Alexeï Grinbaum_What is responsible about responsible innovation?


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Alexeï Grinbaum_What is responsible about responsible innovation?

  1. 1. What is ‘responsible’ aboutresponsible innovation? Alexei Grinbaum Philosophy of Science Lab (LARSIM), French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Saclay
  2. 2. Sophocles, Antigone, 397-409Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM
  3. 3. Question : Have you heard about nanosciences and nanotechnologies ? Source: IPSOS « Les Français et les nanotechnologies », mars 2010. Sondage de 1013 personnes, constituant un échantillon national représentatif de la population française âgée de 15 ans et plus. October 2006 December 2007 December 2008 November 2009 March 2010Yes and I know exactly 10 10 10 16 22 what it is 42 46 48 63 59Yes but I do not know 36 38 47 37 32 exactly what it is No, never heard 41 58 54 52 37 Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM
  4. 4. Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM
  5. 5. European reports on ethical questions of nano Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM
  6. 6. Deontological ethics Commission Recommendation on a Code of Conduct for Responsible N&N research– 7 general principles and 27 guidelines– Instrument for Member States, companies, funders, research institutions, all researchers, and civil society organisations for initiatives and strategies on responsible nano research Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM
  7. 7. European code of conduct Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM
  8. 8. As seen by the EuropeanCommission Table 1 - Process dimension: values, tools and methods for RRI (examples) R&I (voluntary) initiatives R&I policies − Codes of conduct. − Funding of novel research programs on − Standards, certification/accreditation RRI (both social and natural science). schemes, labels. − Regulation oversight. − (Precautionary) risk management − Ethical reviews (e.g. biomedical field). systems − Technology assessment/foresight tools − Corporate social responsibility. including evaluation of ethical, societal − Novel inclusive/participatory processes to impacts. conduct R&I. − Participatory processes, stakeholders − Ethics and safety by design. and public (“upstream”) engagement for policy priority setting. − Ethical, social, safety observatories. − Supporting ethical reflection in education. − Supporting of open access to scientific information. Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM
  9. 9. ConsequentialismConsequentialism is an ethical doctrine based on the obligation to actin ways that produce the best consequences.Consider available options, predict which one will likely lead to thebest outcome and then choose a preference. For this, specify weights(costs and benefits) of relevant consequences and use a utilityfunction. Precautionary Principle “The absence of certainties, given the current state of scientific and technological knowledge, must not delay the adoption of effective and proportionate preventive measures aimed at forestalling a risk of grave and irreversible damage to the environment at an economically acceptable cost.” EU Maastricht TreatyAlexei Grinbaum and Jean-Pierre Dupuy, “Living with Uncertainty: Toward theOngoing Normative Assessment of Nanotechnology”, Techné 8, 4–25, 2004.
  10. 10. Uncertainty and risk “Processes are started whose outcome is unpredictable, so that uncertainty rather than frailty becomes the decisive character of human affairs” Risk: we know both the probabilities of possible harmful events, and their associated kinds and levels of damage. Uncertainty: we know the types and scales of possible harms, but not their probabilities. Ambiguity: measurement, characterization aggregation or meanings of the different issues are themselves unclear. Ignorance: we don’t have complete knowledge over all the possible forms of harm themselves. We ‘don’t know what we don’t know’ – facing the possibility of surprise. Indeterminacy: the possibilities for different social ‘framings’ depend ‘reflexively’ on complex interactions and path dependencies in the co-evolution of social, technological and natural systems. Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM ↳Moral luck
  11. 11. Moral luck A man spends an evening at a cocktail party. Fully aware that he has drunk more than is wise, he nevertheless decides to drive his car home. It is raining and the road is Moral luck* is a special case wet. Traffic light turn red, the man of consequentialist ethics. slams on the brakes, but a little too late: the car comes to a halt just past a pedestrian crosswalk. Two It is a situation when a future scenarios are possible: either there unpredictable outcome will was nobody in the crosswalk — and have ‘retroactive’ impact on the man escaped with no more than moral judgment. a fright; or else the man ran over and killed a child. Our moral judgement on a past event depends on its future consequences.* B. Williams, Moral Luck, Cambridge University Press, 1981. Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM
  12. 12. From the fear of novelty to the creation of meaning“And he [Tobias] went out to wash his feet, and behold a monstrous fish came up to devour him. And Tobias being afraid of him, cried out with a loud voice, saying: Sir, he cometh upon me. And the angel said to him: Take him by the gill, and draw him to thee. And when he had done so, he drew him out upon the land, and he began to pant before his feet. Then the angel said to him: Take out the entrails of the fish, and lay up his heart, and his gall, and his liver for thee: for these are necessary for useful medicines.” Tobit 6, 2-5 Filippino Lippi, Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM National Gallery, Washington
  13. 13. No limits for knowledge and passion “... Nature rewards Perilous leaps. The prudent atom Simply insists upon its safety now, Security at all costs.” W. H. Auden, The Age of Anxiety “O Opportunity, thy guilt is great” Shakespeare, The Rape of Lucrece Paolo Veronese, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM
  14. 14. Responsibility andvulnerability The responsibilities of innovators derive from the vulnerability of future people to their actions. “Even a sex-murderer is, in some cranny of his soul, full of inner hurt and hidden appeals; somehow the world is wronging him like a child, and he does not have the capacity to express this in any other way than the way he has found works for him. In the criminal there is both a vulnerability and a resistance against the world, and both are present in every person who has a powerful moral destiny.” Robert Musil Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM
  15. 15. Responsible innovation A variety of concepts  Our choice  Individual vs collective  “Parental” individual responsibility responsibility  Liability (legal) vs  Political collective accountability (moral) responsibility  ‘Role responsibility’ and  Passion beyond prudence its limits  Teaching ethical complexity  ‘Responsible for being through narratives responsible’  Taking responsibility vs being held responsible
  16. 16. The return of collectiveresponsibility“O opportunity, thy guilt is great” Shakespeare, The Rape of Lucrece  Jaspers: collective guilt  Arendt: collective responsibility 1) A person is held responsible for something she has not done. 2) The reason for her responsibility is her membership in a group which no voluntary act of hers can dissolve. Collective responsibility is a political phenomenon. Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM
  17. 17. Meaning “In the anxiety of guilt and condemnation doubt has not yet undermined the certainty of an ultimate responsibility. We are threatened but not destroyed. If, however, doubt and meaninglessness prevail, one experiences an abyss in which […] the truth of ultimate responsibility disappears.” P. Tillich, The Courage to Be Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM
  18. 18. 7 August 2012