Struggling to SurviveCh. 9 How did the growth of Canada affect the Aboriginals peoples?
Troubles in Saskatchewan All the people living in the District Saskatchewan had grievances with the Government.
MacDonald’s National Policy was not working as hoped
Settlers Policies led to high cost for supplies and shipping This led to low prices for produce making it hard to make a profit Because there was no representation no one could speak for them
The Metis Many left Red River for Saskatchewan with promise of land
The situation became similar to Red River – empty promises with no land claims
First Nations After signing Treaties with the Government, they expect help because of the declining Buffalo herds
The government was slow to act and many faced starvation
Riel Returns In 1884, Riel fulfills his term for amnesty and returns to help the Metis of Saskatchewan He helps put together a Petition for Ottawa
Key Points Ottawa to honor treaties Need to change economic policies Protection of Land Need to make Saskatchewan a province
Taking Action By March 1885, nothing had been done So Riel did what he did in Red River – he formed a Provisional Government Would it work this time?
One Hundred Days & One Hundred Years When Riel decided to fight he lost the support of the English-speaking Metis
The North West Mounted Police They were later known as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police They were posted throughout the district at various outposts
The Militia After news was heard about Riel Col. Middleton formed a militia to stop the rebellion
Punishment for the Rebels After a few encounters the rebellion was subdued (p. 166) Many of the leaders were tried and convicted of treason. Most served 2-3 years
The Trial of Louis Riel His trial took place in Regina from July 29 to August 1 1885 He defended himself but was convicted of treason
MacDonald’s Decision He had a difficult decision because the country was divided and it would affect him politically He finally sided with the conviction and Riel was hanged
First Nations in the Martimes Just like their counterparts in the west, native peoples were suffering in the east.
A Policy of Assimilation The government was hoping the first nations would become part of the forming Canadian culture
Dept. of Indian Affairs Act It main goal was to make the native people more Canadian But this often meant abandoning their own culture
Their were three key points to the Act: Set up Band governments Control their economies Take charge of their education
Band Governments This ultimately changed their existing organization It was meant to prevent them from organizing against the Canadian Government
Economic Control Agents were sent into each band to determine who could trade, who could hunt/fish and who could farm on the reserves
Educating the Children Residential Schools were set up to educate the children in non-native ways They were often forced to attend
Did the Policy of Assimilation Work? Although the first nations people suffered (and continue to do so) they were never truly assimilated
Aboriginal Peoples of Newfoundland and Labrador These people were not affected by Canadian Policies as they were not apart of Canada But they did have challenges adapting to the new society emerging around them
Innu Some of these people were somewhat affect by the Indian Act because they lived in Northern Quebec In NF, they were not greatly affect during this period
Inuit By the 1880’s, they were affected by the constant migration of European settlers to the coast of Labrador This was gradual and reflected a more natural assimiluation
Mi’kmaq These people became naturally assimilated into the emerging Newfoundland culture They did not suffer from sickness and disease like other native peoples throughout Canada