PEACE-THE NEED OFHOURPeace is an ideal of freedom, peace,and happiness among and within allnations and/or people. World peace is anidea of planetary non-violence by whichnations willingly cooperate, eithervoluntarily or by virtue of a system ofgovernance that prevents warfare. Theterm is sometimes used to refer to acessation of all hostility amongst allhumanity.
The term is sometimes used to refer to a cessationof all hostility amongst all humanity. For example,World Peace could be crossing boundariesvia human rights,animalrights, technology, education, engineering, medicine, diplomats and/or an end to all forms of fighting.Since 1945 the United Nations and the 5 permanentmembers of the Security Council (the US, Russia,China, France, and the UK) have worked to resolveconflicts without war or declarations of war.However, nations have entered numerous militaryconflicts since that time.
Many theories as to how peacecould be achieved have beenproposed. Several of these arelisted below. World peace isachievable when there is no longerconflict over resources. Forexample oil is one such resourceand conflict over the supply of oilis well known. Therefore,developing technology thatutilizes reusable fuel sources maybe one way to achieve peace
DEMOCRATIC PEACE THEORY Proponents of thecontroversial democratic peacetheory claim that strong empiricalevidence existsthat democracies never or rarelywage war against each other. There are, however, several possibleexceptions to this theory
There are proponents of cobdenism who claim that byremoving tariffs and creating international free trade,wars would become impossible, because free tradeprevents a nation from becoming self-sufficient, which is arequirement for long wars. For example, if one countryproduces firears and another produces ammunition, thetwo could not fight each other, because the former wouldbe unable to procure ammunition and the latter would beunable to obtain weapons. People argue that free trade does not prevent a nationfrom establishing some sort of emergency plan to becometemporarily self-sufficient in case of war or that a nationcould simply acquire what it needs from a different nation.A good example of this,
Mutual assured destruction is a doctrine ofmilitary strategy in which a full-scale useof nuclear weapons by two opposing sideswould effectively result in the destruction ofboth the attacker and thedefender. Proponents of the policy of mutualassured destructionduring the Cold Warattributed this to the increase in the lethalityof war to the point where it no longer offersthe possibility of a net gain for either side,thereby making wars pointless.
UNITED NATIONS CHARTER ANDINTERNATIONAL LAW After the World War II, United Nations has beenestablished by United Nations Charter to "savesuccessing generations from the two scourgeof war which twice in our lifetime has broughtuntold sorrow to mankind".The Preamble to theUnited Nations Charter also aims to regainfaith in fundamental human rights, to respectobligation of sources of international law aswell as to unite our strength to maintaininternational peace and security. And alltreaties on international human rightslaw recall or consider "the principlesproclaimed in the Charter of the UnitedNations, recognition of the inherent dignityand of the equal and inalienable rights of allmembers of the human family is the foundationof freedom, justice and peace in the world".
GLOBALIZATION Gordon B. Hinkley saw a trend in nationalpolitics by which city-states and nation-states have unified, and suggest that theinternational arena will eventually follow suit.Many countries such as China, Italy,the UnitedStates, Australia, Germany, India and Britainhave unified into single nation-states, withothers like the European Union following suit,suggesting that further globalization will bringabout a unified world order.
Self-Organized Peace World peace has been depicted as a consequence oflocal, self-determined behaviors that inhibit theinstitutionalization of power and ensuing violence. Thesolution is not so much based on an agreed agenda, oran investment in higher authority whether divine orpolitical, but rather a self-organized network of mutuallysupportive mechanisms, resulting in a viable politico-economic social fabric. The principle technique forinducing convergence is thought experiment,namely backcasting, enabling anyone to participate nomatter what cultural background, religious doctrine,political affiliation or age demographic. Similarcollaborative mechanisms are emerging from theInternet around open-source projects,including Wikipedia, Need4Peace, and the evolution ofsocial media.
Economic norms theory links economic conditions with institutions ofgovernance and conflict, distinguishing personal clientelisteconomiesfrom impersonal market-oriented ones, identifying the latter withpermanent peace within and between nations. Through most of human history societies have been based on personalrelations: individuals in groups know each other and exchange favors.Today in most lower-income societies hierarchies of groups distributewealth based on personal relationships among group leaders, a processoften linked with clientelism and corruption. Michael Mousseau arguesthat in this kind of socio-economy conflict is always present, latent orovert, because individuals depend on their groups for physical andeconomic security and are thus loyal to their groups rather than theirstates, and because groups are in a constant state of conflict overaccess to state coffers. Through processes of bounded rationality,people are conditioned towards strong in-group identities and are easilyswayed to fear outsiders, psychological predispositions that makepossible sectarian violence, genocide, and terrorism.