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Bulgarian nouns explained in English

Bulgarian nouns explained in English

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  • 1. http://neven-staff.ucoz.com Learn Bulgarian Now! Научи (научете) български сега! A Lesson of Nouns; and a Tale: Baked Pumpkin by Elin Pelin (a Bulgarian writer)/ Урок за съществителни; и разказ:„Печена тиква“ от Елин Пелин (български писател)
  • 2. http://neven-staff.ucoz.com How to Write with Cyrillic Letters; Equivalents (Capital Letters) Add it on your computer: Choose from Control Panel/ Region and Language/Keyboards and Languages tab/Change Keyboards/Add…/ then find Bulgarian (Phonetic Traditional) in the list under Bulgarian. The English “J” as in “Jordan” is written with two letters: дж. The Bulgarian “ь” is used as “й” in cases it is preceded by a consonant. А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И Й К Л М Н О A B V G D E Zh Z I Y K L M N O П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ь Ю Я P R S T U F H Tz Ch Sh Sht dark A Y Yu Ya
  • 3. http://neven-staff.ucoz.com Пригответе се за четене!/Get Prepared for Reading! The text is about a person (named Dushko - or the translated variant Goody) who is embarrassed with his rural origin; and baked pumpkin reminds him of the origin, as his boss has pointed out people from village, like Goody (Dushko), should like it and even wanted to treat him to a piece of it while Goody was his guest – Goody refused for pretending he does not feel himself like from village. But still, he loves baked pumpkin and his ridiculous embarrassment makes him look ridiculous and the ghost of pumpkins seems to chase him even at night; (although Bulgarians don’t celebrate Halloween or at least, it is not celebrated as much as in English-speaking countries).
  • 4. Pay attention the sentences have words order typical for the Печена тиква *** Скара ли се с някого от другарите си в канцеларията, веднага ще го нарече или печена тиква, или – какво се червиш като печена тиква, или – я се погледни, моля ти се, какъв си пияница – от главата ти се вдига пара като от печена тиква!
  • 5. 5 Нощем, щом заспи, мъчителният призрак на тиквата пак иде. Присънва му се едно поле, ама какво поле! Дълго, широко, края му се не вижда! По него се натъркаляли ония ми ти печени тикви и над всяка се вие сладка пара! Душко върви из това поле, гледа тиквите и му се иска да си откъсне, но щом се наведе, тиквата изчезва. Той пак върви по полето. Поле, но не поле, а някаква си канцелария, уж широка канцелария! Там някъде се явява голяма тиква и почва да се търкаля към него и все расте, расте, става колкото къща, колкото църква, колкото планина, по-голяма и почва по-бързо и по-силно да се търкаля към него. Душко трепери от страх и бяга, бяга, а краката му се скъсяват, скъсяват. Чудовищната тиква го настига и се хвърля върху него. Архиварят трепва и се събужда, плувнал в пот. Тоя сън почва да го мъчи всяка нощ.
  • 6. 6 Превод/Translation If he argues with someone of his mates in the office, he will immediately call him either - baked pumpkin or - what are you reddening like a baked pumpkin, or - look at you, what a drunkard you are – steam is soaring from your head like from a baked pumpkin! At night, when he falls asleep, the tormenting ghost of the pumpkin comes again. In a dream he sees a field, but not just a field! Long, wide, the end of it is out of sight! And those baked pumpkins have rolled on the field and over each of them sweet steam is soaring! Goody walks through that field, looks at the pumpkins and wants to pick, but when he bends down, the pumpkin disappears. He walks again in the field. A field, but not a field – some sort of office, more or less wide! There somewhere a huge pumpkin appears and starts rolling towards him and grows, grows, becomes as big as a house, as a church, as a mountain, bigger and it starts to roll faster and faster towards him. Goody is scared and runs, and runs, his feet grow shorter and shorter. The monster pumpkin catches him and throws itself on him. The archivist trembles and wakes up, wet from sweat. This dream starts tormenting him every night.
  • 7. http://neven-staff.ucoz.com Let’s Find the Nouns (without Pronouns) and Analyze them Скара ли се с някого от другарите си в канцеларията, веднага ще го нарече или печена тиква, или – какво се червиш като печена тиква, или – я се погледни, моля ти се, какъв си пияница – от главата ти се вдига пара като от печена тиква! Нощем, щом заспи, мъчителният призрак на тиквата пак иде. Присънва му се едно поле, ама какво поле! Дълго, широко, края му се не вижда! По него се натъркаляли ония ми ти печени тикви и над всяка се вие сладка пара! Душко върви из това поле, гледа тиквите и му се иска да си откъсне, но щом се наведе, тиквата изчезва. Той пак върви по полето. Поле, но не поле, а някаква си канцелария, уж широка канцелария! Там някъде се явява голяма тиква и почва да се търкаля към него и все расте, расте, става колкото къща, колкото църква, колкото планина, по-голяма и почва по-бързо и по-силно да се търкаля към него. Душко трепери от страх и бяга, бяга, а краката му се скъсяват, скъсяват. Чудовищната тиква го настига и се хвърля върху него. Архиварят трепва и се събужда, плувнал в пот. Тоя сън почва да го мъчи всяка нощ.
  • 8. http://neven-staff.ucoz.com Definite Articles – Some Explanation In Bulgarian definite articles are connected with the noun or the adjective and are a suffix. другарите, канцеларията, главата, тиквата, края, тиквите, полето, краката, архиварят From the above nouns in plural are: другарите, тиквите, краката – they all get “те” ending except those plurals which end with “a” – then they get “та” which is like a feminine singular with a definite article, but these constructions are not singular (so, don’t judge of the gender from the definite article suffix!). In feminine singular are: канцеларията, главата, тиквата – they get “та” to become with a def. article, even those which are exceptions from the “a” ending: пролетта есента, нощта, пещта. A noun+an adjective as a modifier – in feminine, with a def. article in the text: “ чудовищната тиква”
  • 9. http://neven-staff.ucoz.com Definite Articles – Some Explanation In masculine singular are: края, архиварят – here is the “difficulty” if you don’t know the rule: sometimes “архиварят” is with “ят” and sometimes is only “архиваря” without “т”, but the rule is easy to remember it is with “т” when the noun is a subject (in active and in passive voice), when an object it is without “т”. But when it is preceded by a modifying adjective, the adjective gets “я” and “ят”. But also it’s sometimes “а” and “ът”, but this can’t be felt in fast speech, so, I won’t make you puzzled with more explanation. “Края” without the def.article is “край” as the “й” is omitted when it is with the def. article, since “я” contains the sound “й”. In neuter singular is only: полето. No matter the ending is “e” or “o”, it gets “то”: евро – еврото (an euro – the euro)
  • 10. http://neven-staff.ucoz.com Род, число/Gender, Number Pay attention: usually a word in feminine singular ends with “a” (an exception:”баща” – a father) or “я”, but there are exceptions: “пот” (sweat), “пролет” (spring), “есен” (autumn); and ending with “щ” are feminine: “нощ” (a night), “пещ”(a furnace), “свещ”(a candle). The plural number of feminine ends with “и” except the uncountable “пот” (sweat); “пара”(steam, vapor) as chemical phenomenon could be in plural too (as in English: vapors); Masculine един Feminine една Neuter едно Plural много другар пияница призрак Душко страх крак архивар сън канцелария тиква глава пара къща църква планина пот нощ поле другари, канцеларии, полета пияници, тикви призраци, глави -, пари страхове, къщи крака, църкви архивари, планини сънища, пот нощи
  • 11. http://neven-staff.ucoz.com Род, число/Gender, Number words with abstract meaning ending with “ст” are feminine too: вечност, крайност (eternity, extremeness). Plural is made by changing “a” to “и”. Neuter: end with “e” or “o” and in plural they get respectively “та” and when with “o” it transforms to “а” (поле – полета (a field-fields); число – числа (a number - numbers)). Masculine: end with one (two) consonant(s) except names of men (Ivaylo, Marko) and here is one of the few exceptions besides “баща”(a father): “пияница” (this word is actually both masculine and feminine – the logics: one becomes too inadequate when drunk to be referred to as a man or a woman). Plural masculine is the most difficult from all genders’ plurals: if ending with “к” that transforms to “ци” – “капак-капаци” (a lid-lids) and the exception is here and gets “а” - “крак+а”. But why “влак” becomes “влакове”? Nouns that are used scientifically as concepts– example: “банков клон” (a branch) – “банкови клонове” (bank branches), [but “дървесни клони”(tree branches)] get “ове”.
  • 12. http://neven-staff.ucoz.com Род, число/Gender, Number But professions and persons almost always get “и” – архивари, учители (archivists, teachers); exceptions: кметОВЕ (mayors); rare forms in making masculine plurals are “крал-крале”, “кон-коне” , “цар-царе” (a king-kings; a horse- horses; a tzar-tzars) Masculine have other strange rarities for plural forms: път – пътища, сън - сънища (a track – tracks; a dream-dreams, not in the meaning “a wish”). Do not change the stress when forming plurals and if it ends with a stress on a vowel that is changed, the stress is on the new vowel – the latter is valid for feminine: “мечта- мечти”(a daydream –daydreams or similar: a wish-wishes). Attention, the following is difficult even for native speakers –another peculiarity of masculine: a regular and a special form for counting masculine after “няколко” (a few, several), “толкова”/”много” (so/many) and numbers. A regular form is when it coincides with the masculine plurals and it is when the counted word refers to persons, but a strange adjective suffix is added till the cardinal number “шест” (six) which is “има”: три(и)ма учители; the special form is easier - you use it for all the rest (those that don’t refer to persons): use the cardinal number and the masculine SINGULAR(WHICH NOW WILL MEAN PLURAL) with the definite article WITHOUT “т” : пет коня, осем автомобила, десет долара (five horses, eight cars, ten dollars). But when the amount is not definitely stated don’t use this form: стотици долари (hundreds dollars)
  • 13. http://neven-staff.ucoz.com Показателни местоимения/Demonstrative Pronouns Have you noticed the words “оная” and “тоя” in the text which mean “that” for feminine and “this” for masculine? Look at the chart below: The words in brackets are informal variants. “There is (are) … in/at/on… “ in Bulgarian begins with stating the adverbial giving an answer to “where” first and then “има” (“to have” always in third person, singular): В чантата има пари (There is money in the bag), although “money” in Bulgarian is always plural and the stress is on the last syllable. Masculine 1.this 2.that Feminine 1. this 2. that Neuter 1. this 2. that Plural for All Genders 1. these 2. those 1.този (тоя) 2.онзи (оня) 1.тази (тая) 2.онази (оная) 1. това 2. онова тези (тея) онези (онея)
  • 14. http://neven-staff.ucoz.com Demonstrative Pronouns and “be” Conjugation + Subject Personal Pronouns In the chart on the previous page, we could see a demonstrative pronoun referring to a noun, like: “този учител” (this teacher), but what about pointing at an object and saying what it is – like “This is I/ me” or “It is I/ me”. Then we use the neuter demonstrative pronoun+the conjugated “be” for each personal pronoun – not only 3rd person (this is the difference with English)+ a personal pronoun: “Това съм аз.”, “Това са те”, “Това сме ние” and never with an object pronoun “Това сме нас”. Rarely “These are we” is used: “Тези сме ние” – it would be used when discerning people on a photo, but the rule is like the English one. Singular Plural I am/ аз съм we are/ ние сме you are/ ти си you are/ вие сте he, she, it is/ той, тя, то е they are/ те са
  • 15. http://neven-staff.ucoz.com За писателя/About the Writer Elin Pelin is a pseudonym of Dimitar Ivanov Stoyanov (8 July 1877, the village of Baylovo, the Sofia region – 3 December1949, Sofia). He did not graduate from high school; passionately infatuated with reading, got to know the Bulgarian and Russian literature profoundly. He was a teacher in Baylovo (1895 - 96). From the autumn of 1899, he established in Sofia. He was a librarian at the University Library (1903 - 07); sent on business to Nancy, France (1906 - 07); a keeper at the storage of the National Library in Sofia (1910 - 16); an administrator at the house-museum "Ivan Vazov" (1924 - 44). He was an associate of many magazines.  He was a chairman of Union of Bulgarian Writers in 1940.  Under the poem "Quiet Grieves" (November, 1897), printed in the Bulgarian Pregled magazine, for the first time he signed with the pseudonym Elin Pelin. In his youth years, he was interested mostly in poetry. In his mature writer’s years, he was inclined in the tale and the short novel, while he kept writing children’s and humoristic poems.