle • iGoogle portal is a free Google service, • Is a customisable web portal, • Users can add “Gadgets” to the page, • Customisations are saved to the user’s account and retrieved when logging in again. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    32. 32. Google Gadgets mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    33. 33. Gadgets are Dynamic Web Applications • Gadgets can be static, but then are of limited use. • Dynamic Gadgets are more common. • Three general approaches when making a dynamic gadget: – Time dynamic – the content changes over time, e.g. a news gadget, – User input dynamic – the content changes via a user interacting with the gadget (forms and links), • User preference dynamic – the user sets preferences that persist across user sessions (e.g. eBay). • Gadgets need not include a page header/footer, they focus on the specific application they surface. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    34. 34. Gadgets are NOT hosted by Google • Google Gadgets can be created by anyone. • Gadget must be deployed on a public web server. • Once deployed, anyone can use the Gadget. • iGoogle supports a Gadget library to help users find Gadgets they may want to use. • Google Gadgets are implemented behind public URLs. • Any public server that speaks HTTP and returns HTML can be a Gadget host: – Apache web server, PHP, Ruby on Rails, ASP .NET, – Java Application Servers (Servlet Containers). • Important - Your web server must be exposed to the Internet! mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    35. 35. Web 2.0 Security Issues • Security issues must be addressed, these include the following: – User Authentication, – Access control (authorisation), – Data security, – Credential security, – Client security, – Acceptable use of new tools, such as: • RSS, • Instant messaging, • Blogs, • Wikis, • Bookmarking and tagging, • Personalised homepages, • Social networks. 16th June, 09
    36. 36. 16th June, 09 Security Issues • The Web Browser is now the Web 2.0 platform. • It needs cross application features with a solid security model. – For example - the browser does not sandbox the various Web 2.0 components that you may need to use. – If you are using mashups from various sources (google/amazon/yahoo) within the browser the JavaScript from one component can interact with the JavaScript of another component, play with your cookies and probably mess up other browser hosted components! • Google search - Web 2.0 security issues - gave MANY hits! • Many areas of Web 2.0 that are open security issues, probably AJAX is one of the biggest!
    37. 37. Firefox and FireBug 16th June, 09
    38. 38. SQL Injection • SQL injection plays on a simple problem: – A Web page's input fields often fail to distinguish between innocent user data - information like names or dates - and malicious commands, – When a hacker's hidden instructions are entered into a Web site's input forms, the site may confuse them with user data and pull the commands into its SQL database, where they can become integrated into the database's code. – That lets the hacker access the site's data or add commands to the page so as to infect a visitor with malicious software, – A survey of major Web sites by White Hat Security found that 16% of sites were vulnerable to this tactic. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    39. 39. Cross-Site Scripting • About 65% of the major sites surveyed by security analysts White Hat Security are vulnerable to an attack called cross- site scripting, which allows a disturbing upgrade to phishing attacks. • The typical phisher e-mails users a link that brings them to a fraudulent site, conning them into sharing credit card information or other sensitive data. • In a cross-site scripting attack, the link instead folds hidden command into a destination site's code. • That means even a legitimate page can be secretly tweaked so that when a user enters bank codes or other sensitive information, the data ends up in the hands of the phisher. • The threat of cross-site scripting is yet another reason to watch out for links in unfamiliar e-mails. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    40. 40. Cross-Site Request Forgery • Cross-site request forgery, sometimes known as sidejacking, takes advantage of a vulnerability that is common to password-protected Web pages. • When a user logs in to a private site their identity is marked with a cookie - a temporary file downloaded to a user's browser. • But if that user can be tricked into visiting a malicious site, while still logged in to that password-protected page, the second site can secretly steal their cookies, and with them they have access to the first site's private information. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    41. 41. Google Hacking • About two out of every three Web searches starts at Google. • So, it seems, do many attacks on Web sites. • Google hacking uses the search engine to probe the entire Web for sensitive information or hackable vulnerabilities in code. • Just by entering the right search string, for instance, hackers are sometimes able to find repositories of credit card information or social security numbers stored on the Web. • Recently, an attack seeming to originate in China used Google to probe the Web for sites vulnerable to a certain strain of SQL injection, targeting more than half a million pages and infecting them with malicious software. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    42. 42. Forced Browsing • In some cases, hacking a Web site is as simple as changing a single digit in a Web address. • By shifting the characters in a page's address that refers to a name or date, a malicious user can sometimes gain access to pages they are not intended to see, a process security professionals call forced browsing. • In 2006, Phil Angelides, a Democratic contender in the California gubernatorial campaign, was accused of hacking rival Arnold Schwarzenegger's Web site and obtaining a confidential audio file. • But a source close to the Democratic campaign told that Angelides' aides had merely tampered with a URL to find the file. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    43. 43. Captcha Breaking • One major challenge for security professionals is distinguishing humans from software bots on the Web. • In a webmail service, for instance, users are shown a captcha, a distorted word or image, and asked to identify the text or picture. • The goal is to foil software designed to sign up for accounts for the purpose of churning out spam. • But in some cases, spammers have beaten the countermeasure by creating sites that enlist users to solve captchas by the hundreds in exchange for pornographic images. • Google's Gmail captcha was the latest victim of cybercriminals. • The site offers an audio function that reads captchas aloud for blind users, hackers were able to use speech-to-text software to defeat the test automatically. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    44. 44. Distributed Denial Of Service • Sometimes a hacker's goal is not to steal information or infect users with malicious software but rather to a shut down a site altogether. • In those cases, cyber-criminals often employ distributed denial of service attacks (DDOS), a technique that floods a Web server with requests for information and overwhelms it. • Using botnets, armies of unsuspecting computers are hijacked with invisible software, cyber-criminals can vastly multiply the size of their attacks and also mask their origins. • Need to examine current PKI-based security with the various Web 2.0 mechanisms. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    45. 45. Wikis • wiki-wiki – Hawaiian meaning quick. • The first wiki was the WikiWikiWeb, by Ward Cunningham 1995. • A collaborative web application that allows users to easily add and edit content. • Can be used for: – Developing documentation, – Project management: • History keeps a record of the changes and different versions of the documents. – Developing a conference programme. • Encourages collaboration. • Many have blog like discussion areas and RSS feeds. 16th June, 09
    46. 46. Wikis • Relatively standardised format and layout “Makes contributors concentrate on content rather than wasting time on pretty layouts”. • Default in most Wikis will let anyone create and edit a page: – Need to protect Admin functions and limit creation, edit and access rights, – Can “lock” individual pages or sections, – Can require registration to set up new pages or edit existing ones. 16th June, 09
    47. 47. Wikipedia 16th June, 09 Option to edit the page
    48. 48. Wikipedia (2) 16th June, 09 No edit option
    49. 49. Wikipedia - history 16th June, 09 Date of edits Author/editor
    50. 50. What are Wikis used for in real life? • Wikis for training materials and conference organising: – NeSC/eSI do this. • Wikis for compiling subject guides. – We create manuals/user-guides in our private Wiki, then use some PHP that lets us expose the content to the public. • Using a Wiki on an Intranet for internal purposes. 16th June, 09
    51. 51. Blogs • What is a Blog? – Short for web log, – Content management system that publishes information chronologically, – Content can range from self-indulgent drivel to extreme depth, – Easy to use and publish from anywhere, therefore there is a high proportion of utter rubbish in the “blogosphere”, – Blogs automatically generate RSS feeds. 16th June, 09
    52. 52. Anatomy of a Blog 16th June, 09
    53. 53. Applications of Blogs • Instead of, or in addition to, a printed, emailed or static web-based newsletter: – Current awareness for staff, users, researchers and clients - “What’s new”, – Publicising new services/products, encourage feedback via comments. • Marketing tool inside and outside of the organisation. • Recording professional development and reflective practice plus project development and discussions. • Comments or “suggestions” box. • Monitor blogs for information and competitor intelligence. • Alternative publishing medium. 16th June, 09
    54. 54. Blogs as sources of information • Blogs by industry gurus and experts are a good way of keeping up to date with what is happening in a particular sector. • Look for the Blogroll of List of Links on a relevant blog. • Google Blogsearch – Uses advanced search to search within an individual blog. • Ask – Blogs and feeds. • Live Feeds search - • Blog search engines and directories: – – – 16th June, 09
    55. 55. What is RSS? • Stands for Really Simple Syndication, or Rich Site Summary or RDF site summary. – Depends on version: • Rich Site Summary (RSS 0.9x), • RDF Site Summary (RSS 0.9 and 1.0), • Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.x). – Also ATOM (Google). – Written in XML. – Look for the orange logos. • A means of delivering headlines, alerts, tables of contents. 16th June, 09 Regarded as the de facto standard
    56. 56. Why RSS is not that popular? 16th June, 09 You need a feed “reader”…
    57. 57. 16th June, 09 ….like Google Reader
    58. 58. RSS instead of email • Reduces the overload in your email inbox. • By-passes spam filters. • Quicker and easier to scan and spot individual headlines within an alert or newsletter and decide what is relevant. • Can set up filters to pick up stories that mention specific products, companies... • You control when you receive and read the feeds. • Easier to “unsubscribe”. 16th June, 09
    59. 59. Tagging with • Storing bookmarks online so they can be accessed from the Internet. • Consolidating bookmark collections to eliminate the confusion of attempting to locate bookmarks stored on multiple computers. • Personal interests – shopping, vacations, hobbies, and so on. • Academic Pursuits – keeping track of online source materials in one location. • Sharing – Bookmarks via the public. • Expertise Mining – all bookmarks on have been chosen by a human being. – Exploring the results of their previous searches is a great labour saver mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    60. 60. Tagging on mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    61. 61. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    62. 62. Facebook Facts • Not just for college students anymore! • Anyone with a valid e-mail address can join… • Over 175 million active (users who have returned to the site in the last 30 days). • Company has 700+ employees. • More than half of Facebook users are outside of college with the fastest growing demographic being those 30 years old and older. • Average user has 120 friends on the site . • More than 3 billion minutes are spent on Facebook each day (worldwide). (Feb/09) mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    63. 63. Facebook mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    64. 64. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    65. 65. Flickr • • Owned by Yahoo! • Share photos with selected individuals or make public. • Put photos of your library’s or organisation’s events on Flickr: – Promote your department, information centre, organisation, – Direct journalists to your “album” when they ask for photos to accompany articles about you, – Make sure you tag and describe them, – Organise into sets, – Decide on IPR - copyright and Creative Commons licenses. 16th June, 09
    66. 66. Flickr 16th June, 09
    67. 67. Slideshare, • Share presentations. • Include an accompanying commentary. • Keep private, share with selected people, or make public. • Slideshare does not keep animations and embedded links. • Slideshare - • Embed Slideshare in your blog, web site, Facebook profile, start page …….. 16th June, 09
    68. 68. Slideshare 16th June, 09
    69. 69. YouTube • • Owned by Google. • Videos of varying content and quality: – News broadcasts, – Various videos and corporate broadcasts, – PR, advertising campaigns, – Videos of events, new service launches, anything, – The Queen has a YouTube channel! • • Embed YouTube videos in your Blog, Facebook page, start page, web site etc. 16th June, 09
    70. 70. Twitter • • Microblogging: – “tweets” are 140 characters, – What are you doing? – “follow” friends, – Lots of plugins for your browser and desktop e.g. TwitKit, – Send first 140 characters of your blog postings to Twitter using, – Add Twitter to your Facebook profile. • Search for friends and colleagues, and topics: – Twitterment, Tweet Scan etc. • Analyse a person’s tweets with Tweet Clouds: – 16th June, 09
    71. 71. Twitter 16th June, 09
    72. 72. Who is on Twitter? 16th June, 09 The BBC The Times 10 Downing Street
    73. 73. Conference Twitter Streams • “Blogging conferences is so 20th century!” – Twitterers/tweeters abound at conferences, – The INSOURCE Conference Twitter Experiment insource-conference-twitter-experiment/, – Can set up a Twitter event stream, – Delegates, conference chairs, moderators can all comment on and monitor the proceedings, – Send tweets to your blog using LoudTwitter: • Generates a chronological list of your tweets by day and with the oldest listed first, • Easier to read as a record of the event. 16th June, 09
    74. 74. Second Life 16th June, 09
    75. 75. What next? • Play and experiment. • You do not have to try everything. • Focus on what you think will make your work easier, more productive, more effective. • If it does not work or it takes longer to carry out a task without significant benefits, ditch it! • There is no law that says you have to use something just because it has a Web 2 .0 tag. 16th June, 09
    76. 76. Approaches to Web Semantics • Tagging, • Statistics, • Linguistics, • Semantic Web: – RDF – Store data as “triples”, – OWL – Define systems of concepts called “ontologies”, – Sparql – Query data in RDF, – SWRL – Define rules, – GRDDL – Transform data to RDF. • Artificial Intelligence!!!! • Natural Language processing! 16th June, 09
    77. 77. A Mainstream Application of the Semantic Web… 16th June, 09
    78. 78. What is Twine? • Twine is a service for managing and sharing information on the Web. • Works for content, knowledge, data, or any other kinds of information. • Designed for individuals and groups that need a better way to organise, search, share and keep track of their information. 16th June, 09
    79. 79. LinkedIn • A professional networking tool. • It can be leveraged to: – Find and be found by prospective jobseekers and other business contacts, – Stay in touch with people. 16th June, 09
    80. 80. Medicine 2.0 16th June, 09
    81. 81. Conclusions • More and more people are using Web 2.0 technologies – sophisticated tools and utilities are constantly being developed. • Some people like the ideas related to Web 2.0, other feel they are not good! • There has been a lot of discussion on the Internet about Web 3! • Jim Hendler sees Web 3.0 as the “Semantic Web technologies integrated into, or powering, large-scale Web applications”. • From my own view point, Web 3.0, will probably be the integration of Web 2.0 and “the Web of Data”. mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    82. 82. Web X Roadmap Connections between people ConnectionsbetweenInformation Email Social Networking Groupware Javascript Weblogs Databases File Systems HTTP Keyword Search USENET Wikis Websites Directory Portals 2010 - 2020 Web 1.0 2000 - 2010 1990 - 2000 PC Era 1980 - 1990 RSS Widgets PC’s 2020 - 2030 Office 2.0 XML RDF SPARQLAJAX FTP IRC SOAP Mashups File Servers Social Media Sharing Lightweight Collaboration ATOM Web 3.0 Web 4.0 Semantic Search Semantic Databases Distributed Search Intelligent personal agents Java SaaS Web 2.0Flash OWL HTML SGML SQL Gopher P2P The Web The PC Windows MacOS SWRL OpenID BBS MMO’s VR Semantic Web Intelligent Web The Internet Social Web Web OS Nova Spivack CEO & Founder Radar Networks 16th June, 09
    83. 83. Forthcoming Events mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    84. 84. Forthcoming Events mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    85. 85. Forthcoming Events mark.baker@computer.org16th June, 09
    86. 86. Web 2.0 Cartoons 16th June, 09