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B. F. Skinner's Operant Conditioning

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  • 1. B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning by Malyn C. Singson
  • 2. T o p i c s - Definition of Behaviorism - Definition of Learning - Three (3) major types of Learning - Definition of Operant Conditioning - Behaviorism Theory - B. F. Skinner - E. Thorndike “The Law of Effect Principle” - Diagram of Operant Conditioning - Types of Operant Conditioning a. Learning by association or Classical Conditioning b. Learning by consequences or Operant Conditioning c. Learning through Observation or Modeling a. Reinforcement b. Punishment - Comparing Positive and Negative Reinforcement
  • 3. - Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning - Four (4) important Principles in Operant Conditioning a. Primary Reinforcement b. Secondary Reinforcement a. Principle of Immediacy b. Principle of Satiation/Deprivation c. Principle of Contingency d. Principle of Size - Reinforcement Schedule/s
  • 4. I. Behaviorism - Is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. - also known as Behavioral Psychology.
  • 5. II. Learning - acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behavior, skills, values or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.
  • 6. III. Three Major Types of Learning Learning by association/ Classical Conditioning Learning by consequences/ Operant Conditioning Learning through modeling/ Observational Learning Components of Conditioning
  • 7. IV. Operant Conditioning - is the type of learning in which behaviors are emitted to earn rewards or avoid punishment. “ Instrumental Learning”
  • 8. Example of Operant ConditioningExample of Operant Conditioning If you give yourIf you give your child a treatchild a treat (reinforcer) afterafter sheshe sits quietly at the tablesits quietly at the table (the desired response(the desired response or target behavior), sheor target behavior), she is likely to sit quietly atis likely to sit quietly at the table again nextthe table again next time.time.
  • 9. V. Behaviorism Theory:  Primary Focus - Observable behavior - Stimulus-response connections  Assumptions - Learning is a result of environmental forces  Major Theorists - Pavlov - Watson - Thorndike - Skinner
  • 10. VI. Burrhus Frederic (B. F.) Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990)  American psychologist, behaviorist, inventor, author and social philosopher.  He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University from 1958 1974.
  • 11. Inventions of BF Skinner Aircrib Project Pigeon Operant Chamber/ Skinners box Cumulative recorder
  • 12. Edward Thorndike “THE LAW OF EFFECT PRINCIPLE “ (Rewarded behavior) VII.
  • 13. 1. If particular behavior is powered by desirable consequences or reward it is more likely to happen again. Behavior has a better way to reinforced. The LAW OF EFFECT PRINCIPLE 2. If particular behavior is followed by an undesirable consequences or punishment that behavior is likely to happen again in the future.
  • 14. VIII. Diagram of Operant Conditioning Reinforcement + Behavior Punishment - Behavior POSITIVE ADD Appetative stimulus following correct behavior Escape Remove unpleasant stimuli following correct behavior NEGATIVE POSITIVE ADD Unpleasant Stimuli following behavior NEGATIVE REMOVE Appetite stimulus following behavior Active Avoidance Behavior avoids noxious stimulus following correct behavior Operant Conditioning Turning off an alarm clock the push button to stop Studying to avoid getting a bad grades Giving a food when the dog sits. Spanking a child for cursing Telling a child to go to his room for fighting her sister
  • 15. 1. Reinforcement - is something that happens after a behavior or event that strengthens or increases behavior likely to occur again. 1.a. Positive reinforcement (reward/praise) are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. A behavior is strengthened by the addition of something. Giving a child a compliment for a job well done. IX. Components of Operant Conditioning
  • 16. Components of Operant Conditioning 2.b Negative reinforcement (removal) In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant. (e.g. headache –by taking aspirin headache gone) By taking aspirin headache takes away the pain)
  • 17. PROCESS OPERANT CONDITIONING EFFECT ON BEHAVIOR Positive Reinforcement Studying to make Dean’s list Make Dean’s list Increase studying in the future Negative Reinforcement Studying to avoid losing academic scholarship Avoid loss of academic scholarship Increase studying in the future X. Comparing Positive and Negative Reinforcement
  • 18. Types of Operant Conditioning 2. Punishment 2.a. Positive punishment (treat) referred to as punishment by application, involves the presentation of unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows.  is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. Burning your hand when you touch a hot stove
  • 19. 2.b. Negative punishment (taking away annoying/painful) known as punishment by removal, occurs when an favorable event or outcome is removed after behavior occurs. Types of Operant Conditioning Teen is grounded for misbehavior
  • 20. XI. Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning  Primary Reinforcers: known without being learned. Biological needs (e.g. food, water)  Secondary Reinforcers: learnedlearned value. Conditioned reinforcement (e.g. money, praise)
  • 21. - are the precise rules that are used to present (or to remove) reinforcers (or punishers) following a specified operant behavior. These rules are defined in terms of the time and/or the number of responses required in order to present (or to remove) a reinforcer (or a punisher). XII. Reinforcement Schedules  Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
  • 22. Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Partial Fixed ratio Variable ratio Fixed interval Variable interval Reinforced through single time it occurs. Best used during initial stages to create strong association between behavior and response. Reinforced through only part of the time. Learned behavior are acquired more slowly.
  • 23. XIII. Four Important PrinciplesXIII. Four Important Principles in Operant Conditioningin Operant Conditioning 1.1. Principle of ImmediacyPrinciple of Immediacy 2.2. Principle of SatiationPrinciple of Satiation 3.3. Principle of ContingencyPrinciple of Contingency 4.4. Principle of SizePrinciple of Size
  • 24. Four Important PrinciplesFour Important Principles in Operant Conditioningin Operant Conditioning 1. Principle of Immediacy1. Principle of Immediacy - is behavior that brings the instructor and the students closer together in terms of perceived distance.  Non-verbal immediacy includes behaviors such as smiling, gesturing, moves around the class while teaching and having relaxed body language.  Verbal immediacy refers to calling on by the students or asks students how they feel about things.
  • 25. 2. Principle of Deprivation/Satiation2. Principle of Deprivation/Satiation Four Important PrinciplesFour Important Principles in Operant Conditioningin Operant Conditioning  Deprivation : Not having access to something that isDeprivation : Not having access to something that is highly desirable.highly desirable.  Satiation - is the opposite of deprivation; refers toSatiation - is the opposite of deprivation; refers to having too much.having too much.
  • 26. 3. Principle of Contingency3. Principle of Contingency Four Important PrinciplesFour Important Principles in Operant Conditioningin Operant Conditioning - a future event or circumstance that is possible but cannot be predicted with certainty. 4. Principle of Size4. Principle of Size -- The cost-benefit" determinant of whether aThe cost-benefit" determinant of whether a consequence will be effective.consequence will be effective. If the size, or amount, of the consequence is largeIf the size, or amount, of the consequence is large enough to be worth the effort, the consequence willenough to be worth the effort, the consequence will be more effective upon the behavior.be more effective upon the behavior.
  • 27. Key Concept of Operant Conditioning  Shaping: - is a process of reinforcing a series of responses that increasingly resemble the desired behavior.
  • 28. Major Principle Application Repetition and consistency are essential to obtaining desired behavior and increasing speed of learning. One’s habit can be broken if the positive reinforcement that is connected to the behavior is removed. Retention of what was learned be obtained through intermittent reinforcement. A teacher providing clear and direct instruction with sub tasks supporting learning objectives are more apt to obtain the desired results. Regardless your beliefs, behavior has played an important role in education and psychological history.