What is Cancer?
∗ Cancer is a disorder of cell division (leading cause of
∗ Cancer = tumor = neoplasm.
∗ Various forms of cancers differ in:
Responsiveness to drugs.
∗ Most common cancers are:
- Lung, colon, rectal.
- Breast (female) & prostate (male).
Oncology is concerned with:
The diagnosis of any cancer in a person.
Follow-up of cancer patients after successful
Palliative care of patients with terminal
Ethicalquestions surrounding cancer care.
Characteristics of Cancer Cells:
1. Persistent proliferation & immortality.
Self-sufficiency of growth signals.
Insensitivity to anti-growth signals.
Expression of telomerase.
3. Invasive growth.
4. Formation of metastases.
5. Sustained angiogenesis.
4. ETHICAL ISSUES
3. PALLIATIVE CARE
5. PROGRESS AND RESEARCH
The most important
remains the medical
Fever of unknown origin,
and other signs
Diagnostic methods include : :
Diagnostic methods include
∗ Understanding the medullary
∗ Simply – relay station for input
and output of transmissions
∗ Important to know:
∗ Medial to lateral IS:
∗ Cervical to Sacral
∗ Apart from in diagnosis, these modalities (especially
imaging by CT scanning) are often used to determine
operability, i.e. whether it is surgically possible to remove a
tumor in its entirety.
∗ Generally, a "tissue diagnosis" (from a biopsy) is
considered essential for the proper identification of cancer.
When this is not possible, "empirical therapy" (without an
exact diagnosis) may be given, based on the available
evidence (e.g. history, x-rays and scans.)
It completely depends on the nature of the
tumor identified what kind of therapeutical
intervention will be necessary.
Certain disorders will require immediate
admission and chemotherapy, while others
will be followed up with regular physical
examination and blood tests.
Often, surgery is attempted
to remove a tumor entirely.
This is only feasible when
there is some degree of
certainty that the tumor can
in fact be removed.
Surgery is also used for the
palliative treatment of
some of cancers, e.g. to
relieve biliary obstruction,
or to relieve the problems
associated with some
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy
are used as a first-line radical
therapy in a number of
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy
are commonly used for palliation,
where disease is clearly incurable:
in this situation the aim is to
improve the quality of and prolong
Hormone manipulation is well established, particularly
in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer.
There is currently a rapid expansion in the use of
monoclonal antibody treatments, notably for
lymphoma(Rituximab), and breast cancer
Vaccine and other immunotherapies are the subject of
50% cancer cases
A large number of cancer patients
will die from the disease
will die of other causes
TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ADVANCED DISEASE
SPIRITUAL ISSUES ARE
Withdrawal of active treatment.
"Do Not Resuscitate"
about life issues
SENSITIVITY AND VERY GOOD COMMUNICATION
Malignant transformations occurs when:
Activation of oncogenes.
Suppression of tumor suppressor genes.
3-7 mutations must occur in a single cell to become
Normal functioning immune system usually recognizes
these cells & destroy them.
∗ There is a tremendous amount of research being conducted
on all frontiers of oncology, ranging from cancer cell
biology to chemotherapy treatment regimens and optimal
palliative care and pain relief
Don`t forget the old treatments that are very useful to
treat cancer such as:
Bone marrow transplant