Arterial venous supply

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Arterial venous supply

  1. 1. ARTERIAL SUPPLY, VENOUS & LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE OF HEAD, NECK AND FACE<br />NetikaTharwani<br />MDS Part 2<br />
  2. 2. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM<br />Carries nutrients, oxygen, hormones, etc throughout body.<br />Blood circulates within a fast, high capacity system made up of heart, which is the central pump.<br />
  3. 3. ARTERIES: lead away from the heart, carry the blood to the peripheral parts of the body.<br />VEINS: return the blood to the heart.<br />
  4. 4. Heart can be thought of as a pair of muscular pumps,<br />1) feeding a minor loop (PULMONARY) – serves lungs and oxygenates the blood<br />2) feeding a major loop (SYSTEMIC) – serves the rest of the body<br />
  5. 5. Each system is a closed system of tubes, so that blood does not leave the circulation<br />
  6. 6. From the center to periphery, the vascular tree shows 3 modifications:<br />The arteries  in number by sending out bifurcations.<br />The arteries  in diameter .<br />Blood flow is faster near the heart than at the periphery.<br />
  7. 7. Functionally, 3 main vessels are described:<br />Resistance vessels ( arteries, mainly arterioles)<br />Exchange vessels ( capillaries, sinusoids)<br />Capacitance vessels (veins)<br />
  8. 8. RESISTANCE VESSELS<br />Mainly arterioles<br />Provide main source of peripheral resistance to blood flow<br />
  9. 9. EXCHANGE VESSELS<br />They allow exchange between blood and the interstitial fluid <br />
  10. 10. HISTOLOGY OF BLOOD VESSSELS<br />3 concentric layers ( tunicae)<br />Tunica intima - innermost layer<br />Tunica media – contains muscle tissue, elastic fibres, collagen. Thickest in arteries and ansent in capillaries, Thin in veins.<br />Tunica adventitia – outer coat of the vessel<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. AV ANASTOMOSES<br />Direct communications between smaller arteries and veins.<br />Notable in the skin of nose lips, ears, nasal mucosae, tongue, etc.<br />In newborn, there are few AV anastomoses but develop rapidly.<br />In old age, they atrophy, sclerose and diminish.<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF HEAD AND NECK<br />
  15. 15. AORTA<br />
  16. 16. AORTA<br />Ascending aorta begins at the base of left ventricle, continues as aortic arch.<br />
  17. 17. BRANCHES FROM THE ARCH<br />3 Branches arise from convex aspect of arch:<br />Brachiocephalic trunk<br />Left Common Carotid Artery<br />Left Subclavian Artery<br />
  18. 18. APPLIED <br />Coarctation of Aorta:<br />Congenital ondition<br />The ductusarterioses remains patent, but rarely compensates.<br />
  19. 19. CAROTID SINUS<br />At the point of division, the terminal part of CCA or beginning of ICA shows a localized dilatation.<br />The tunica media of the sinus is thinner, but adventitia is thicker.<br />Serves as a reflex pressure receptor.<br /> in BP causes slowing of heart and vasodilatation of arterioles<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. CAROTID BODY<br />Small structure that lies posterior to the point of bifurcation of CCA.<br />Glossopharyngeal n<br />Chemoreceptor : sensitive to  CO2 and  O2 in blood.<br />Hence, produces a rise in BP and HR.<br />
  22. 22. COMMON CAROTID ARTERY<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Right CCA has only a cervical part while left CCA has cervical and thoracic parts.<br />CCA ascends diverging laterally, where it divides to form EXTERNAL & INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERIES.<br />At the level of upper border of thyroid cartilage. (C3, C4 junction)<br />
  25. 25. RELATIONS<br />POSTERIORLY:<br />Transverse processes of the lower four cervical vertebrae<br />Prevertebral muscles<br />ANTEROLATERALLY:<br />Skin<br />Fascia<br />Sternocleidomastoid<br />Sternohyoid<br />Sternothyroid<br />Superior belly of omohyoid<br />
  26. 26. RELATIONS<br /><ul><li>LATERALLY:
  27. 27. Internal jugular vein
  28. 28. Vagus nerve (posterolaterally)</li></ul>MEDIALLY:<br />Larynx<br />Pharynx<br />Trachea <br />Oesophagus<br />Lobe of thyroid gland<br />
  29. 29. APPLIED<br />The bifurcation of the CCA into the ICA and ECA at the ant border of SCM at the superior border of thyroid cartilage.<br />Carotid pulse<br />
  30. 30. EXTERNAL CAROTID A<br />Supplies face, neck and scalp<br />Origin: at the upper border of thyroid cartilage and terminates in parotid gland by dividing into terminal branches superficial temporal and maxillary arteries.<br />
  31. 31. RELATIONS<br />ANTEROLATERALLY:<br />SCM<br />Hypoglossal nerve<br />Stylohyoid muscle<br />Facial nerve ( parotid)<br />IJV<br />MEDIALLY:<br />Wall of pharynx<br />ICA<br />Glossopharyngeal n<br />
  32. 32. BRANCHES<br />Anterior : Superior thyroid Lingual<br />Facial <br />Posterior: Occipital<br />Posterior auricular<br />Medial: Ascending pharyngeal<br />Terminal: Maxillary<br />Superficial temporal <br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35. SUPERIOR THYROID ARTERY<br />Arises at the level of the greater cornu of hyoid bone.<br />Supplies thyroid gland and some adjacent skin<br />Branches <br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. LINGUAL ARTERY<br />Arises anteromedially from ECA opposite to the tip of the greater cornu of hyoid bone.<br />Short course lies deep to hyoglossus muscle, finally leaves the muscle in the tongue to anastomose with the fellow of opposite side.<br />Supplies the floor of the mouth and tongue<br />
  38. 38. BRANCHES<br />IN THE FLOOR OF MOUTH:<br /> dorsal Lingual arteries<br /> Sublingual<br /> Deep lingual artery<br />SUPRAHYOID ARTERY: runs along the upper border of hyoid bone<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. FACIAL ARTERY<br />Origin– branch of external carotid artery just above the tip of greater cornu of hyoid bone.<br />Course – runs upwards in neck, then on face; tortuous in both places<br />Two parts-<br />Cervical part<br />Facial part <br />
  41. 41. <ul><li>Cervical branches
  42. 42. Ascending palatine artery
  43. 43. Tonsillar artery
  44. 44. Glandular branches
  45. 45. Submental</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Facial branches
  46. 46. Inferior labial artery
  47. 47. Superior labial artery
  48. 48. Lateral nasal artery</li></li></ul><li>
  49. 49. OCCIPITAL ARTERY<br /><ul><li>Origin – posteriorly from the external carotid, 2 cm from its origin
  50. 50. Course – Runs backwards and upwards deep to lower border of posterior belly of digastric and ends posteriorly in scalp</li></li></ul><li>SUPPLIES the occipital belly of occipitofrontalis and skin and pericranium associated with the scalp<br />
  51. 51. POSTERIOR AURICULAR<br /><ul><li>Origin- arises from the posterior part of ECA just above the posterior belly of digastric in the retromandibular fossa above stylohyoid muscle
  52. 52. Course – follows upper border of stylohyoid muscle, anterior border of styloid process reaches groove between cartilage of outer ear and mastoid process.
  53. 53. Distributes branches partly to ear and scalp. </li></li></ul><li>
  54. 54. ASCENDING PHARYNGEAL ARTERY<br />Smallest branch<br />Medially arises from the ECA<br />
  55. 55.
  56. 56. MAXILLARY ARTERY<br />Varied region of blood supply:<br />External and middle ear, auditory tube<br />Dura mater<br />Upper and lower jaws<br />Muscles of temporal and infratemporal regions<br />Nose and paranasal air sinuses<br />Palate<br />Root of pharynx<br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58. 3 parts:<br />Mandibular part<br />Pterygoid part<br />Pterygopalatine part<br />
  59. 59. Mandibular part<br />Deep auricular<br />Anterior tympanic<br />Middle meningeal<br />Accessory meningeal<br />Inferior alveolar <br />
  60. 60.
  61. 61. Pterygoid part<br />Supplies the muscles of mastication<br />Deep temporal<br />Pterygoid<br />Masster<br />Buccal<br />
  62. 62.
  63. 63.
  64. 64. Pterygopalatine part<br />Posterior Superior Alveolar<br />Infraorbital<br />Greater palatine<br />Pharyngeal<br />Artery of pterygoid canal<br />Sphenopalatine artery<br />
  65. 65.
  66. 66. LITTLE’S AREA<br />
  67. 67. <ul><li>Antero-inferior part of nasal septum
  68. 68. Form plexus of Kiesselbach.</li></li></ul><li>
  69. 69. SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY<br />Arises in the parotid gland behind the neck of the mandible<br />
  70. 70. Transverse Facial<br />Auricular artery<br />Zygomatico- orbital artery<br />Middle temporal<br />Frontal<br />Parital<br />
  71. 71.
  72. 72. INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY<br />Divided into-<br />Cervical <br />Petrous<br />Cavernous <br />Cerebral <br />
  73. 73. CERVICAL part: has no branches<br />
  74. 74.
  75. 75. PETROUS PART<br />Caroticotympanic branch or artery:-<br /> anastomosis with <br /> anterior tympanic artery<br />Pterygoid artery :-anastomosis with branch of greater palatine<br />
  76. 76. CAVERNOUS PART<br />Within the cavernous sinus<br />Branches:<br />Cavernous branches to the trigeminal ganglion<br />The superior and inferior hypophysealbranches to hypophysiscerebri.<br />
  77. 77.
  78. 78. CEREBRAL PART<br />Lies at the base of brainafter emerging from cavernous sinus<br />Branches:<br />Ophthalmic<br />Anterior cerebral<br />Middle cerebral<br />Posterior communicating<br />Anterior choroidal<br />
  79. 79. Enters through the optic canal<br />dividing into supratrochlear and dorsal nasal branches <br />
  80. 80.
  81. 81. <ul><li>Circulusarteriosus – polygonal</li></ul> Lies at base of brain<br /> Br. Of ICA<br /> Vertebral Arteries<br />
  82. 82. THANK YOU<br />
  83. 83. ARTERIAL SUPPLY, VENOUS & LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE OF HEAD, NECK AND FACE<br />NetikaTharwani<br />MDS Part 2<br />
  84. 84. VENOUS DRAINAGE OF SCALP<br />SUPRATROCHLEAR and SUPRAORBITAL veins unite to form ANGULAR vein continues down as FACIAL vein.<br />
  85. 85. The SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL VEIN joins the MANDIBULAR VEIN to form the RETROMANDIBULAR vein unites with FACIAL vein to form COMMON FACIAL vein which drains into IJV.<br />
  86. 86. The POST AURICULAR vein and POST DIVISION OF RETROMANDIBULAR vein to form EXT JUGULAR vein and drains into SUBCLAVIAN.<br />

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