Many voices ss chapter 8


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Many voices ss chapter 8

  1. 1. Unit 4:Many Voices<br />Cultural Empowerment<br />
  2. 2. Ch. 8: A Growing Nation<br />How did the growth of Canada during the 1870’s and 1880’s affect the people in the various region?<br />
  3. 3. Political Expansion<br /><ul><li>Expansion across the continent included land purchases, treaties and negotiating.</li></li></ul><li>North-West Territories<br />In 1869, the government bought Rupert’s land and the North-west Territories.<br />This included the future provinces like Manitoba<br />They were both governed by Ottawa<br />
  4. 4. British Columbia<br />By 1868 the gold rush was over, but the colony needed to provide expensive services like roads<br />They chose to join Canada over the United States because of the future railroad<br />
  5. 5. P.E.I.<br />This colony was also indebt because they were building their own railway.<br />Canada paid their debts and offered a steamship service to the mainland.<br />
  6. 6. Treaties with First Nations<br />In order to settle the west and begin a transcontinental railway, MacDonald had to make deals with the Native peoples living there<br />
  7. 7. This became known as the Numbered Treaties<br />There were 11 in total. The main terms included the following:<br />
  8. 8. <ul><li>Lands would be kept for Reserves
  9. 9. All Native groups would receive money each as support
  10. 10. Settlers would be allowed to live peacefully on the traditional lands</li></li></ul><li>Red River Settlement<br />This is the creation of what is now Manitoba. <br />It includes the Metisand a Rebellion.<br />
  11. 11. It started along the banks of the Assiniboine and Red Rivers in the late 1700’s.<br />By 1869 the population was approximately 12 000 and the majority was Metis.<br />
  12. 12. Metis(see pp. 148/9)<br />they were a mixed people descended from French, British and First Nations.<br />They belong in neither group, so they slowly created their own identity.<br />
  13. 13. Most spoke at least three languages (French, English and Michif).<br />Michif was a combination of French and Nehinawe (Cree).<br />Most Metis were of Christian Faith<br />
  14. 14. There main source of food was the Buffalo<br />The hunt include 100 000 men and followed strict rules.<br />Farming was another source of food and income<br />
  15. 15. Events at Red River *<br />The Metis worried over what would happen to them because of the purchase of the North-west Territories.<br />They feared for their lands.<br />
  16. 16. Red River Settlement<br />Surveyors Arrive<br />In the summer of 1869 the surveyors arrived and started marking off land which included Metis farms.<br />This upset the Metis and Louis Riel confronted them<br />
  17. 17. Red River Settlement<br />National committee of the Metis<br />After the surveyors left, they united to decide how to protect their lands.<br />The Montreal educated Riel was an important figure<br />
  18. 18. Red River Settlement<br />Forming a Provisional Government<br />After driving back the Lt.-Governor of NWT, the Metis took control of Fort Garry<br />They believed they owned the land and should be negotiated with like other colonies joining Canada<br />
  19. 19. Red River Settlement<br />Negotiating<br />A Bill of Rights was drafted and sent to Ottawa,<br />This included issues on education and rights to land.<br />
  20. 20. Red River Settlement<br />Trouble at Fort Garry<br />Some non-Metis settlers disagreed with the Metis and were jailed.<br />After planned escapes and threats Thomas Scott was executed. <br />
  21. 21. Red River Settlement<br />Trouble in Ottawa<br />This led to disagreements in Ottawa<br />French-speaking Canadians saw him as a hero, while the English thought he was a murderer.<br />MacDonald avoided the issue.<br />
  22. 22. Red River Settlement<br />The Province of Manitoba<br />MacDonald finally worked out an agreement with the Metis. <br />This became the Manitoba Act and the creation of a new province of Canada.<br />
  23. 23. Red River Settlement<br />Riel Leaves<br />Over the next five years Riel is threatened, elected to Parliament and exiled for 5 years. (see p. 153)<br />After his term of 5 years was over he would be given amnesty.<br />
  24. 24. A Plan for the Country<br />In late 1873 MacDonald resigns because of a conflict of interest accusation. <br />Alexander Mackenzie leads the government for 5 years. <br />MacDonald is re-elected based on his Plan for the Country. <br />
  25. 25. A Plan for the Country<br />National Policy<br />This is a set of main ideas a government uses when it makes decisions or makes policy and law.<br />MacDonald believed the National Policy should be focused on the Economy<br />
  26. 26. A Plan for the Country<br />National Policy (cont.)<br />This included manufacturing its own products from its own resources<br />The second point was encouraging immigration <br /> The third point was building a national railway to move both product and people across Canada.<br />
  27. 27. A Plan for the Country<br />Encouraging Immigration<br />This was inspired through homesteading<br />Homesteading allowed new immigrants move to areas never farmed before.<br />They were sold 64.7 hectares for $10<br />
  28. 28. A Plan for the Country<br />Canadian Pacific Railway<br />It began in 1880, eight years after it was promised to British Columbia and the rest of the colonies who joined Confederation.<br />
  29. 29. A Plan for the Country<br />A Difficult Job<br />Building the railway across the prairies was the easiest part because it was flat<br />Greater challenges were faced along the north shores of the Great Lakes<br />
  30. 30. A Plan for the Country<br />The greatest challenge was the steep Rocky Mountains.<br />Upon its completion in 1885 it was the longest railway in the world<br />But, this came a great cost in money and lives. <br />
  31. 31. A Plan for the Country<br />Chinese Railway Workers<br />The contractors had trouble find people willing to do the very dangerous jobs.<br />Plus the cost of labour was increasing<br />Both of these problems were solved with Chinese Immigrants<br />
  32. 32. A Plan for the Country<br />Between 1881 and 1884 approx. 17 000 Chinese men immigrated to Canada<br />Conditions were horrible<br />Little food, shelter and wages added with the dangerous jobs dealing with explosives<br />
  33. 33. Effects of the National Policy<br />This policy worked well for Central Canada.<br />But, East and West were disappointed with the results<br />
  34. 34. Effects of the National Policy<br />Problems in the West<br />Cost of shipping raw materials were very high making it hard to make a profit<br />With no manufacturing industry they depended on Central industries.<br />This lead to high prices for manufactured goods<br />
  35. 35. Effects of the National Policy<br />Problems and the East<br />High import taxes slowed down International trade<br />High prices for manufactured goods did not match the return on raw materials shipped to Central Canada<br />
  36. 36. Effects of the National Policy<br />The Government’s Response<br />Nothing was done satisfy the complaints of West and East<br />This would become a wedge within Canadian Politics for the next 130 years<br />