Brazil Case Study

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  • 5th largest population in the world. note - less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages But in 1759, a permit extended the law making the use of the Portuguese language mandatory throughout the national territory, assuring its teaching hegemony Portuguese is spoken by nearly 100 percent of the population. The only exceptions are some members of Amerindian groups and pockets of immigrants, primarily from Japan and South Korea, who have not yet learned Portuguese. The principal families of Indian languages are Tupí, Arawak, Carib, and Gê english has replaced french as second language.
  • However, the exchange rate is not a fixed number, it may change or vary depending on location, however it will still be within a close range.
  • Brazil has the largest population of African origin outside Africa and its culture is therefore highly influential in the northeast of Brazil. The Afro-Brazilian culture today is also influenced by the Portuguese and Indigenous cultures, as noted in the music, religion and cuisine.   Unlike many other Latin American countries where there is a distinct Indian population, Brazilians have intermarried to the point that it sometimes seems that almost everyone has a combination of European, African and indigenous ancestry. Until the 1870s, in fact, Brazil was primarily a nation of people of color. In the first national census in 1872 over 60 percent of the population was classified as black or of mixed ancestry. Then a massive wave of immigration from Europe—eventually reaching some 2.5 million—helped shift the racial balance Each region in the country has its own specialties and adaptation to its climate and geography .  North is considered to be the underdeveloped poor brazil, while the south is the industrialized higher class brazil. The Northeast has the greatest proportion of people of African descent, the South and Southeast are home to the bulk of Brazilians of European and Japanese ancestry, while indigenous peoples live largely in the North and Central-West. Still, regional migration and extensive miscegenation (racial inter-breeding) has made Brazil one of the most racially diverse nations on earth .there are 230 tribes that speak more than ninety languages and 300 dialects.   Those who consider themselves urban sophisticates—particularly inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo—have a long tradition of maligning people from smaller cities and towns in the Brazilian interior, calling them uneducated hicks and hillbillies. Urban, middle-class Brazilians are generally unfamiliar with the interior of their own country and misrepresent it as a region of unrelenting poverty and backwardness Brazilians are preoccupied with class distinctions and are quick to size up the social distance that exists between themselves and others they meet. Yardsticks of such distance are general appearance and the "correctness" of a person's speech. Because of the lack of a clear color distinction and a strong cultural tradition of tolerance and cordiality, as well as longstanding explicit laws against racial discrimination, Brazil has been touted as a " racial democracy ." However, "racial democracy" is a myth   . Class is determined by economic status and skin colour.  Social class, education, and manner of dress all come into play in assigning someone to a racial category. As Brazilians put it, "money whitens"—that is, the higher the social class, the lighter the racial category to which an individual belongs.  Dark-skinned people in Brazil are more likely to be poor than light skinned-people and whites have average monthly incomes almost two and a half times greater than nonwhite Despite its nonbelligerent heritage at the national level, Brazilian life is marked by considerable violence on a day-to-day basis . Indians and slaves, or their descendants, have always been victimized.
  • Brazilians have less sense of personal space than North Americans and are not bothered being packed together in crowded public places. They are physically expressive and convey emotional information through touch. While in some societies touching has sexual overtones, Brazilians equate it with friendship and a show of concern. Brazilians view time as something flexible .  They put more emphasis on people, relationships, and completion of transactions rather than set schedules. .  Brazilians dress with a flair and judge others on their appearance. Casual dress is more formal than in many other countries. Always dress elegantly and err on the side of over-dressing rather than under- dressing. . If invited to a Brazilian's house, bring the hostess flowers or a small gift.  . If a woman wishes to shake hands with a man, she should extend her hand first.   Most Brazilians would agree that the symbols that best characterize their nation are the exuberant revelry of the pre-Lenten celebration of carnival and the wildly popular sport of soccer, called  futebol  in Brazil . Football/Soccer is the most popular sport, has one of the top ranking teams, and is to host FIFA world cup in 2014! Carnival is a four-day extravaganza marked by parades of costumed dancers and musicians, formal balls, street dancing, and musical contests, a truly national party during which Brazilians briefly forget what they call the "hard realities of life."
  •   In Brazil, music is one of the most important manifestations of art and national culture, and it is internationally respected, it has been called the "soundtrack" of national life. Music created Dances created in Brazil Samba Bossa Nova Choro Jovem Guarda Tropicalismo Capoeira- A martial art developed for defensive purposes, the Capoeira was taught to the captive Africans by slaves who were captured and returned to the mills. In order not to raise any suspicions, the fight movements were adapted to look like dancing under the sound of African chants.  
  • -5,581 municipalities= US counties      -have own governments      -divided into districts          -no political autonomy *all municipal and district seats considered urban -each of five major regions:      -diff./ distinct ecosystem          -patterns economic activity and population settlement vary widely (as seen on following slides with maps)
  • *climate's effect on population and economic activity: MAP INTERP -north/north west= rainforest -central- south= savanna -southeast= caatinga (thorny scrub) -tropical semideciduous forest along southern coast -small dispersions of rainforest along coast -grasslands in southern sector -TOPOGRAPHY- ~Brazilian plateau /Amazon basin dominate      -plateau: spreads out from mtn. ranges accompanying entire coastline      -central highlands= vast central plateau
  • -patterns economic activity and population settlement vary widely within 5 regions      -climate/ ecosystems determine MAP INTERP -populations concentrated on the coast -amazon basin and small part of amazonian interior= manufacturing areas and so slight population concentration located there
  • -patterns economic activity and population settlement vary widely within 5 regions      -climate/ ecosystems determine MAP INTERP =>manufacturing along coast and river basins north/northwest - rubber and brazil nut southwest - sugarcane, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, corn south - cattle, corn, soybeans, coffee, rice, lumber center west - cattle, rubber, brazil nuts *LAND USE- MAP USE* - north/northwes t= hunting/gathering - northeast an southeast = unimproved farming - south = improved farming and commercial farming - south/southeast = subsistence and small commercial farming *NOTE= economic activity and population concentrated on coast
  • -equatorial north -rich biological diversity -"backlands drugs"= cocoa/cinnamon -territory altered by anthropic action in 1900s
  • NE -forest zone along the coast -high birth rates offset heavy migration out of region (declined slightly in 1900s) SE -Rio de Janiero/ Sao Paulo (SP?)= megacities -internal migration 1950-1980 -clearing Atlantic forest for:      -farming      -ranching      -charcoal making -anthropic activity altered 79.5% -agriculture= strong/ diversified (using modern tech.)
  • -Atlantic Forest pine woods cleared Post WW2 -pampa grasslands in extreme south -85% region altered anthropic activity -agriculture (rice production)= small farmers & high levels of productivity -also has important industries -pic= santa catarina (least amt. alteration)
  • -cerrado= tropical savanna in which natural grassland partly covered with twisted shrubs & small trees -pic= mato grosso swampland      -florida-size      -cerrado/ partly submerged in rainy season 
  • Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva      -recently stepped down after two terms as most popular president in history      -present president= 1st WOMAN president      *Dilma Rousseff*
  • legislative      -federal senate: 81 seats; 3 members from each state/ federal district          -elected by majority vote          -8-yr. terms          -1/3 & 2/3 members elected every 4 years      -chamber of deputies          -513 seats          -elected by proportional representation          -4-yr. terms
  • EARLIER SLIDE: Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva      -recently stepped down after two terms (2002) as most popular president in history      -present president= 1st WOMAN president      *Dilma Rousseff* elected in October ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "Great man" who (has) changed the way the country was governed and encouraged Brazilians to trust in the future of their country -Dilma Rousseff *Rousseff's mentor      -chief energy minister under Lula 2003      -chief of staff 2005-2010 *Lula da Silva's goals: -reduce poverty -promote economic prosperity *Cardoso's Real Plan      -reform state & political system      -liberalize economy      -change Brazil's international role =>embraced and sought to maintain progress and process Cardoso had set in motion      *aim= create conditions for sustained development!
  • -plans to continue Lula da Silva's work - "Brazil's economy has grown strongly in recent years, but it remains one of the most unequal societies in the world." ~BBC News -Brazil's economy grown 8% 2010 BUT currency risen so high, exports= less competitive -Brazil will host:      -Rio Plus 20 global environmental summit 2012      -Fifa World Cup 2014      -2016 Summer Olympics (prep.- not during her term)

Transcript

  • 1. Case Study: Brazil
  • 2. Brazil
    • Official Name: Federative Republic of Brazil
  • 3. population:  201,103,330 Language:  Brazilian Portuguese   Tupinamba- used for missionaries in the translation of sacred texts, prayers and anthems.
  • 4.
    • Currency: The Real has been the legal tender monetary unit in Brazil since 1994. The Real banknotes that circulate in the country have motifs of Brazilian animal life, and they are as follows: 100 reais (grouper), 50 (jaguar), 20 (golden lion tamarin), 10 (macaw), 5 (heron), 2 (sea turtle) and 1 (hummingbird).
    • Exchange Rate: reals (BRL) per US dollar - 1.66 (February 12 2011)
  • 5. Culture
      • Brazil has the largest population of African origin outside of Africa
        • Almost everyone has a combination of European, African and indigenous ancestry
      • Each region in the country has its own specialties and adaptation to its climate and geography
      •   Brazilians are preoccupied with class distinctions
        • Class is determined by status and skin color
      •   Violence on a day-to-day basis
  • 6. Views and Norms
      • Brazilians have less sense of personal space than North Americans and are not bothered being packed together in crowded public places.  
        • Time viewed as something flexible .  
      • Brazilians dress with a flair and judge others on their appearance.  
      • Symbols that best characterize their nation are the exuberant revelry of the pre-Lenten celebration of carnival and the wildly popular sport of soccer, called  futebol  in Brazil .
  • 7. MUSIC
      • Music is one of the most important manifestations of art and national culture
      • Capoeira -A martial art developed for defensive purposes, the Capoeira was taught to the captive Africans by slaves who were captured and returned to the mills. In order not to raise any suspicions, the fight movements were adapted to look like dancing under the sound of African chants.
  • 8. Family Structures
      • Large nuclear families (aunts, uncles, cousins, grandparents are all very close)
      • Increasingly matriarchal (although some regions are highly patriarchal)
      •   Average number of children born per woman is 2.19, this number is decreasing annually
      •   Strong family values
      • Very different roles of men vs. women
  • 9. Religion
      • No official state religion
      • Predominantly Roman Catholic (about 75%)
      • Largest Catholic nation worldwide
      •   "relaxed" Catholics
      • Feast days and Saints
      • Festa do Divino
        • "Feast of the Holy Spirit
  • 10. Religion
      • Significant percentage of Protestants (Presbyterians)
        • song, chants
      • Small percentage of Afro-Brazilian religions
        • Quimbanda, Umbanda, and Candomble
      •   Syncretism- blending of religions
      • Rituals/cults
        •   leave sacrifices, offerings
        • Spiritualism, black magic
  • 11. Geography
    • -26 states + Federal District=> divided into 5 regions:
    • 1) North
    • 2) Northeast
    • 3) Southeast
    • 4) South
    • 5) Center-West
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15. North
    • -Amazon rainforest
    • (humid/ tropical)
    • -largest region (45.3% of the national territory)
    • -source of forest products:
    •      -cocoa
    •      -cinnamon
    •      -rubber
    •      -nuts
    -Mid 1900s: mining farming livestock raising -1980's lumber boom
  • 16.
    • -18.3% national territory
    • -semiarid caatinga= droughts require extensive irrigation
    • -sugar plantations (colonial but persisted for centuries)
    • -mixed farming
    • -population densest on coast
    • -country's largest:
    •      -concentration of rural population
    •      -lowest living standards
    • - dense urban network
    • -10.9% national territory
    • -largest share of country's population
    •      -internal migration
    • -highest living standards + pockets of urban poverty
    • -Atlantic forest was principal biome=> deforestation
    • -has most of industrial production
    Northeast Southeast
  • 17. South
    • -temperate
    • -6.8% national territory
    • -population 14% country's total
    •      -almost as densely populated as SE
    •      -more concentrated on coast
    • -high living standards
    •      -industry and agriculture
    •      -1994 highest average income
    •      -Parana US$3,674
    •      -Santa Catarina US$3,405 (small farmers and industries)
  • 18. Center- West
    • -Federal District (capital of nation)
    • -18.9% national territory
    • -main biome= cerrado (tropical savanna)
    • *uses:
    • -low density cattle
    • -soybeans
    • -deforestation
    • -living standards below national average
    -avg. pop. density= low      -concentrated around cities
  • 19. Government ~Federal republic:      -powers of central govt. restricted      -component parts (state, colonies, provinces) retain a degree of self- government      -voters choose governmental representatives          -have ultimate sovereign power ~26 states ~1 federal district
  • 20. Federative Republic of Brazil
    • Legislative
    • -Bicameral National Congress 
    •      1. Federal Senate
    •      2. Chamber of Deputies
    • Judicial
    • -Supreme Federal Tribunal (STF)
    •      -11 ministers appointed for life (age 70) by president and approved by Senate
    • -Higher Tribunal of Justice
    • -Regional Federal Tribunals
    Executive -President= Chief of State & Head of Government -Vice President -Cabinet appointed by president -President and VP elected on same ticket by popular vote      -4-yr. term
  • 21. Current Politics
    • -Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva
    • -30 million people lifted out of poverty
  • 22. The Future...
    • -"The most determined struggle will be to eradicate extreme poverty... we can be a more developed and fairer country."
    • ~Dilma Rousseff
    • -Challenges:
    •      -public health
    •      -education
    •      -improving 
    • country's 
    • infrastructure
  • 23. Military
      • Army, Navy (includes Naval Air and Marine Corps), Air Force
      • Compulsory service: 21- 45 years of age; 9-12 months
      • Volunteer service: 17-45 years of age; increasing "long- service"
      • 1980's women allowed (1st Army in South America)
        • Navy, Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps
  • 24. Education
    • Quick Facts:
      • School enrollment of population between 7 and 10 years of age reached 97% in 2005.
      • From the 83% of the population between the ages of 15 and 17 that is studying, only 33% of them are in their age-related group.
      • School teacher's training
    • Two Levels in Brazil's educational system: Basic and Higher Education
      •   Basic Education is divided into three levels:
        • Pre-elementary education, 0-5 years of age
        • Elementary education, 6-14 years of age
        • Technical secondary education, 15-17 
        • years of age, grades 9-11
  • 25. Education
      • Higher education is compromised of undergraduate and graduate degrees
        • Public and Privately funded Universities
        • Public funded universities, which are free of cost, are considered to offer the best quality education and research.
        •   Private universities have better infrastructure and resources.
      • Undergraduate degrees, 4-6 years, dissertation at the end
      • Graduate Degrees
        • Masters: 2 years
        • Doctors/Ph.D: 3-4 years
  • 26. Education
    • Entrance to Universities
      • Vestibular: 1-2 day examination of high school subjects
      • Very competitive, especially in public universities, as there is a limited spots
    • Grading System
      • Percentage point grading and scale grading system.
    • Moral education: Brazilian Ethics and Citizenship Program
      •   Schools are encouraged and free to participate in this program and use it as part of their curriculum for students from 7 to 14 years of age.
  • 27. Economy
    • Achievements
      • GDP: $2.194 trillion, 8th in the world
      • Inflation disappeared, government had budget surplus, trade balance surplus, boom of exports, real was appreciating.
      • Brazil was exporting many minerals it was ready to exploit
      • President Lula established social programs such as Bolsa Familia Program
    • Challenges
      • real rate of growth: 7.5%, 15th in the world, negative in 2009 
      • investment rate was at 18-20% of GDP, 105th in the world
      • challenge will be increasing educational resources, changing the structure of the whole educational system, and democratizing access to it
    • Current Changes
      •   Intersectoral relationships-vertical integration of economy has increased
      • Declining import coefficient
      • Growing internationalization of economy
  • 28. References
      • Arantes, V., Araujo, U. (2009). The Ethics and Citizenship Program: a Brazilian experience in moral education. Journal of Moral Education . Retrieved from http://www.informaworld.com.proxy.library.nd.edu/smpp / content~content=a916629327~db=all 
      • BBC News. (1 January 2011). Dilma Rousseff sworn in as Brazil’s new president . BBC News Online. 2 February 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-12103312
      • Central Intelligence Agency. (last updated 20 January 2011). The World Fact Book: Brazil . Central Intelligence Agency World Fact Book Online. 2 February 2011.
      • https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
      • Font, M., Spanakos, A. (2004). Dawn of a New Era. Reforming Brazil . Lanham, Maryland. Lexington Books.
      • Hudson, R., ed. (1997). Brazil: A Country Study . Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Country Studies: Brazil. 2 February 2011. http://countrystudies.us/brazil/
      • No Longer the Bottom of the Class (2010). The Economist. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/node/17679798 .
      • Roett, R. (2010). The New Brazil . Washington D.C.. Brookings Institution Press.
      • Werner, B. 1., & Baer, W., 1931-. (2008). The brazilian economy : Growth and development . Boulder, CO: Boulder, CO : Lynne Rienner Publishers.