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Open Access & Author’s Rights
What Can the author do with his work?
-Publish on website
- Publish/distribute work in print or other
-Use or be used by other authors for research.
-Submit to Journals.
-Prepare Translations or Derivative Works.
-Perform or display the work publicly.
- Authorize others to have any of these rights
in light of the granted/revoked ability to
“Digital, online, free of charge, and free of most
copyright and licensing restrictions”
Open access (OA) – “The
practice of providing unrestricted
access via the Internet to peerreviewed scholarly journal articles
and other scholarly works. “
University of Illinois Springfield
Open & Free to Access
Open to …
Contribution and Participation
Use & Reuse with Few or No Restrictions
Indexing and Machine Readable
“Information wants to be free!”
Unsustainable pricing model of scholarly journals
Beliefs of the Academy – It’s
the Right thing
“Open access truly expands shared knowledge across
scientific fields — it is the best path for accelerating multidisciplinary breakthroughs in research." — Open Letter to
the US Congress signed by Nobel Prize winners
Requirements of Funding Agencies
The NIH(National Institutes of Health) Public Access
Policy implements Division G, Title II, Section 218 of PL
110-161 (Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008). The law
“The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require
that all investigators funded by the NIH submit or have
submitted for them to the National Library of Medicine’s
PubMed Central an electronic version of their final, peerreviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be
made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official
date of publication: Provided, That the NIH shall implement the
public access policy in a manner consistent with copyright law.”
NIH Public Access Policy @ http://publicaccess.nih.gov
NIH Rules - In Brief
NIH-funded research must be made freely
available to the public
Deposit made publicly available no later
than 12(twelve) months after the official
date of publication
Authors submit an e-copy of their
published articles to NIH PubMed Central
Deutsche Bank: ““We believe the publisher
adds relatively little value to the publishing
process. … if the process really were as
complex, costly and value-added as the
publishers protest that it is, 40% margins
wouldn’t be available.”
Advantages Of Open Access
Early advantage – you can publish earlier in the research cycle
Arxiv advantage – a central repository (or common data
standard) provide one main place for all publications.
Quality Bias - a self-selecting bias in that higher-quality articles
are more likely to be self-archived in the early days but this effect
would disappear as self-archiving approaches 100%.
Quality advantage - articles are judged on quality and not access
Competitive advantage - self-archived papers have a competitive
advantage over non-self-archived ones, in early days, although
this effect would also reduce as the practice increases.
Usage advantage – OA articles are read more widely than nonOA ones.
( Steven Harnad 2005)
Open access is built upon authors retaining all
or part of their initial rights under copyright
Creative Commons is an easy way to transfer
rights – they allow creators to communicate
which rights they reserve, and which rights
they waive for the benefit of recipients or other
Scholarly journals that are available online to the
reader "without financial, legal, or technical
barriers other than those inseparable from gaining
access to the internet itself.“
Suber, Peter. "Open Access Overview".
Types of Open Access
“Green” Open Access
Authors publish in any journal and then self-archive
a version of the article for free public use in their
institutional repository, in a central repository (such
as PubMed Central), or on some other OA website.
“Gold” Open Access
Authors publish in an open access journal that
provides immediate OA to all of its articles on the
Hybrid Open Access
Provide Gold OA only for those individual articles
for which their authors (or their author's institution or
funder) pay an OA publishing fee.
Swan, A. (2010) The Open Access citation
advantage: Studies and results to date.
- 27 of 31 show open access having a positive citation
- Where positive advantage - increase in citations
varying from -5 to 600%
Article-processing charge (APC)
Editorial: handling of manuscripts
Technical: development, maintenance and operation of online
Production: Formatting and markup of articles, inclusion in
Marketing: Making sure readers and authors know about the
Customer service: Responding to authors/readers
Web technology is used to keep costs low.
Authors may pay out of grant funds
Some funders provide a central fund for open
access publishing costs
Institutions may cover costs centrally, on behalf
of their authors, via BioMed Central
Some titles cover costs themselves
Open Access publishing overview Martin Weller
Open Access & Author’s Rights - What every faculty or
H. Stephen McMinn, Director of Collections and Scholarly
Brookens Library( University of Illinois Springfield)
The international open access Carrie Calder
Head of Marketing, BioMed Central