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Communismvs.nationalismin easterneuropeslides (1)


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  • 1. Communism V.S.Nationalism in Eastern Europe
  • 2. Soviet Opinion"The Soviet Government expresses confidencethat the peoples of the socialist countries willnot permit foreign and internal reactionaryforces to undermine the basis of the peoplesdemocratic regimes, won and consolidated bythe heroic struggle and toil of the workers,peasants, and intelligentsia of each country." - Friendship and Co-operation Between the SovietUnion and Other Socialist States, October 30, 1956
  • 3. Yugoslavia● Consists of six republics: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia ○ People in Tito’s Yugoslavia were very nationalistic ○ Yugoslavia started to build up their own independent version of Communism ○ Tito tried to form a midway between Western democracy and eastern communism leading to strained relationship with both the East and the West● Separated from Moscow ○ Wanted to liberate themselves from the foreign occupiers ○ Started to gain Economic and political freedom under rule of Josip Tito● Despite pressures to return to Stalinism, Yugoslavia would remain distant for the rest of their shared existence
  • 4. Yugoslavia
  • 5. Josip Tito● Considered to be one of the most successful guerrilla leaders of all time ○ drove Nazis out of Yugoslavia during World War II● After war joined and became leader of the Yugoslavia Communists● Ethnic tensions were suppressed during his rule
  • 6. Nikita Khrushchev● communist leader who had helped defend Ukraine from Nazis● took position of first secretary months after Stalins death, making him most powerful man in Moscow● attacked Stalin for "intolerance, brutality, abuse of power" and began more liberal reforms ○ made it acceptable to publicly question Stalin ○ within the year Poland and Hungary were revolting
  • 7. Hungarian Revolution Hungarians topple Stalin Monument
  • 8. Imre Nagy● prime minister of Hungary July 1953-March 1955● replaced in Soviet crackdown by radical Stalinist Matyas Rakosi, 1955 ○ tensions increased under his reign; Rakosi called “Stalin’s best disciple”: zealous in anti-Yugoslavia campaign● very popular leader because he was more liberal than Stalinist
  • 9. Hungarian Revolution● first major anti-socialist uprising and first shooting war between socialist states● Revolt by moderate Communists and anti- Communists against Soviets● Hungarian leader Imre Nagy tried to break from Warsaw Pact
  • 10. Hungarian Rev.- Reasons● Hungarians did not like the collective farms--used by Soviets to extract more wealth● Feb. 1956: Khrushchev exposed Stalin’s crimes, promised new direction for USSR● became Stalinists vs. everyone else● Stalinists had power after seizing it from liberal gov. in a coup ○ encouraged by Yugoslavias refusal to follow Stalinism and mass strikes in Poland
  • 11. Hungarian Rev.- Key events● Oct. 23, 1956: demonstration in Budapest to show support for the Solidarity Movement in Poland ○ quickly escalated into something more serious ○ protesters demanded Nagy take over gov. again ○ fighting in Budapest, other cities; continued throughout night ○ Nagy declared prime minister the next morning● Hungarian leader Imre Nagy tried to break from the Warsaw Pact
  • 12. Hungarian Rev- Effects● anti communists gathered strength; Nagy took full power, brought back multiparty system● thousands of political prisoners released● short period of liberalism
  • 13. Hungarian Rev- Aftermath● Nov. 1: Khrushchev ordered Soviets to retake Hungary when gov. planned to leave Warsaw Pact ○ Hungarians not prepared at all● Nov. 4: Soviets took Budapest, revolution collapsed ○ high point of Soviets blocking self-determination● discouraged more revolutions for over a decade● Mass exodus, arrests and deportations cut out large part of Hungarian populations ○ 200,000 refugees fled Hungary● showed Soviet determination to keep empire intact
  • 14. Prague Spring● Brief period of liberalism in Czechoslovakia
  • 15. Prague Spring- Key Events● 5 January 1968: Communist leaders ousted Stalinist First Secretary, causing political, economic and nationalist tensions ○ had been repressing workers, intellectuals and students who questioned the system● replaced by Alexander Dubcek, leader of Slovak Communists ○ began reform period known as Prague Spring ○ Started gaining momentum 9 April 1968
  • 16. Prague Spring- Reforms● what was promised: ○ more freedom for in industry, agriculture ○ protection of civil liberties ○ Slovak Communists would stay in power, but more responsive to people● what did happen: ○ abolition of censorship, creation of workers’ councils on factories ○ writing of new constitution to make democratic regime ○ Rehabilitation Act passed: retrials for people convicted of political crimes against communists
  • 17. Prague Spring- PeoplesReaction● Czech population thrilled; hadnt had this level of freedom since Feb. 1948● by summer public wanted independent political parties, purer democracy, more radical economic reforms● Moscow reaction ○ saw reforms as rejection of USSR policies, worried Czechs might withdraw from Warsaw Treaty Organization
  • 18. Prague Spring- Aftermath● 16 July 1968: letter from various socialist nations asking for reforms to stop ○ claimed Czechs were breaking away from socialism, reforms threatened entire socialist system ○ Dubcek said reforms should not be seen as anti-Soviet, they werent going to leave WTO● annoyed USSR; military intervention ○ 20-21 August 1968: 500,000 WTO troops invade, met little resistance ○ Dubcek brought to Moscow 21 August 1968, gave into USSR demands ○ 27 August 1968: told Czechs reforms were over
  • 19. Prague Spring- Aftermath● Dubcek removed from office April 1969; successor supported by Russian Red Army, who led one of most repressive regimes in East Europe● Moscow justification: the Brezhnev Doctrine
  • 20. Polish Solidarity Movement
  • 21. Polish Solidarity Movement● Strikes starting in the 1970s and continued through the 1980s● Caused by dissatisfaction with Soviet Govt● Created Solidarnosc (Solidarity Movement)● Solidarity Movement survived by Martial Law stopping Soviet military from intervening● It was successful through 1980-1989 because it was backed by nationalists and the Catholic Church giving it more power
  • 22. Polish Solidarity Movement● Eventually able to hold free elections by forcing Soviet Regime● Soviets could not win even one seat● Poland became independent and more nationalistic● Election soon brought the entire collapse of the Soviet bloc
  • 23. Works CitedDeHart, Bruce J. “Prague Spring.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-Clio, n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. <>.“Events: Hungarian Revolution of 1956.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-Clio, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012.Fredriksten, John C. “Individuals: Josip Broz Tito.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-Clio, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. <>.Granville, Johanna. “Hungarian Revolution.” Encycopedia of Russian History. Gale: World History In Context, 2004. Web. 4 Apr.2012. <|CX3404100569&mode=view>.Haschikjan, Magarditsch. “Events: Soviet/Yugoslav Split.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-Clio, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012.<>.“Hungarian Revolution.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Gale: World History in Context, n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2012.<|CX3404100569&mode=view>.“Nikita Khrushchev.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-Clio, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <>.“Places: Yugoslavia.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-Clio, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. <>.Soviet Union. Freindship and Co-operation between the Soviet Union and Other Socialist States. N.p.: n.p., 1956. Print.“Yugoslavia.” Europe Since 1914/; Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. Gale, 2006. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. <|CX3447000924&mode=view>.