What a teacher needs to know about computers
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What a teacher needs to know about computers

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This is a short briefing, in case you need get involved with computers for the first time, so you don't get lost.

This is a short briefing, in case you need get involved with computers for the first time, so you don't get lost.

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What a teacher needs to know about computers What a teacher needs to know about computers Presentation Transcript

  • What a teacher needs to know about Computers
    • A computer is a machine for manipulating data according to a list of instructions known as a program.
    • A Microcomputer or PC is worldwide used for research, work or fun.
    • Computer is also a machine that stores, changes and displays information in varied ways.
    • It is made out of hardware and software.
    • Hardware and software process the information.
    • Computers perform:
    • Sophisticated scientific calculations
    • Calculating forecasts
    • Digitize and processing images
    • Simulation processes
    • Word processing
    • Internet browsing
    • Internet faxing
    • E-mail and other digital messaging
    • Multimedia playback
    • Video game play
    • Computer programming
    • A computer is basically compound of:
    • Monitor
    • CPU
    • Keyboard
    • Mouse
    • A computer monitor is a device that can display signals generated by a computer as images on a screen.
    • A monitor displays also the output information.
    • A central processing unit (CPU), or simply processor, is the component in a digital computer that interprets instructions and processes data contained in computer programs.
    • A computer keyboard is a peripheral modeled after the typewriter keyboard. Keyboards are designed for the input of text and characters, and also to control the operation of a computer.
    • a mouse consists of a hand-held pointing device, designed to sit under one hand of the user and to detect movement relative to its two-dimensional supporting surface.
    • A floppy disk, a data storage device, is composed of a disk of thin, flexible magnetic storage medium encased in a square plastic shell.
    • Floppy disks are read and written by a floppy disk drive.
    • The compact disc has been adapted to hold any form of binary data.
    • CD-ROM s are used to distribute computer software, including games and multimedia applications.
    • A hard disk is a permanent digitally encoded data storage device that stores data on the magnetic surfaces of hard disk platters.
    • Random-access memory refers to data storage formats that allow the stored data to be accessed in any order, that is, at random, not just in sequence.
  • Connectors and Ports
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  • Using the Keyboard
    • Computer keyboards are an arrangement of keys. In most cases, each press of a key corresponds to a single written symbol.
    • Some symbols require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously, or in sequence; others do not produce any symbol, but instead affect the operation of the computer, or the keyboard itself.
    • The Numeric Keypad
    • It’s located on the right and contains numbers from 0 to 9 and mathematical operators.
    • It’s activated pressing the key Num lock .
    • Function keys are located in the upper part and are named from F1 …to F12 .
    • A function key is a key which can be programmed to perform certain actions.
    • In Microsoft Office programs running in Windows, F1 is the key for Help in the Help menu.
    • The alphanumeric section , located at the right of the keyboard, includes the alphabet, numbers and symbols keys.
    • The Esc key located in the top-left corner, was designed often to mean Stop.
    • This use continues today in Microsoft Windows's use of escape as a shortcut for No, Quit, Exit, Cancel, or Abort.
    • The Enter Key allows to accept options. It also enables to move the cursor to the next line or paragraph.
    • Pressing the caps lock will set the keyboard mode to a way in which typed letters are capitalized by default.
    • The keyboard remains in this mode until caps lock is pressed again.
    • The shift key is a key used to type capital letters and other alternate upper characters. There are two shift keys.
    • On an English keyboard, characters that require the use of the shift key are the parentheses, the question mark, the exclamation point, and the colon.
    • Arrow keys move the cursor in a specified direction. They are typically located at the bottom to the side of the numeric keypad.
    • Arrow keys are commonly used for navigating around documents and for playing games.
    • The tab key is used to indent text to a preset horizontal position.
    • The Alt key , located at the left side of the Space bar, is used to change the function of other pressed keys.
    • The Alt key is known as part of the Control+Alt+Delete key combination, which in some Operative Systems opens the task manager for aborting an unresponsive application or simply viewing the applications running.
  • Using the Alt key to get letters and symbols Ñ Alt+165 ñ Alt+164 ^ (circumflex) Alt+94 (backslash) Alt+92 @ (commercial at) Alt+64 / (slash) Alt+47 * (asterisk) Alt+42 & (ampersand) Alt+38 # (number sign) Alt+35 ♣ (clover) Alt+5 ♦ (diamond) Alt+4 ♥ (heart) Alt+3 ☺ (happy face) Alt+1
    • When a key has a third symbol on it, the AltGr key is used in combination with that key to type that symbol.
    • Space bar is the key on an alphanumeric keyboard located in the lowermost row, wider than other keys. Its purpose is to enter the space.
    • The Control key, pressed in conjunction with another key, performs a special operation.
    • There are two control keys located on the bottom right and left side of the keyboard.
  • Shortcuts using the control key(1) Close window or tab Ctrl+W Paste Ctrl+V Underline Ctrl+U Save Ctrl+S Print Ctrl+P Open Ctrl+O New (window, document, etc.) Ctrl+N Italic Ctrl+I Find (usually a small piece of text in a larger document) Ctrl+F Copy Ctrl+C Bold Ctrl+B Select all Ctrl+A
  • Shortcuts using the control key (2) Next word Ctrl+ Right-Arrow Previous word Ctrl+ Left-Arrow Next window or tab Ctrl+Tab Previous tab Ctrl+PgUp Next tab Ctrl+PgDn Paste Ctrl+Ins Top (start of document or window) Ctrl+Home Bottom (end of document or window) Ctrl+End Cut Ctrl+Del Undo Ctrl+Z Redo Ctrl+Y Cut Ctrl+X
    • The backspace key used to push the typewriter carriage one position backwards.
    • It moves the cursor one position backwards and deletes the preceding character no matter what the character is.
    • The delete key, during normal text editing, discards the character at the cursor's position, moving all following characters one position backwards to the freed place.
  • Computer hardware
    • Hardware is the physical part of a computer.
    • Software refers to the programs used in a computer.
  • A PC consists of a case and the following parts:
    • Motherboard
    • Central processing unit (CPU)
    • Random Access Memory (RAM)
    • Basic Input-Output System (BIOS)
    • Buses
    • Power supply
    • Storage controllers
    Case
    • Video display controllers
    • Computer bus controllers (parallel, serial, USB, FireWire)
    • Removable media writer such as: CD-ROM Drive, CD Writer, DVD-ROM Drive, DVD Writer, DVD-RAM Drive , Floppy disk, USB Flash Drive.
    Flash memory
    • A computer is built with the microprocessor, main memory, and other basic components on the motherboard .
    • Computer components are typically attached to the motherboard via ribbon cables, other cables, and power connectors.
    Motherboard
  • Computer Peripherals
    • A printer produces copies of documents stored in the computer on paper or transparencies.
    • Printers are used as computer peripherals.
    • Modern printers may extract data directly from electronic devices such as memory sticks, memory cards, flash memory, cameras, scanners.
    • Multifunction printers can perform as scanners, fax machines and a photocopiers all in a single unit.
    Memory Stick
    • Image scanner , a general-purpose device which digitizes a two-dimensional image.
  • Photo printer Digital Camera Video Camera Infocus Projector Other common peripherals
  • Software
    • Computer programs consist of a list of instructions that tell the computer what to do.
    • Computer programs refer to a collection of source code and libraries compiled into an executable file which can perform both automatic and interactive tasks with data.
    • Operating system is a software program that manages both hardware and software.
    • The OS performs basic tasks, such as controlling and allocating memory, prioritizing the processing of instructions, controlling input and output devices, facilitating networking, and managing files.
  • Mac Operating System
  • Windows Operating System
  • Linux Operating System
    • Application software is a computer software that uses the capabilities of a computer to a task the user wishes to perform.
    • Typical examples of software applications are word processors, spreadsheets, and media players.
    • Multiple applications come together as a package, sometimes referred to as an application suite.
    • Microsoft Office , which comes with a word processor, a spreadsheet, and several other discrete applications, is a typical example.
  • Application Software
  • Multi-Purpose Software
  • Managing Audio and Video Software
    • In order to play sound and pictures, the computer must contain special hardware and software that supports audio and video.
    • The hardware necessary to play sound and images includes audio cards, video cards, and speakers.
    • To run certain programs, we have to install some plug-in s.
    • A plug-in is a program added to a web browser in order to add multimedia capabilities. e.g. Flash plug-in, Java plug-in.
    • These programs are all available as free downloads from the Internet.
  • Media Players
    • A media player is a sort of “virtual” playback machine, complete with Play, Stop, Pause, Fast Forward, Fast Reverse and Volume Control buttons.
    • A Media Player also acts as a plug-in when an audio or video clip is downloaded from the World Wide Web.
    • This is the windows media player that comes with the Windows XP program.
    • You can play most sound and video files.
    • The QuickTime player is very useful when displaying .mov files.
    • Some programs in the Web require the realPlayer to display video.
    • WINAMP is a very popular player for listening to audio files as well as for watching movies.
    • Flash player is another standard for multimedia and Web applications.
  • Managing Multimedia Files
  • Pictures
    • Files have a name and an extension.
    • The extension refers to the kind of file.
    • Letter1.doc stands for a Word file.
    • Book1.xls means an Excel file and so on.
    Naming Files
    • The JPEG/JPG ( Joint Photographic Expert Group ) format uses a palette of millions of colors and is primarily intended for storing photographic images.
    Picture.jpg
    • The GIF ( Graphic Interchange Format) is commonly used for storing simple graphics on the World Wide Web, e.g. line drawings and maps.
    • GIF files are frequently used for logos, line drawings, icons, etc, i.e. images that don't contain a rich range of colors..
    cheetah.gif spinning.gif swirl.gif
    • The BMP (Bitmap format) is the standard format used by Windows Paint. Images stored in this format tend to be rather large.
    • The TIFF or TIF (Tag Image File Format) gives high-quality images but they are huge.
    Other Formats
    • Adobe Illustrator is a vector-based drawing program used for creating and designing of artwork such as logos, illustrations, etc.
    • Illustrator files are named .ai
    • Photoshop is a professional image-editing and graphics creation software from Adobe. It provides a large library of effects, filters and layers.
    • Photoshop files are named .PSD
  • Sounds
    • Sound editing packages allow you to save files in different formats and to convert from one format to another. Some common audio file formats are:
    • WAV is an audio file format. WAV files can be played in any Windows sound application.
    • MP3 , an acronym for MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3, is a new standard for audio compression. It has become a popular way to distribute CD quality music on the Internet.
    • CODEC stands for compressor/decompressor, a technology for compressing and decompressing data.
    • CODECs are used to make large files much smaller, thereby making them easier for distribution.
    • To play certain audio files you need to have installed the proper CODECs, if not, you have to download and install the correct ones.
    CODECs
  • Videos soccer.avi
    • Video editing packages let us save images in different formats and to convert from one format to another. The most common formats are:
    • AVI (Audio Video Interleave) format.
    • MPG / MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) is the most common format for storing video, especially on the World Wide Web, economical in terms of storage space.
    • WMV (Windows Media File) is also in common use and is quite economical on space.
    • Mov is Apple QuickTime Movie file format. A .mov file can be used to store both movies and sounds.
    • There are several different versions of QuickTime files in use, and not all players will play all versions.
    • ASF ( Advanced Streaming Format) is a file format that stores both audio and video and is specially designed for the Internet.
    • ASF allows content to be delivered as a continuous flow of data with little wait time before playback begins.
    • This means that we don’t have to wait for audio and video files to fully download before starting to view them.
  • Animations
    • A collection of static images joined together and shown consecutively so that they appear to move.
    What is an animation?
    • Macromedia Flash is a powerful graphics animation program, that uses vector and bitmap graphics as well as sound and video and is used for complex websites.
    • Vector graphics is a type of image that can be resized without distortion.
    • Bitmaps are made up of single pixels, which taken together make up a complete image. However, the image can lose quality when enlarged.
    • .FLA is a Macromedia Flash source document.
    • When a Macromedia Flash MX .FLA file is published for the Web, it takes on the .SWF extension.
    • Image files are made up of either pixel or vector data.
    • Image file sizes, expressed in bytes, increase with the number of pixels in the image, and the color depth of the pixels.
    • Images intended to be downloaded from the internet should be low in size and resolution.
    Image File Size
  • Beach.jpg Dimensions 200x139 Size 5.21 KB Hawai.jpg Dimensions: 482x322 Size: 134 KB
  • Web Browsers
    • A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, and other information typically located on a web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network.
    • Text and images on a web page can contain hyperlinks to other web pages at the same or different websites.
    • Web browsers allow a user to quickly and easily access information provided on many web pages at many websites by navigating over these links.
    • HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language, and is the software language used on the Internet's World Wide Web.
    • .htm/.html is a Web page extension file.
    • Web site is a collection of connected web pages stored on a web server.
    • A server is a computer that manages and shares web based applications accessible anytime from any computer connected to the Internet.
    • Safari is a web browser developed by Apple Computer, Inc. and is available as part of Mac OS X.
    • Mozilla Firefox is a free, open source, cross-platform, graphical web browser developed by the Mozilla Corporation and hundreds of volunteers.
    • Netscape is another well known web browser.
    • Internet Explorer is a web browser made by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems.
  • Search Engines
    • A search engine is a program designed to help find information stored on a computer system such as the World Wide Web, inside a corporate or proprietary network or a personal computer.
    • Google search is the world's most popular search engine.
    • In case, we search for images, we can use specific search parameters as shown.
    • Google gives us immediately the images we requested.
    • Whether you make business decisions where location is a critical factor, or simply love to explore, Google Earth takes you there.
    • Quickly zoom from space down to street level and combine imagery, 3D geography, maps, and business data to get the total picture in seconds.
    • There are other important Internet search engines such as:
    • MSN Search which has being updated and renamed as Windows Live Search.
    • Yahoo! Search is a web search engine, owned by Yahoo!.
    • Ask.com , formerly Ask Jeeves, is an Internet search engine.
  • Thank you