Appendix 1Applying Graphs to   Economics • Key Concepts • Summary • Practice Quiz •Internet Exercises   ©1999 South-Wester...
What is a   Direct Relationship between two variables?         When one increases,          the other increases          a...
What is the     Slope of a line?The ratio of change in the variable on the vertical axis (the rise or fall) to change in t...
Slope = rise/run =∆vertical axis/∆horizontal axis           = ∆Y/∆X                      4
Expenditure for Personal Computer   at Different Annual Incomes     Personal        Annual    Expenditure      Income     ...
Y                    D4               C3         B           Y=12    A         X=101                           X    10   2...
What is an InverseRelationship between   two variables?  When one increases,   the other decreases   and vice versa       ...
Quantity of Compact Discs Consumers   Purchased at Different Prices        Price per     Quantity of      compact disc   c...
Y     A          Negative Sloping Curve2015           B     Y=5             C10              X=25        D5               ...
What is an Independent Relationship between    two variables?When one variable changes, the other variable remains unchang...
Expenditure for Toothpasteat Different Annual Incomes   Personal      Annual  Expenditure    Income    $10         $10,000...
Y403020    A    B    C   D            X=1010           Y=0                        X     10   20   30 40                   12
Can Slope vary    along a curve?Yes, the slope of a curve can vary along the curve                    13
Y43          A2                Y=21          X=30          X    10   20   30   40                   14
Y2015      Y=     A10   -105            X=50          X       25   50     75   100                        15
How can I tell the difference between amovement along a curveand a shift in the curve? When price changes, there  is movem...
What can change    other than price?When income increases, for example, the whole demand curve shifts upward              ...
Y20            Annual Income              $60,0001510     Annual Income5    $30,000                          X      25   5...
Positive Sloping CurveY20                       D1510   C5                               X         5    10    15    20    ...
Key Concepts  ©1999 South-Western College Publishing                                           20
•   What is a Direct Relationship between two varia•   What is the Slope of a line?•   What is an Inverse Relationship bet...
Summary©1999 South-Western College Publishing                                         22
Graphs provide a means to clearlyshow economic relationships in two-dimensional space. Economic analysisis often concerned...
Y   A direct relationship                      D4                C3         B            Y=12    A          X=101         ...
Y     A          An inverse relationship2015           B     Y=5             C10              X=25        D5              ...
Y    An independent relationship403020       A     B     C     D                X=1010               Y=0                  ...
Y    Positive slope of an    upward-sloping curve43           A2                 Y=21           X=30             X    10  ...
Y       Negative slope of an      downward-sloping curve2015      Y=      A10   -105            X=50               X      ...
A shift in a curve occurs onlywhen the ceteris paribusassumption is relaxed and a thirdvariable not on either axis of theg...
Appendix Quiz  ©1999 South-Western College Publishing                                           30
1. Straight line CD in Exhibit A-7 on the next  page shows that   a. increasing the value of X will increase the     value...
Y             EXHIBIT A-72015                      D10   C 5                            X         5   10   15   20        ...
2. In Exhibit A-7, the slope of straight  line CD is   a. 3.   b. 1.   c. -1.   d. 1/2.D. The slope of a line is measured ...
3. In Exhibit A-7, the slope of straight line  CD is   a. positive.   b. zero.   c. negative.   d. variable.A. When both X...
4. Straight line AB in Exhibit A-8 shows that   a. increasing the value of X reduces the     value of Y.   b. decreasing t...
Y20 A        EXHIBIT A-81510 5                   B                          X       5   10   15   20                     36
5. As shown in Exhibit A-8, the slope of  straight line AB   a. decreases with increases in X.   b. increases with increas...
6. In Exhibit A-8, the slope of straight  line AB is   a. 3.   b. 1.   c. -1.   d. -5.C. There is a one to one inverse rat...
7. A shift is a curve represents a change in   a. the variable on the horizontal axis.   b. the variable on the vertical a...
8. A change in a third variable not on  either axis of a graph is illustrated  with a   a. horizontal or vertical line.   ...
Internet ExercisesClick on the picture of the book, choose updates by chapter for the latest internet exercises         ©1...
END
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01a applying graphs to economics

  1. 1. Appendix 1Applying Graphs to Economics • Key Concepts • Summary • Practice Quiz •Internet Exercises ©1999 South-Western College Publishing
  2. 2. What is a Direct Relationship between two variables? When one increases, the other increases and vice versa* Return to previous slide while in slide show 2
  3. 3. What is the Slope of a line?The ratio of change in the variable on the vertical axis (the rise or fall) to change in the variable on the horizontal axis (the run). 3
  4. 4. Slope = rise/run =∆vertical axis/∆horizontal axis = ∆Y/∆X 4
  5. 5. Expenditure for Personal Computer at Different Annual Incomes Personal Annual Expenditure Income $1,000 $10,000 $2,000 $20,000 $3,000 $30,000 $4,000 $40,000 5
  6. 6. Y D4 C3 B Y=12 A X=101 X 10 20 30 40 6
  7. 7. What is an InverseRelationship between two variables? When one increases, the other decreases and vice versa 7
  8. 8. Quantity of Compact Discs Consumers Purchased at Different Prices Price per Quantity of compact disc compact discs $20 25,000,000 $15 50,000,000 $10 75,000,000 $5 100,000,000 8
  9. 9. Y A Negative Sloping Curve2015 B Y=5 C10 X=25 D5 X 25 50 75 100 9
  10. 10. What is an Independent Relationship between two variables?When one variable changes, the other variable remains unchanged 10
  11. 11. Expenditure for Toothpasteat Different Annual Incomes Personal Annual Expenditure Income $10 $10,000 $20 $20,000 $30 $30,000 $40 $40,000 11
  12. 12. Y403020 A B C D X=1010 Y=0 X 10 20 30 40 12
  13. 13. Can Slope vary along a curve?Yes, the slope of a curve can vary along the curve 13
  14. 14. Y43 A2 Y=21 X=30 X 10 20 30 40 14
  15. 15. Y2015 Y= A10 -105 X=50 X 25 50 75 100 15
  16. 16. How can I tell the difference between amovement along a curveand a shift in the curve? When price changes, there is movement along a curve. When something other than price changes, the whole curve shifts. 16
  17. 17. What can change other than price?When income increases, for example, the whole demand curve shifts upward 17
  18. 18. Y20 Annual Income $60,0001510 Annual Income5 $30,000 X 25 50 75 100 18
  19. 19. Positive Sloping CurveY20 D1510 C5 X 5 10 15 20 19
  20. 20. Key Concepts ©1999 South-Western College Publishing 20
  21. 21. • What is a Direct Relationship between two varia• What is the Slope of a line?• What is an Inverse Relationship between two va• What is an Independent Relationship between tw• Can Slope vary along a curve?• What can change other than price? 21
  22. 22. Summary©1999 South-Western College Publishing 22
  23. 23. Graphs provide a means to clearlyshow economic relationships in two-dimensional space. Economic analysisis often concerned with two variablesconfined to the upper right-hand(northeast) quadrant of the coordinatenumber system. 23
  24. 24. Y A direct relationship D4 C3 B Y=12 A X=101 X 10 20 30 40 24
  25. 25. Y A An inverse relationship2015 B Y=5 C10 X=25 D5 X 25 50 75 100 25
  26. 26. Y An independent relationship403020 A B C D X=1010 Y=0 X 10 20 30 40 26
  27. 27. Y Positive slope of an upward-sloping curve43 A2 Y=21 X=30 X 10 20 30 40 27
  28. 28. Y Negative slope of an downward-sloping curve2015 Y= A10 -105 X=50 X 25 50 75 100 28
  29. 29. A shift in a curve occurs onlywhen the ceteris paribusassumption is relaxed and a thirdvariable not on either axis of thegraph is allowed to change 29
  30. 30. Appendix Quiz ©1999 South-Western College Publishing 30
  31. 31. 1. Straight line CD in Exhibit A-7 on the next page shows that a. increasing the value of X will increase the value of Y. b. decreasing the value of X will decrease the value of Y. c. there is a direct relationship between X and Y. d. all of the above. D. As the value of X increases, the value of Y increases, and vice versa; this is called a direct relationship. ©1999 South-Western College Publishing 31
  32. 32. Y EXHIBIT A-72015 D10 C 5 X 5 10 15 20 32
  33. 33. 2. In Exhibit A-7, the slope of straight line CD is a. 3. b. 1. c. -1. d. 1/2.D. The slope of a line is measured by the rise over the run, or a change in vertical divided by a change in the horizontal. For example, as Y increases from 5 units to 15, X increases from 0 to 20. The slope is 10 divided by 20. 33
  34. 34. 3. In Exhibit A-7, the slope of straight line CD is a. positive. b. zero. c. negative. d. variable.A. When both X and Y move in the same direction, it is said that they are directly related to one another. 34
  35. 35. 4. Straight line AB in Exhibit A-8 shows that a. increasing the value of X reduces the value of Y. b. decreasing the value of X increases the value of Y. c. there is an inverse relationship between X and Y. d. all of the above. D. When the value of X decreases, the value of Y increases and vice versa; this shows a direct relationship between X and Y. 35
  36. 36. Y20 A EXHIBIT A-81510 5 B X 5 10 15 20 36
  37. 37. 5. As shown in Exhibit A-8, the slope of straight line AB a. decreases with increases in X. b. increases with increases in X. c. increases with decreases in X. d. remains constant with changes in X.D. The slope of a straight line stays the same between the two points on the line. 37
  38. 38. 6. In Exhibit A-8, the slope of straight line AB is a. 3. b. 1. c. -1. d. -5.C. There is a one to one inverse ratio between a change in X and a change in Y. For example, as Y decreases from 20 units to 0, X increases from 0 to 20. The slope is -20 divided by 20. 38
  39. 39. 7. A shift is a curve represents a change in a. the variable on the horizontal axis. b. the variable on the vertical axis. c. a third variable that is not on either axis. d. any variable that is relevant to the relationship being graphed. C. A shift occurs when something changes other than the price. 39
  40. 40. 8. A change in a third variable not on either axis of a graph is illustrated with a a. horizontal or vertical line. b. movement along a curve. c. shift of a curve. d. point of intersection.C. When price changes the movement is always along a stationary curve. When something changes other than price, the whole curve shifts. 40
  41. 41. Internet ExercisesClick on the picture of the book, choose updates by chapter for the latest internet exercises ©1999 South-Western College Publishing 41
  42. 42. END

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