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Power Foods for the Brain

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Power Foods for the Brain, a new book by noted nutrition researcher and New York Times best-selling author Neal Barnard, M.D., reveals how simple diet changes can shield the brain from memory loss, …

Power Foods for the Brain, a new book by noted nutrition researcher and New York Times best-selling author Neal Barnard, M.D., reveals how simple diet changes can shield the brain from memory loss, stroke, and Alzheimer’s.

For more information: http://nealbarnard.org/books/

Published in Health & Medicine
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  • Hi Neal: Sorry it took so log, but here are images of a plaque and a tangle from one of the world`s leading authorities on AD and he is happy to let you use them.  Plaques are extracellular, in contrast to tangles that are initially intraneuronal but persist after neuron death and disappearance as “ghost” or “tomestone”  extacellular tangles sitting where the neuron cell bodies that had once contained them used to be but no longer are.  Larry From: Eliezer Masliah [mailto:emasliah@ucsd.edu] Sent: Wednesday, April 25, 2012 9:59 PM To: Lawrence A.Hansen Subject: Re: Pictures of plague and tangle Hi Larry please find enclosed, plaques are with anti-Abeta and tangles with phospho Tau Beta amyloid only reveals itself as filamentous at the resolution level of the electron microscope. The images I sent are brown because an antibody to the beta amyloid protein was attached to a brown chromagen  to label the  otherwise nearly invisible fibrils.  Larry
  • Rent sausage maker, try Gimme Lean
  • Hi Neal: Sorry it took so log, but here are images of a plaque and a tangle from one of the world`s leading authorities on AD and he is happy to let you use them.  Plaques are extracellular, in contrast to tangles that are initially intraneuronal but persist after neuron death and disappearance as “ghost” or “tomestone”  extacellular tangles sitting where the neuron cell bodies that had once contained them used to be but no longer are.  Larry From: Eliezer Masliah [mailto:emasliah@ucsd.edu] Sent: Wednesday, April 25, 2012 9:59 PM To: Lawrence A.Hansen Subject: Re: Pictures of plague and tangle Hi Larry please find enclosed, plaques are with anti-Abeta and tangles with phospho Tau Beta amyloid only reveals itself as filamentous at the resolution level of the electron microscope. The images I sent are brown because an antibody to the beta amyloid protein was attached to a brown chromagen  to label the  otherwise nearly invisible fibrils.  Larry
  • Show butter, cheese, meat Ask Dr. Morris for actual percentages of AD risk, so I can say, with this much sat fat, your risk is this. Take out this fat and it’s reduced to this.
  • Could show an array of foods, in line from lowest to highest sat fat content.
  • Show snack foods contain trans fats
  • Could show an array of foods, in line from lowest to highest sat fat content.
  • Show foods: You’ll find traces of vitamin E in broccoli, spinach, sweet potatoes, mangoes, and avocados. And there is much more in nuts and seeds, especially almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, pine nuts, pecans, pistachios, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, and flaxseed. Black walnuts 8.1 Sesame seeds 8.0 Pecans 6.9 Pistachios 6.4 English walnuts 5.9 Flaxseed 5.7 Sunflower seeds 7.4 Almonds 7.3 Almond butter 6.9 Hazelnuts 4.3 Pine nuts 2.6 Brazil nuts 1.6
  • Researchers at Oxford University went a step further, testing folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in older people who were having memory problems that were sufficient for a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment.10 As you will recall, that means they had significant forgetfulness but were otherwise fine for the moment. The researchers gave everyone a set of cognitive tests. Then, over the next two years, the participants started a daily regimen that consisted of 800 micrograms of folate, 500 micrograms of vitamin B12 and 20 milligrams of vitamin B6, all of which are well above the recommended dietary allowance for these vitamins and more than one would typically get from foods. The effects were remarkable. High homocysteine levels fell sharply, and many people found their memory improving significantly. Accuracy on testing was improved by as much as 70 percent. And brain scans showed that the B-vitamins also helped protect against brain shrinkage over time. de Jager CA, Oulhaj A, Jacoby R, Refsum H, Smith AD. Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011; Jul 21. doi: 10.1002/gps.2758. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Figure 4. Selected subtraction MRI scans. The images are from the baseline scan with colour superimposed to show the brain tissue change over the following two years. Colours show expansion (red/yellow) or contraction (blue/light blue) of the brain of 0.3 to 1.0 mm, with the lightest colour indicating the biggest change. (A) Subtraction image of female participant in the placebo group, age 79 years, with baseline tHcy of 22 mmol/ L, whose tHcy concentration increased by 8 mmol/L over two years. Atrophy rate was 2.50% per year. Atrophy most strongly appears here as enlargement of the ventricles. (B) Subtraction image of female participant in active treatment group, age 72 years, with baseline tHcy of 24 mmol/L at baseline, whose tHcy concentration decreased by 12 mmol/L over two years. Atrophy rate 0.46% per year. There is no clear visible pattern of atrophy. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012244.g004
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Transcript

  • 1. Power Foods for the Brain Neal D. Barnard, MD Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine Adjunct Associate Professor of Medicine The George Washington University School of Medicine
  • 2. What Matters Most?
  • 3. Alzheimer’s attacks half of us by age 85.
  • 4. 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 0 5 10 15 Alzheimer's Prevalence in the U.S.(millions) Hebert LE. Arch Neurol. 2003;60:1119-1122
  • 5. Memory Problems Lapses Mild cognitive impairment • Learning, remembering • Reasoning • Visual-spatial ability • Language • Personality Alzheimer’s disease =
  • 6. APOE epsilon-4 Allele From one parent: 3x risk From both parents: 10 - 15x risk
  • 7. Chicago Health and Aging Project
  • 8. Saturated Fat 13 grams 25 grams Alzheimer’s Risk
  • 9. Add Up the Saturated Fat 2 large eggs 3.2 g 1 slice bacon 1.0 g Chicken thigh, skinless 4.7 g Whole milk (1 cup) 4.6 g DiGiorno Pizza for One 12.0 g Total 25.5 g
  • 10. Cardiovascular risk factors, Aging, and Dementia (CAIDE) study, Finland Eskelinen MH. Int J Geriatric Psychiatr. 2008; 23: 741–747. 1,341 adults Average age: 50 Followed 21 years Mild Cognitive Impairment Saturated fat per day Low (<21.6 grams) High (>21.6 grams)
  • 11. Cardiovascular risk factors, Aging, and Dementia (CAIDE) study, Finland Eskelinen MH. Int J Geriatric Psychiatr. 2008; 23: 741–747. 1,341 adults Average age: 50 Followed 21 years Mild Cognitive Impairment APOEε4 Low (<21.6 grams) High (>21.6 grams) Saturated fat per day
  • 12. Trans Fats Low: 1.8 grams High: 4.8 grams Alzheimer’s Risk
  • 13. Cholesterol and Alzheimer's Risk <198 198-220 221-248 249+ 0 1 2 Serum Cholesterol (mg/dL) RelativeRisk 9,844 participants in the Kaiser Permanente health plan. Solomon A. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2009;28:75–80.
  • 14. Alzheimer's Risk 25.1 0 1 2 3 4 Saturated Fat per Day (grams) RelativeRisk
  • 15. Alzheimer's Risk 25.1 20.7 0 1 2 3 4 Saturated Fat per Day (grams) RelativeRisk Alzheimer's Risk 25.1 0 1 2 3 4 Saturated Fat per Day (grams) RelativeRisk
  • 16. Alzheimer's Risk 25.1 20.7 13.0 0 1 2 3 4 Saturated Fat per Day (grams) RelativeRisk Alzheimer's Risk 25.1 20.7 0 1 2 3 4 Saturated Fat per Day (grams) RelativeRisk
  • 17. Alzheimer's Risk 25.1 20.7 13.0 3.3 0 1 2 3 4 Saturated Fat per Day (grams) RelativeRisk ? Alzheimer's Risk 25.1 20.7 13.0 0 1 2 3 4 Saturated Fat per Day (grams) RelativeRisk
  • 18. Meat vs. Plant-Based Diets Proportion remaining free of dementia Loma Linda University, 272 participants Giem P. Neuroepidemiology. 1993;12:28-36.
  • 19. Meat vs. Plant-Based Diets Loma Linda University, 272 participants Giem P. Neuroepidemiology. 1993;12:28-36. Proportion remaining free of dementia
  • 20. What else is lurking in plaques?
  • 21. Plaques Β-amyloid protein Cholesterol Iron and copper
  • 22. Copper
  • 23. Another Culprit?
  • 24. Aluminum in Drinking Water 88 county districts in Britain Aluminum in water: Low (<0.01 mg/L) High (>0.11 mg/L) Similar findings in France. Martyn CN. Lancet 1989;333:61-62. Rondeau V. Am J Epidemiol 2009;169:489-96. → Alzheimer’s ↑ 50%
  • 25. Vitamin E
  • 26. Vitamin E and Alzheimer’s Risk Risk over 3.9 years of follow-up Morris MC. JAMA. 2002;287:3230-3237 Low vit E: (4.2 mg) High vit E: (7.6 mg) %
  • 27. Vitamin E Walnuts Sesame seeds Sunflower seeds Almonds Pecans Pistachios Flax seed Broccoli Spinach Sweet potatoes Mangoes Avocados
  • 28. Food versus Pills Foods have 8 forms of vitamin E. Chicago study: ~8 mg per day 1 ounce nuts or seeds = ~5 mg of vitamin E
  • 29. Homocysteine
  • 30. Folate Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 More Power for the Brain
  • 31. B-Vitamins for Brain Power Folate: 800 mcg Vitamin B6: 20 mg Vitamin B12: 500 mcg 223 people over age 70 with MCI, homocysteine ≥11.3 µmol/L University of Oxford, VITACOG study de Jager CA. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011; [Epub ahead of print]
  • 32. Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, revised, with delayed recall University of Oxford, VITACOG study de Jager CA. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011; [Epub ahead of print] 0 1 2 5 6 7 8 9 Memory (Delayed Recall) Years Placebo 6.9 5.9
  • 33. Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, revised, with delayed recall University of Oxford, VITACOG study de Jager CA. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011; [Epub ahead of print] 0 1 2 5 6 7 8 9 Memory (Delayed Recall) B-Vitamins Years Placebo 6.9 7.2 5.9 6.8
  • 34. Placebo B-Vitamins Hcy 22 → 30, atrophy 2.5%/y Hcy 24 → 12, atrophy 0.5%/y Brain changes over 2 years. Blue indicates contraction. University of Oxford, VITACOG study Smith AD. PLoS ONE. 2010;5(9):5(9): e12244. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012244
  • 35. Concord Grape Juice Mild cognitive impairment Average age: 78 1 pint daily 0 1 2 3 30 35 40 Learning (California Verbal Learning Test) Grape Juice Months Placebo 33.2 38.6 33.2 35.2 University of Cincinnati Krikorian R. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:730-4. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recall (California Verbal Learning Test) Grape Juice Months Placebo 5.4 7.2 5.0 6.0
  • 36. Blueberry Juice Mild cognitive impairment Average age: 76 1 pint daily 0 1 2 3 5 10 15 Learning (Verbal Paired Associate Learning Test) Blueberry Juice Months University of Cincinnati Krikorian R. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:3996-4000. 0 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 Recall (California Verbal Learning Test) Months Blueberry Juice
  • 37. Who eats that way?
  • 38. Are there extra benefits from avoiding “bad fats”? 1 gram of fat = 9 calories 1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 calories
  • 39. Physical Activity University of Illinois, 120 adults Brisk walk, 3 times per week Reversed brain shrinkage Improved memory Erickson KI. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011;108:3017-22.
  • 40. Dr. Barnard’s Exercise Tips 1. Arrive at airport as late as possible. 2. Carry massively heavy luggage. 3. Run for the plane.
  • 41. Beginning Aerobic Exercise Begin with 10-minute brisk walk. Increase 5 minutes per week, up to 40 minutes.
  • 42. The Bilingual Advantage Languages protect your brain. Delays cognitive decline by ~5 years. Craik FI. Neurology. 2010;75:1726-9.
  • 43. Mental Activity Reduces Alzheimer’s Risk • Intellectual activities • Documentaries, newspapers • Crosswords, anagrams
  • 44. WELL ILL
  • 45. Online Cognitive Training Lumosity.comFamiliar Faces
  • 46. Online Cognitive Training Lumosity.comWord Bubbles
  • 47. Words Facts Skills Emotions Slow Wave Sleep REM Sleep
  • 48. Amyloid Production Falls During Sleep
  • 49. But wait, there’s more….
  • 50. Medications That Affect Memory Midazolam (Versed) Cholesterol-lowering drugs Sleeping medications Antidepressants Antihistamines Anxiety medications Blood pressure medications Acid blockers
  • 51. Medical Conditions That Affect Memory Depression Thyroid disease Infections Migraines Chemotherapy Gluten intolerance
  • 52. □ Avoid “bad fats” □ Avoid excess metals □ Vitamin-rich foods □ Vitamin B12 □ Physical activity □ Mental stimulation □ Sleep □ Medications Checking our Scorecard
  • 53. PCRM 2009 USDA 2011
  • 54. Beginning a Healthful Diet Step 1. Check out the possibilities
  • 55. Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack Foods to Try
  • 56. Healthy Breakfasts • Cinnamon Raisin Oatmeal • Blueberry Pancakes • Hot Whole Wheat with Dates • Breakfast Scrambler • Fantastic Fruit Smoothie • Whole-Grain Bagel with Jam • Swiss Style Muesli • Slow Cooker Whole-Grain Porridge • Orange-Pineapple Crush
  • 57. Lunches and Dinners • Chunky Vegetable Chili •Chuckwagon Stew • Seitan & Mushroom Stroganoff • Portobello Mushroom Steaks • Oven-Barbecued Tofu Steaks • Roadhouse Hash • Sweet & Sour Tempeh • Southern Beans & Greens • Seitan Cassoulet • Mandarin Stir-Fry • Stuffed Vegetable Rolls • Zucchini & Herb Calzones • Chili Bean Macaroni
  • 58. Italian Cuisine
  • 59. Mexican Cuisine
  • 60. Chinese Cuisine
  • 61. Japanese Cuisine
  • 62. Fast-Food Options Veggie delight Bean burrito, hold the cheese
  • 63. Beginning a Healthful Diet Step 1. Check out the possibilities Step 2. Do a 3-week test drive Optional: Use transition foods
  • 64. Resources www.pcrm.org
  • 65. PCRM.org
  • 66. PCRM.org
  • 67. PCRM.org
  • 68. PCRM.org