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How cancer manifest its self

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Slide shrae assignment

  1. 1. ONCOLOGY by: Ayanda Ndwandwe
  2. 2. What is Cancer? ∗ Cancer is a disorder of cell division (leading cause of death). ∗ Cancer = tumor = neoplasm. ∗ Various forms of cancers differ in:  Type.  Aggressiveness.  Responsiveness to drugs. ∗ Most common cancers are: - Lung, colon, rectal. - Breast (female) & prostate (male).
  3. 3. Oncology is concerned with: The diagnosis of any cancer in a person. Therapy. Follow-up of cancer patients after successful treatment. Palliative care of patients with terminal malignancies. Ethicalquestions surrounding cancer care. Screening efforts.
  4. 4. Characteristics of Cancer Cells: 1. Persistent proliferation & immortality.     Self-sufficiency of growth signals. Insensitivity to anti-growth signals. Evading apoptosis. Expression of telomerase. 2. Dedifferentiation. 3. Invasive growth. 4. Formation of metastases. 5. Sustained angiogenesis.
  5. 5. 1. DIAGNOSIS 2. THERAPY 4. ETHICAL ISSUES 3. PALLIATIVE CARE 5. PROGRESS AND RESEARCH 6. SPECIALTIES
  6. 6. DIAGNOSI S The most important diagnostic tool remains the medical history • • • • • Fatigue Weight loss Unexplained anemia, Fever of unknown origin, Paraneoplastic phenomena and other signs
  7. 7. Diagnostic methods include : : Diagnostic methods include
  8. 8. Spinal Cord ∗ Understanding the medullary component ∗ Simply – relay station for input and output of transmissions ∗ Important to know: ∗ Medial to lateral IS: ∗ Cervical to Sacral
  9. 9. ∗ Apart from in diagnosis, these modalities (especially imaging by CT scanning) are often used to determine operability, i.e. whether it is surgically possible to remove a tumor in its entirety.
  10. 10. ∗ Generally, a "tissue diagnosis" (from a biopsy) is considered essential for the proper identification of cancer. When this is not possible, "empirical therapy" (without an exact diagnosis) may be given, based on the available evidence (e.g. history, x-rays and scans.)
  11. 11. THERAPY It completely depends on the nature of the tumor identified what kind of therapeutical intervention will be necessary. Certain disorders will require immediate admission and chemotherapy, while others will be followed up with regular physical examination and blood tests.
  12. 12. THERAPY Often, surgery is attempted to remove a tumor entirely. This is only feasible when there is some degree of certainty that the tumor can in fact be removed. Surgery is also used for the palliative treatment of some of cancers, e.g. to relieve biliary obstruction, or to relieve the problems associated with some cerebral tumors.
  13. 13. THERAPY Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are used as a first-line radical therapy in a number of malignancies. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are commonly used for palliation, where disease is clearly incurable: in this situation the aim is to improve the quality of and prolong life.
  14. 14. THERAPY Hormone manipulation is well established, particularly in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer. There is currently a rapid expansion in the use of monoclonal antibody treatments, notably for lymphoma(Rituximab), and breast cancer (Trastuzumab). Vaccine and other immunotherapies are the subject of intensive research.
  15. 15. PALLIATIVE CARE 50% cancer cases Radical treatment A large number of cancer patients will die from the disease will die of other causes PALLIATIVE CARE: TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ADVANCED DISEASE pain, nausea, anorexia, fatigue, immobility. DEPRESSION MORAL AND SPIRITUAL ISSUES ARE ALSO IMPORTANT
  16. 16. Spinal Cord • Anatomy • Tracts • Ascending • sensory • Descending • Motor
  17. 17. ETHICAL ISSUES extent the patient need/want know progression prognosis Clinical trials terminal illness Withdrawal of active treatment. "Do Not Resuscitate" about life issues SENSITIVITY AND VERY GOOD COMMUNICATION
  18. 18. Malignant transformations occurs when:  Activation of oncogenes.  Suppression of tumor suppressor genes.  3-7 mutations must occur in a single cell to become cancerous.  Normal functioning immune system usually recognizes these cells & destroy them.
  19. 19. ∗ There is a tremendous amount of research being conducted on all frontiers of oncology, ranging from cancer cell biology to chemotherapy treatment regimens and optimal palliative care and pain relief
  20. 20. Don`t forget the old treatments that are very useful to  treat cancer such as: ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ Radiotherapy Chemotherapy The surgery Bone marrow transplant
  21. 21. REFFENCE Sandra Guiselly Terrybear11 clinicaUniversidad Navarra Neuroonco Jhlavin

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