Sociological classifications and simulation models of social inequality  [9.9.2010] Paul Lambert, Mark Birkin and Guy Warn...
Sociological classifications and simulation models of social inequality <ul><li>NeISS  </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation models...
1) www.neiss.org.uk <ul><li>A JISC initiative (2009-12) on collaborative research infrastructure in the UK </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Birkin et al. (2010: 3808) </li></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
Contributions of the ‘NeISS’ project <ul><ul><li>Accessing live / newly updated socio-economic/demographic data </li></ul>...
2) Social simulation models as longitudinal methods  <ul><ul><li>Definitions of longitudinal social research often focus o...
The contribution of simulation <ul><li>A simple, and ordinarily daft, simulation is to extrapolate forward in time based o...
<ul><li>These models show different trends if we assume that patterns respond to policy and payoff  [ f(O,P) ]  and opport...
Simulation approaches <ul><li>The above are aggregate models bringing in effects from the contextual average </li></ul><ul...
The contribution of simulation <ul><li>The general contribution is to model forwards in order to see plausible patterns wi...
Might social classifications matter in longitudinal simulations? <ul><li>Things might be pretty robust regardless of measu...
A selection of possible measures of social inequality using BHPS 1991-2007 Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010 1991  M...
Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
Variations in deterministic parameters  <ul><li>Here we’ll include in models the influences of educational level and famil...
3) Ageing and inequality <ul><li>Sociological and econometric research agendas studying the circumstances of social inequa...
‘… the interaction between ageing effects and [the] nature and impact of socio-economic inequalities..’ <ul><li>The educ p...
Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
‘… the interaction between ageing effects and [the] nature and impact of socio-economic inequalities..’ [ctd] <ul><li>It p...
Methodological topics <ul><ul><li>Comparison between analyses which use different measures of position within the inequali...
How to proceed?  <ul><li>Specify a simulation of social inequality outcomes using demographic, economic and geographic ind...
E.g.: This shows projected mean incomes as function of education, with less and more uni. expansion over time
4) BHPS based transition probabilities <ul><li>In general…  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a resource like BHPS to calculate ye...
<ul><li>In the following application…  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BHPS balanced panel  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(carry fo...
5)  First evidence on the effects of different sociological classifications   Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
Gini calculations on income and occupations: so far the regression model generating the simulated values isn’t doing a goo...
<ul><li>When greater ‘stochastic’ dependence is used, however, the variable operationalisation impacts diminish </li></ul>...
6) Conclusions <ul><li>Simulations and social classifications </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations offer a tool for evalu...
References <ul><li>Birkin, M., Procter, R., Allan, R., Bechhofer, S., Buchan, I., Goble, C., et al. (2010). The elements o...
<ul><li>Simulation models can be used to  project over time  in order to estimate emergent social-structural patterns. The...
… from the NeISS application… <ul><li>“ The key substantive question concerns the interaction between ageing effects and [...
Some specific research questions <ul><li>How age-qualifications links impact trends in social inequality </li></ul><ul><ul...
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Sociological classifications and simulation models of social inequality

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"Sociological classifications and simulation models of social inequality", Presentation by Paul Lambert, SSRC, September 2010

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Sociological classifications and simulation models of social inequality

  1. 1. Sociological classifications and simulation models of social inequality [9.9.2010] Paul Lambert, Mark Birkin and Guy Warner Social Stratification Research Seminar, Utrecht, 8-10 September 2010 Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  2. 2. Sociological classifications and simulation models of social inequality <ul><li>NeISS </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation models as longitudinal methods </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Ageing and inequality’ project: Social inequalities modelled as responses to changing socio-economic / socio-demographic structure </li></ul><ul><li>BHPS-based transition probabilities </li></ul><ul><li>First evidence on the effects of different sociological classifications </li></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  3. 3. 1) www.neiss.org.uk <ul><li>A JISC initiative (2009-12) on collaborative research infrastructure in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>National e-Infrastructure for Social Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Expert led simulation demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Combining data resources </li></ul><ul><li>Workflows for the simulation analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Modify and re-specify existing simulation templates </li></ul><ul><li>See Birkin et al. (2010) (includes image source) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Birkin et al. (2010: 3808) </li></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  5. 5. Contributions of the ‘NeISS’ project <ul><ul><li>Accessing live / newly updated socio-economic/demographic data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Running/supporting complex simulation models with high computational requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing flexible data management (e.g. in defining alternative measures of social position, education) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing multiple specifications of related models for comparisons (e.g. varying a few parameters and re-running) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… this application aims to make new inputs to long-standing questions about the influence of different measures of the stratification structure… </li></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  6. 6. 2) Social simulation models as longitudinal methods <ul><ul><li>Definitions of longitudinal social research often focus on data collected at or about multiple points in time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation models are often (but not necessarily) based on longitudinal data collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The do intrinsically involve: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>data simulated (i.e. constructed) forward in time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>analysis to summarize pogression through time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>E.g. Gilbert and Troitzsch (2005); Gilbert (2008); Zaidi et al. (2009) </li></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  7. 7. The contribution of simulation <ul><li>A simple, and ordinarily daft, simulation is to extrapolate forward in time based on the perpetuation of current parameters (e.g. using aggregate data) </li></ul>Plagiarism cases, year 1 essays
  8. 8. <ul><li>These models show different trends if we assume that patterns respond to policy and payoff [ f(O,P) ] and opportunity [ f(t) ] </li></ul>- Simulation models find ways to respond to the evolving population structures and constraints, typically in a ‘non-linear’ way - Good for seeing a likely pattern, but weak in terms of realistic margins of error
  9. 9. Simulation approaches <ul><li>The above are aggregate models bringing in effects from the contextual average </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graph 1: Projected value = f(time) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphs 2 and 3: Projected value = f(time)*f(current proportion) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Modern simulations tend to be either: </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-simulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>{Year-on-year} predicted values for every subject, carried forward via transition probabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agent based modelling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>{Year-on-year} predicted values for particular subjects (agents), modelling forces and interactions experienced by the agent </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The contribution of simulation <ul><li>The general contribution is to model forwards in order to see plausible patterns within complex/responsive systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs a good model of influences, projected influences, contextual effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(serious models take a lot of work – e.g. Euromod; SAGE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We ordinarily try various inputs to the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g. what would happen if we did X) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>… data choices (between measurement options) could be very important here… </li></ul>
  11. 11. Might social classifications matter in longitudinal simulations? <ul><li>Things might be pretty robust regardless of measures </li></ul><ul><li>Different measures tend to correlate with age, gender, and change over time </li></ul><ul><li>Major differences in functional form could be consequential, cf. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossing a threshold in a {two}-category model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A continuous model without any thresholds </li></ul></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  12. 12. A selection of possible measures of social inequality using BHPS 1991-2007 Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010 1991 Mean 2007 R2 with year 2 Intergenerational correlation (CAMSIS) (all adults) 28 25 24 83 Intergenerational correlation (CAMSIS) (men only) 31 28 28 77 Husband-wife homogamy (CAMSIS r) 39 37 33 70 Personal income Gini (all adults) 45 44 43 87 Personal income Gini (men only) 40 40 40 46 Household income Gini (all adults) 38 38 37 55 Occupational Gini (CAMSIS) (all adults) 29 28 27 91 Percent of all adults in EGP I 14 16 18 73 Percent of all adults in EGP I or II 33 37 43 93 Percent of all adults in RGSC I or II 32 37 42 96 Source: BHPS cross-sectional aggregates, weighted using {w}xrwght.
  13. 13. Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  14. 14. Variations in deterministic parameters <ul><li>Here we’ll include in models the influences of educational level and family type (and artificially adjust educational qualifications’ prevalence by age cohort) </li></ul>..Many more variations of these and other measures are possible, for future consideration…
  15. 15. 3) Ageing and inequality <ul><li>Sociological and econometric research agendas studying the circumstances of social inequality </li></ul><ul><li>who is advantaged/disadvantaged; why is that? </li></ul><ul><li>We increasingly acknowledge the potential influences of demographic transitions/socio-economic transformations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ageing population; changing family structures; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>educational expansion; immigrant influxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ample longitudinal survey data resources </li></ul><ul><li> e.g. BHPS; GHS; LFS; ‘Slow Degrees’ dataset </li></ul><ul><li>Many previous simulation analyses compare the effects of social changes on social inequalities (e.g. Zaida et al. 2009), </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to our knowledge, there is little attention paid to, or sensitivity analysis of, measures of social structure and inequality other than income - such as of occupations, educational levels </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. ‘… the interaction between ageing effects and [the] nature and impact of socio-economic inequalities..’ <ul><li>The educ profile represents grade inflation. The income/occ profiles could be one or two things - changing rewards with age; plus or not a general upgrading of rewards across birth cohorts </li></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  17. 17. Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  18. 18. ‘… the interaction between ageing effects and [the] nature and impact of socio-economic inequalities..’ [ctd] <ul><li>It proves very difficult to separate the experiences of age cohorts from other time trends (gender; industry; administration) </li></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  19. 19. Methodological topics <ul><ul><li>Comparison between analyses which use different measures of position within the inequality structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. occupations; education; income; wealth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model of the feedback effects on those positions of trends in national and local distributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variously measured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modelling of the feedback effects of trends in national and local demographics (e.g. family structures; immigration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>variously measured </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. How to proceed? <ul><li>Specify a simulation of social inequality outcomes using demographic, economic and geographic indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes a predicted profile, which is described over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterministic and stochastic components in predicting values (see O’Donoghue et al, 2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vary the model according to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative measures of social inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative measures or projections on economic and industrial trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative measures or projections on demographic trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing locality variations </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. E.g.: This shows projected mean incomes as function of education, with less and more uni. expansion over time
  22. 22. 4) BHPS based transition probabilities <ul><li>In general… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a resource like BHPS to calculate year-on-year transition probabilities from one situation to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These probability calculations can often be enhanced by other supplementary micro-data, e.g. on transitions between rarer states (see Zaida et al. 2009b) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those probabilities are then applied successively to a baseline dataset, projected forward over time, and that data is then summarised (the simulation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(running it on an actual dataset reduces the chances of parameters taking the predicted values outside a plausible range) </li></ul></ul></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  23. 23. <ul><li>In the following application… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BHPS balanced panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(carry forward all 2007 respondents every year till 2025) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict next year’s outcome from predicted values of a regression with explanatory variables of the current outcome (observed or simulated), plus gender, age, dob, educational level, family type, and age*educ interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous shortcuts: global imputation for family type; ignoring spouse’s changes; … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable parameters summarized below: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 different education measures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 different treatments (increasing educ for later cohorts only) </li></ul></ul></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  24. 24. 5) First evidence on the effects of different sociological classifications Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  25. 25. Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  26. 26. Gini calculations on income and occupations: so far the regression model generating the simulated values isn’t doing a good job of summarising inequality as it tends to reduce inequalities Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  27. 27. <ul><li>When greater ‘stochastic’ dependence is used, however, the variable operationalisation impacts diminish </li></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  28. 28. 6) Conclusions <ul><li>Simulations and social classifications </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations offer a tool for evaluating classifications (haven’t previously been used for this?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classification permutations offer new alternatives to the simulation communities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>{NeISS role in infrastructural support} </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Preliminary findings suggest: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measures are important – differences between measures matter a lot, and they matter more than do differences between treatments! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gaps open up: Longer-term longitudinal trends susceptible to differences in measures </li></ul></ul></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  29. 29. References <ul><li>Birkin, M., Procter, R., Allan, R., Bechhofer, S., Buchan, I., Goble, C., et al. (2010). The elements of a computational infrastructure for social simulation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series A, 368(1925), 3797-3812. </li></ul><ul><li>Gilbert, G. N. (2008). Agent-Based Models. Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Sage. </li></ul><ul><li>Gilbert, G. N., & Troitzsch, K. G. (2005). Simulation for the Social Scientist, 2nd Edition. Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Donoghue, C., Leach, R.H., & Hynes, S. (2009) “Simulating earnings in dynamic microsimulation models”, in Zaidi, A., Harding, A., & Williamson, P. (Eds.). (2009a). New Frontiers in Microsimulation Modelling. Farnham: Ashgate, pp381-412. </li></ul><ul><li>Zaidi, A., Evandrou, M., Falkingham, J., Johnson, P., & Scott, A. (2009b) “Employment transitions and earnings dynnamics in the SAGE model”, in Zaidi, A., Harding, A., & Williamson, P. (Eds.). (2009a). New Frontiers in Microsimulation Modelling. Farnham: Ashgate, pp351-379. </li></ul><ul><li>Zaidi, A., Harding, A., & Williamson, P. (Eds.). (2009a). New Frontiers in Microsimulation Modelling. Farnham: Ashgate. </li></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  30. 30. <ul><li>Simulation models can be used to project over time in order to estimate emergent social-structural patterns. The NeISS project (National e-Infrastructure for Social Simulation, www.neiss.org.uk) is a UK initiative in supporting the construction, estimation and interpretation of social simulation models applied to a variety of scenarios. In this paper, I will present results from one of the exemplar projects within NeISS, an analysis of ‘ageing and inequality’ , which is designed to model the development of social inequality over time in response to trends in major socio-demographic and socio-economic changes (such as the aging population, changing family formation patterns, changing patterns in educational provision, and changing occupational/industrial opportunity structures). Social inequality indicators used include measures of income inequality, occupational inequality, and social mobility. The data is initially parameterised around annual transition patterns in contemporary Britain, though it should in principle be generalisable to other data scenarios. A unique contribution of the NeISS project is its capacity to support multiple replications of simulations using different underlying measurement instruments of the same concepts – in this paper, we explore the impact of different approaches to measuring occupational circumstances, educational attainment and ethnicity in the context of the simulation model. </li></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  31. 31. … from the NeISS application… <ul><li>“ The key substantive question concerns the interaction between ageing effects and [the] nature and impact of socio-economic inequalities. These issues involve complex, non-linear processes that are suited to simulation approaches. The exemplar will enable study of the impact of alternative socio-economic measures and resources within a micro-level simulation analysis of socio-economic inequalities across age groups, premised upon large scale social survey data (such as British Household Panel Survey, Labour Force Survey, General Household Survey and UK Census based data)” (WP 4.1.4) </li></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
  32. 32. Some specific research questions <ul><li>How age-qualifications links impact trends in social inequality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass education; admissions policies; cognitive effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How will (high/low qualified) cohort-specific immigrant influxes impact upon regional age-occupation-qualification distributions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation: increase or decrease proportions within birth cohorts/ethnic groups/regions/sectors with certain qualifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How will fine-grained industrial sector transformations impact different age cohorts and subsequent stratification positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g. rise of the ‘cultural industries’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation: Modify national and/or local industrial distributions and project forward over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How is long term wealth accumulation influenced by longer life expectancies (e.g. changing inheritance patterns; longer pension dependence) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation: Model and modify income through work and through inheritance as it influences relative social position at a national level (e.g. BHPS) </li></ul></ul>Lambert, Birkin, Warner: SSRC, Sep 2010
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