Dyscalculia A Way Forward

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Claire Trott's Presentation on Dyscalculia that she gave at Iansyst's Assess 2010 conference 31.03.10.

Clare joined the Mathematics Education Centre at Loughborough University in 1999 as a Mathematics Support Tutor. In her current role, she specialises in the provision of one-to-one mathematics support for students with dyslexia and dyscalculia. The teaching involves developing specific techniques and materials for mathematics.

Clare has been instrumental in establishing the Dyscalculia and Dyslexia Interest Group (DDIG), which she continues to coordinate. She is also a member of The Association for Dyslexia Specialists in Higher Education (ADSHE).

Clare's current research interests focus on mathematics and specific learning differences in higher education, particularly dyscalculia and the development in partnership with Iansyst of a first-line screener for dyscalculia.

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Dyscalculia A Way Forward

  1. 1. Dyscalculia: The Way Forward<br />
  2. 2. Presentation<br />Definitions and Prevalence<br />Screening<br />Supporting Students<br />
  3. 3. Towards a Definition<br />
  4. 4. DSM-IV (2000) <br />MathematicsDisorder:<br /> "as measured by a standardised test that is given individually, the person's mathematical ability is substantially less than would be expected from the person’s age, intelligence and education. This deficiency materially impedes academic achievement or daily living"<br />
  5. 5. Key Features (1)<br />1. Mathematical level compared to expectation<br />“Most dyscalculic learners will have cognitive and<br />language abilities in the normal range, and may excel in non-mathematical subjects“ Butterworth (2001) <br />Impedance of academic achievement and daily living <br />"Dyscalculia is a term referring to a wide range of life long learning disabilities involving math… the difficulties vary from person to person and affect people differently in school and throughout life". <br /> NCLD (2009)<br />
  6. 6. Key Features (2)<br />What is “mathematical ability” ?<br />“MathematicsDisorder” implies a stable cognitive root, not achievement or mastery which is subject to education and environment.<br />
  7. 7. The National Numeracy Strategy DfES (2001)<br /> Dyscalculia is a condition that affects the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. Dyscalculic learners may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers, and have problems learning number facts and procedures. Even if they produce a correct answer or use a correct method, they may do so mechanically and without confidence<br />
  8. 8. Key Features (1)<br />“acquire” emphasises acquisition rather than carrying out arithmetic procedures. <br />“difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers” placing understanding at the core of dyscalculia<br />
  9. 9. “A lack of a true comprehension or understanding of maths will be a key characteristic of dyscalculic people” <br />Chinn S. (2006)<br />Key Features (2)<br /> “Learning number facts and procedures” : more dyslexia related?<br />
  10. 10. Prevalence<br /> According to current estimates <br />Butterworth (2002) <br /><ul><li> About 40% of dyslexic children have some degree of difficulty with learning mathematics
  11. 11. Additionally 5 to 6% of children of average to superior intelligence having a specific learning deficit in mathematics. </li></li></ul><li>
  12. 12. DysCalculiUMTrott and Beacham<br />A first-line screening tool for dyscalculia<br />To be published by Iansyst (June 2010)<br />Aimed at adults 16+<br />Focus on Understanding Mathematics<br />Used with an appropriate DI<br />Identify “at risk”, refer to formal assessment<br />Profile of strengths/weaknesses<br />12<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Kerry<br />
  14. 14. Model for Dyscalculia<br />14<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />Initial Trials<br />
  16. 16. Further Trials<br />Involved 30 participants<br />Organised into three equal groups<br />Dyscalculic<br />Dyslexic<br />Control<br />Covered a range of academic subjects<br />16<br />
  17. 17. 100.00<br />90.00<br />80.00<br />70.00<br />60.00<br />50.00<br />participant<br />40.00<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />0<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />0<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />0<br />Percentage Scores for 3 Groups<br />O dyscalculic<br />O dyslexic<br />O control<br />%<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Compare 0.71 with 0.17<br />Compare 3.59 with 3.509<br />% correct<br />% correct<br />18<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />
  20. 20. 100.00<br />80.00<br />60.00<br />40.00<br />participant<br />20.00<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />3<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />0<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />0<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />0<br />Graph: percentage scores (revised)<br />O dyscalculic<br />O dyslexic<br />O control<br />%<br />20<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />Further Trials<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />“Small-Scale” Trials, n = 70<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Profiler (Thomas)<br />Overall: “severely at risk ” <br />Risk:<br />No. concepts<br />No. comparisons<br />Operations<br />Key concepts<br />Not at risk<br />Graphical <br />Tabular <br />Time <br />Spatial <br />More visual applications<br />
  27. 27. One-to-one Support for the Dyscalculic Student<br />A Case Study: Liam<br />
  28. 28. Liam: Transport Management<br />Strengths<br /><ul><li>Verbal reasoning
  29. 29. Expressive writing
  30. 30. Reading comprehension</li></ul>Weaknesses<br />Dyscalculic<br />Sequencing numbers<br />Problems with calculation<br />Unsure of basic operations<br />Use of inappropriate strategies<br />
  31. 31. Tables of Information<br />
  32. 32. Rows and Columns<br />
  33. 33. % of flights to Brussels more than 5 mins late:<br />
  34. 34. Alternative Approaches<br />12 flights<br />3 late<br />
  35. 35. Median of delivery route distances (km) <br />66<br />35<br />46<br />55<br />70<br />69<br />45<br />72<br />46<br />72<br />55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66<br />60.5<br />
  36. 36. Resources<br />http://incompetech.com/beta/plainGraphPaper/<br />
  37. 37. Number Lines and Graphs<br />Number line<br />Extend to 2-D<br />Moving axes<br />Apply to <br />Correlation<br />Sales forecasting (interpolation)<br />35<br />
  38. 38. Time and Scheduling<br />A small airline, based at LHR, serves two cities: Oslo and Helsinki. The flying time to Oslo is 21/4 hours and to Helsinki is 3 hours. There should be 3 return flights a day to each city and the turn-round time must be at least 40 minutes, but not more than 1 hour. Construct a schedule.<br />
  39. 39. 22:45<br />
  40. 40. 07.00<br />14.00<br />18.00<br />07.00<br />10.00<br />16.00<br />L<br />12.00<br />15.00<br />21.00<br />10.15<br />17.15<br />21.15<br />13.45<br />16.45<br />22.45<br />12.45<br />19.45<br />23.45<br />H<br />O<br />12.45<br />15.45<br />21.45<br />11.00<br />18.00<br />22.00<br />
  41. 41. Dyscalculia: The Way Forward<br />There is an urgent need for:<br />Effective screening and assessment<br />An understanding of student support needs<br /> With appropriate support the dyscalculic student can move forward and succeed.<br />

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