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Antenatal care

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    Antenatal care Antenatal care Presentation Transcript

    • Evidence-BasedRoutine Antenatal Care
      MD. Amerkhojah
    • The Main References Of My Lecture
    • Objectives of Antenatal Care
      • Early, accurate estimation of gestational age
      • Identification of the patient at risk for complications
      • Ongoing evaluation of the health status of both mother and fetus
      • Anticipation of problems and intervention, if possible, to prevent or minimize morbidity
      • Patient education and communication
    • Who provides care Midwife- and GP vs obstetricians?
      Villar J, Khan-Neelofur D. Patterns of routine antenatal care for low – risk pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Review2003
    • RECOMMENDATION
      Midwife- and GP-led models of care should be offered for women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Routine involvement of obstetricians in the care of women with an uncomplicated pregnancy at scheduled times does not appear to improve perinatal outcomes compared with involving obstetricians when complications arise. [A]
    • What is the adequate no of visit ?
    • In the United States
    • What to in the antenatal clinic ?
    • History Taking
    • Initial prenatal social and demographic assessment
      Names of patient, partner, emergency contact
      Marital status
      Age
      Home address
      Telephone numbers for day, night, emergency
      Education
      Occupation
      Partner's name and occupation
      Pediatrician
      Primary care physician
      Hospital for delivery
      Religion (Jehovah's witness?)
    • Initial prenatal social and demographic assessment
      Date of delivery
      Gestational age at delivery
      Location of delivery
      Sex of child
      Birth weight
      Mode of delivery
      Type of anesthesia
      Length of labor
      Outcome (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic, etc)
      Details (eg, type of cesarean section scar, forceps, etc)
      Complications (maternal, fetal, child)
    • Basic medical history for the pregnant woman and her family
    • Initial prenatal menstrual history
       Last menstrual period (definite or uncertain?)
      Last normal menstrual period
      Previous menstrual period
      Cycle length
      Recent use of hormonal contraception?
      Menarche
      History of IUD use?_____  Date removed:_____
    • Current pregnancy history
      Medications taken
      Alcohol use
      Cigarette use
      Recreational drug use
      Exposure to radiation
      Vaginal bleeding
      Nausea, vomiting, weight loss
      Infections
      Exposure to toxic substances
      Restricted diet
    • Gestational age assessment: LMP and ultrasound
      Pregnant women should be offered an early ultrasound scan to determine gestational age (in addition to last menstrual period [LMP] for all cases)
      to detect multiple pregnancies.
      This will ensure consistency of gestational age assessments
      improve the performance of mid-trimester serum screening for Down’s syndrome
      reduce the need for induction of labourafter 41 weeks. [A]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Clinical examination ofpregnant women
      Measurement of weight and body mass index
      Maternal weight and height should be measured at the first antenatal appointment, and the woman’s BMI calculated (weight [kg]/height[m]²). [B]
      Repeated weighing during pregnancy should be confined to circumstances where clinical management is likely to be influenced. [C]
      Breast examination
      Routine breast examination during antenatal care is not recommended for the promotion of postnatal breastfeeding. [A]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Clinical examination ofpregnant women
      Pelvic examination
      Routine antenatal pelvic examination does not accurately assess gestational age, nor does it accurately predict preterm birth or cephalopelvic disproportion. It is not recommended. [B](1)
      Blood pressure measurement
      It is not known how often blood pressure should be measured, but most guidelines recommend measurement at each antenatal visit.[C](2)
      Evaluation for edema
      Edema occurs in 80 percent of pregnant women. It lacks specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of preeclampsia[C](3).
      1- Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
      2- U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to clinical preventive services. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Public Health and Science, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1996.
      3- Smith MA. Preeclampsia. Prim Care 1993;20:655-64.
    • Screening for haematological conditions
      Anaemia
      Screening should take place at the first appointment and at 28 weeks when other blood screening tests are being performed. This allows enough time for treatment if anaemia is detected.
      Haemoglobin level less than 11 g/dl at first contact and 10.5 g/dl at 28 weeks should be investigated and iron supplementation considered if indicated.
      Ramsey M, James D, Steer P, Weiner C, Gornik B. Normal values in pregnancy. 2nd ed. London: WB Saunders; 2000.
    • Screening for haematological conditions
      Blood Typing
      Rh and ABO blood typing should be performed at the first prenatal visit, as well as a screening test for irregular red blood cell antibodies.(1)
      Testing should be undertaken again at 28 weeks of gestation for all women with no antibodies on initial testing to ensure that no additional antibodies have developed (4)
      RhoD immune globulin (Rhogam) is recommended for all nonsensitized Rh-negative women at 28 weeks' gestation (300 mcg) and within 72 hours after delivery of an Rh-positive infant (2,3)
      Nonsensitized, Rh-negative women also should be offered a dose of RhoD immune globulin after spontaneous or induced abortion, ectopic pregnancy termination, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, cordocentesis, external cephalic version, abdominal trauma, and second- or third-trimester bleeding (2,3)
      1-U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to clinical preventive services. 2d ed. 1996
      2- Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Int J GynaecolObstet 1999;66:63-70.
      3- Fung Kee, et al. Prevention of Rhalloimmunization. J ObstetGynaecol Can 2003;25:765-73.
      4- British Committee for Standards in Haematology, Blood Transfusion Task Force. Guidelines for blood grouping and red cell antibody testing
      during pregnancy. Transfusion Medicine 1996;6:71–4.
    • Screening for structural anomalies
    • Screening for fetal anomalies
      Screening for structural anomalies
      Pregnant women should be offered an ultrasound scan to screen for structural anomalies, ideally between 18 to 20 weeks of gestation, by an appropriately trained sonographer and with equipment of an appropriate standard as outlined by the National Screening Committee. [A]
      Screening for Down’s syndrome
      from 11 to 14 weeks
      nuchal translucency (NT)
      the combined test (NT, hCG and PAPP-A)
      from 14 to 20 weeks
      the triple test (hCG, AFP and uE3)
      the quadruple test (hCG, AFP, uE3, inhibin A) [B]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Screening for infections
      Asymptomatic bacteriuria
      Pregnant women should be offered routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria by midstream urine culture early in pregnancy. Identification and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuriareduces the risk of preterm birth [A]
      Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis
      Pregnant women should not be offered routine screening for bacterial vaginosis because the evidence suggests that the identification and treatment of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosisdoes not lower the risk for preterm birth and other adverse reproductive outcomes.[A]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Screening for infections
      Cytomegalovirus
      The available evidence does not support routine cytomegalovirus screening in pregnant women and it should not be offered. [B]
      Hepatitis B virus
      Serological screening for hepatitis B virus should be offered to pregnant women so that effective postnatal intervention can be offered to infected women to decrease the risk of mother-to-child-transmission [A]
      Hepatitis C virus
      Pregnant women should not be offered routine screening for hepatitis C virus because there is insufficient evidence to support its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.[C]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Screening for infections
      HIV
      Pregnant women should be offered screening for HIV infection early in antenatal care because appropriate antenatal interventions can reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. [A]
      Rubella
      Rubella susceptibility screening should be offered early in antenatal care to identify women at risk of contracting rubella infection and to enable vaccination in the postnatal period for the protection of future pregnancies. [B]
      Streptococcus Group B
      Pregnant women should not be offered routine antenatal screening for group B streptococcu because evidence of its clinical and cost-effectiveness remains uncertain. [C]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Screening for infections
      Streptococcus Group B
      CDC ,ACOG,SOGC recommend that all women be offered GBS screening by vaginorectal culture at 35 to 37 weeks' gestation and that colonized women be treated with intravenous antibiotics (e.g., high-dosage penicillin or clindamycin [Cleocin]) at the time of labor or rupture of membranes.
      GBS bacteriuriaindicates heavy maternal colonization (just ttt no need for further sceening)
      Other organizations have made different recommendations, including recommending against GBS screening and recommending universal screening with selective treatment of colonized women who also have clinical risk factors (less than 37 weeks' gestation, prolonged rupture of membranes (more than 18 hours), and maternal fever)
      Schrag S, atal Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease. Revised guidelines from CDC. MMWR Recomm Rep 2002;(RR-11)51:1-22.
      Prevention of group B streptococcal infection in newborns: recommendation statement from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. CMAJ 2002;166:928-30.
      American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG committee opinion: number 279, December 2002. Prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal disease in newborns. ObstetGynecol 2002;100:1405-12.
      Money DM, Dobson S. The prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. J ObstetGynaecol Can 2004;26:826-40.
    • Screening for infections
      Syphilis
      Screening for syphilis should be offered to all pregnant women at an early stage in antenatal care because treatment of syphilis is beneficial to the mother and baby. [B]
      Toxoplasmosis
      Routine antenatal serological screening for toxoplasmosis should not be offered because the risks of screening may outweigh the potential benefits. [B]
      Pregnant women should be informed of primary prevention measures to avoid toxoplasmosis infection [C]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Screening for infections
      Influenza
      Influenza vaccination generally is recommended in women who will be in the second or third trimester of pregnancy during flu season.(1,2)
      Pregnant women with medical conditions that increase their risk of complications from influenza should be immunized regardless of gestational age. There is no evidence that vaccination in the first trimester of pregnancy is unsafe.(3)
      1 Ressel GW. ACIP releases 2003 guidelines on the prevention and control of influenza. Am Fam Physician 2003;68:1426, 1429-30, 1433.
      2 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG committee opinion. Immunization during pregnancy. ObstetGynecol 2003;101:207-12.
      3 Goldman RD, Koren G. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Can Fam Physician 2002;48:1768-9.
    • Screening for gestational diabetes
      The ACOG and the ADA recommend that all pregnant women be screened for gestational diabetes at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation, except women who are at low risk (e.g., younger than 25 years, belonging to a low-risk ethnic group, normal prepregnancy weight, no history of abnormal glucose metabolism, poor obstetric outcomes, or first-degree relatives with diabetes)
      RCOG The evidence does not support routine screening for gestational diabetes mellitus and therefore it should not be offered
      1- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics. ACOG practice bulletin. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. Number 30, September 2001. Gestational diabetes. ObstetGynecol 2001;98:525-38.
      2- American Diabetes Association. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003;26(suppl 1):S103-5.
    • Screening for gestational diabetes
      Screening protocols alsodiffer:
      a two-step protocol (i.e., one-hour, 50-g glucose-challenge test followed by a diagnostic three-hour, 100-g glucose-tolerance test) is the main method used in North America
      a two-hour, 75-g glucose-tolerance test is offered in Europe.
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Fetal growth and wellbeing
      Determining fetal growth
      Symphysis–fundalheight should be measured and recorded at each antenatal appointment from 24 weeks [A].
      Ultrasound estimation of fetal size for suspected large-for-gestational-age unborn babies should not be undertaken in a low-risk population.
      Routine Doppler ultrasound should not be used in low-risk pregnancies. [A]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Fetal growth and wellbeing
      Routine monitoring of fetal movements
      Routine formal fetal-movement counting should not be offered. [A]
      Auscultation of fetal heart
      Auscultation of the fetal heart may confirm that the fetus is alive but is unlikely to have any
      predictive value and routine listening is therefore not recommended. However, when requested
      by the mother, auscultation of the fetal heart may provide reassurance. [D]
      Ultrasound assessment in the third trimester
      The evidence does not support the routine use of ultrasound scanning after 24 weeks of
      gestation and therefore it should not be offered. [A]
      Cardiotocography CTG
      The evidence does not support the routine use of antenatal electronic fetal heart rate monitoring
      (cardiotocography) for fetal assessment in women with an uncomplicated pregnancy and
      therefore it should not be offered. [A]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Fetal growth and wellbeing
      Determining fetal growth
      Symphysis–fundal height should be measured and recorded at each antenatal appointment from 24 weeks.
      Ultrasound estimation of fetal size for suspected large-for-gestational-age unborn babies should not be undertaken in a low-risk population.
      Routine Doppler ultrasound should not be used in low-risk pregnancies. [A]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Screening for clinical conditions
      Preterm birth
      Routine vaginal examination to assess the cervix is not an effective method of predicting preterm birth and should not be offered.[A]
      Although cervical shortening identified by transvaginal ultrasound examination and increased levels of fetal fibronectin are associated with an increased risk for preterm birth, the evidence does not indicate that this information improves outcomes; therefore, they should not be used to predict preterm birth in healthy pregnant women. [B]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Screening for clinical conditions
      Placenta praevia
      Because most low-lying placentas detected at a 20-week anomaly scan will resolve by the time the baby is born, only a woman whose placenta extends over the internal cervical os should be offered another transabdominal scan at 36 weeks. If the transabdominal scan is unclear, a transvaginal scan should be offered.[C]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Screening for clinical conditions
      Placenta praevia
      Because most low-lying placentas detected at a 20-week anomaly scan will resolve by the time the baby is born, only a woman whose placenta extends over the internal cervical os should be offered another transabdominal scan at 36 weeks. If the transabdominal scan is unclear, a transvaginal scan should be offered.[C]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Screening for clinical conditions
      Placenta praevia
      Because most low-lying placentas detected at a 20-week anomaly scan will resolve by the time the baby is born, only a woman whose placenta extends over the internal cervical os should be offered another transabdominal scan at 36 weeks. If the transabdominal scan is unclear, a transvaginal scan should be offered.[C]
      Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
    • Nutritional supplements
      Czeizel AE, Dudas I. Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1832-5.
      Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991;338:131-7
      McDonald SD, Ferguson S, Tam L, Lougheed J, Walker MC. The prevention of congenital anomalies with periconceptional folic acid supplementation. J ObstetGynaecol Can 2003;25:115-21.
    • Nutritional supplements
      2- Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
      1- Routine iron supplementation during pregnancy. Review article. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 1993;270:2848-54
      3- American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Guidelines for perinatal care. 5th ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics, and Washington, D.C.: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2002.
      4- Rothman KJ, Moore LL, Singer MR, Nguyen US, Mannino S, Milunsky A. Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1369-73.
    • Nutritional supplements
      1- American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Guidelines for perinatal care. 5th ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics, and Washington, D.C.: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2002.
      2- Bucher HC, Guyatt GH, Cook RJ, Hatala R, Cook DJ, Lang JD, et al. Effect of calcium supplementation on pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [published correction appears in JAMA 1996;276:1388]. JAMA 1996;275:1113-7.
      3- Published by the RCOG Press at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
      Atallah AN, Hofmeyr GJ, Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;(1):CD001059.
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