2 presentation the new south


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Here are the slides for the second lecture (The New South) in the spring 2012 semester of History 122 at Missouri State University.

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2 presentation the new south

  1. 1. The New SouthI. The Failure of ReconstructionII. “Redemption” A. Prologue: Mississippi B. The Redeemers Seize PowerIII. Prospects for African-AmericansIV. The Economic Landscape of the New South A. The Sharecropping System B. Southern IndustryThe Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) retrenchmentHome Rule poll taxRutherford B. Hayes/Samuel Tilden Jourdan AndersonCompromise of 1877 Exodusters“Solid South” Benjamin “Pap” SingletonPolitics of the “Bloody Shirt” sharecroppingColfax Massacre “King Cotton”U. S. v. Cruikshank crop lienRedeemers Henry Grady
  2. 2. The Failure of Reconstruction1. Declining support in the North a. Panic of 1873b. Corruption of the Grant administrationc. Weariness2. Legal challenges (Slaughterhouse, etc.)3. Hostility from the white South
  3. 3. The Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) - Origins: meatpackers in Louisiana challenge a monopoly granted to a New Orleans slaughterhouse -USSC upholds monopoly, saying that 13th and 14th Amendments focused upon the freedom of “the slave race”Impact1. Narrows the scope of the 14th Amendment’s protections2. Most of citizens’ rights remained under the control of state, not fed’l, governments
  4. 4. A Democratic Party broadside from the election Give Me Liberty!: An American history, 3rd Editionof 1866 in Pennsylvania Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  5. 5. Give Me Liberty!: An American history, 3rd EditionMap 15.5 The Presidential Election of 1876 Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  6. 6. Colfax (Louisiana) Massacre Easter Sunday, April 1873
  7. 7. The Freedmen’s Bureau, an engraving from Give Me Liberty!: An American history, 3rd EditionHarper’s Weekly Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  8. 8. The “Redeemers”- White supremacists- Goals 1. dismantle the Reconstruction state 2. reduce the political power of blacks 3. reshape South’s legal system in interest of labor control/racial subordination- The Redeemer Governments: Low taxes Fiscal retrenchment: “Spend nothing unless absolutely necessary.”
  9. 9. How do the “Redeemers” maintain power after Reconstruction?Political shenanigans- Electoral fraud- Poll taxes- Registration laws - “Grandfather clauses”Changes in criminal laws - Vagrancy and “anti-enticement” laws- Sharpened penalties for petty thef - Expansion of convict labor systemReforming “local” governmentGerrymandering: redrawing political districts * Violence
  10. 10. United States v. Cruikshank (1876)- The U. S. Supreme Court overturns the only three federal convictions that had resulted from Colfax Massacre.- The Court found that the 14th Amendment only empowered the federal government to stop violations of citizens’ rights by the states- The 14th Amendment’s Equal Protection/Due Process rights did not apply to the actions of individuals- Provides a virtual green light to acts of terror in areas where local officials could/would not prosecute such acts.
  11. 11. The Prospect for African-AmericansThwarted in efforts to participate in public life, where do African-Americans look? - Opportunities for advancement Education Church Business - Migration? Abroad? Liberia The West? Exodusters
  12. 12. Above: African-American migrants await a steamboat for passage to points west and, eventually, Kansas. Left: Benjamin “Pap” Singleton,organizer of the Exoduster migration to Kansas
  13. 13. Give Me Liberty!: An American history, 3rd EditionFarmers with Cotton in the Courthouse Square Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  14. 14. The Sharecropping SystemDefined: a labor system in which tenant farmers (black and white) worked small plots of land for property’s owners (whites), producing cash crops (namely cotton)- at end of the year, tenants paid their rent with share of that season’s cropCompromise: 1. owners’ desire for control and reliable/powerlesslabor supply 2. tenants’ desire for land and some measure of independenceWhy cotton?A cash-poor societyMany advantages
  15. 15. A black family in the cotton fields after the Civil War, Give Me Liberty!: An American history, 3rd Editionphotographed in 1867. Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  16. 16. Give Me Liberty!: An American history, 3rd EditionMap 15.1 The Barrow Plantation Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  17. 17. Henry GradyProphet of a new, industrialized South