Nur Dalila Mohd Arshad
Beliefs influence the use of language leaming
strategies both inside or outside the classroom
(Nyikos and Oxford, 1993; Horwitz, 1987;
Beliefs include: How best to learn a
language, which teaching method is more
effective, some languages are more difficult to
learn than others, some learning and
communication strategies are inappropriate in
certain settings and beliefs about themselves
(whether positive or negative) as language
leamers. (Horwitz, 19_8.7; Wenden
Negative beliefs : effect on the type of strategies used by
language learners (prevent the language learner from using
particular learning strategies) (Gowans, 1999)
The low use of metacognitive and memory building
strategies were related to a number of negative beliefs that
students held (Nyikos and Oxford, 1993)
A study of young children showed that cognitive and
social strategies were very important.
Chesterfield and Chesterfield (1985)
children developed receptive strategies (repetition
and memorization) first.
Then they developed strategies which allowed them
to start and maintain interactions (e.g. attention
getting and asking for clarification).
Finally, they developed strategies for the identification
and monitoring of grammatical errors.
Purdie and Oliver (1999)
Most primary school children learn English by using metacognitive
strategies and social strategies ranked next in importance.
Omally et al (1985a, 1985b)
secondary school student were generally use cognitive strategies
and that metacognitive strategies were reported by some more
after identifying successful strategies employed by 105 learners of
French at three levels of study (grade 8, grade 9-10 and grade 10-
11) concluded that successful learning behaviours were dependent
on the task, and that years of study influenced LLS use
Females report greater overall strategy use than males
and the choice of strategy is influenced by the language
learner's gender (Bacon and Finnemann, 1992; Green
and Oxford, 1995; Ehrman and Oxford, 1989; Oxford
and Ehrman, 1995; Oxford and Nyikos, 1989; Oxford et
al, 1993; Politzer, 1983).
Found a “relatively minor” difference between male and
female learners with females making a greater use of
social interaction strategies.
Oxford and Nyikos (1989)
females reported more frequent strategy use than males
(used conversation input elicitation strategies, general
study strategies and formal rule-related practice
strategies more than males (e.g. asking to speak
slowly, requesting pronunciation correction, and guessing
what the speaker will say).
women used three different types of social strategies and
two types of affective strategies in their study more than
Oxford and Nyikos (1989) and Green and Oxford (1995)
suggest that females choose to use more strategies related
to social interaction than males
Found that males were better when a visual-spatial
stimulus of color plus picture was used.
However, females recalled more when color was the
Suggested that such strategies were the result of the
socialization of males and females and that such
differences should be considered when the use of
strategies was promoted in language learning.
4) PROFICIENCY LEVEL
High level of proficiency has been associated with an increased use
of both direct and indirect strategies (Chang, 1990; Green and
Oxford, 1995;Park, 1997; Chen, 2002)
low-proficiency students employed more communication strategies
than high-proficiency ones while high-proficiency learners employed
linguistic-based communication strategies (such as using
synonyms) more frequently than low-proficiency learners. Chen
high-proficiency learners tended to use a wider range of strategies
more frequently than do low-proficiency learners, but low-proficiency
learners tended to use communication strategies more often than
high-proficiency learners (Taguchi, 2002)
Cognitive and metacognitive strategies showed very high
correlations with the proficiency level of the participants and were
used by high-proficiency learner (Peacock and Ho, 2003)
Motivation had a pervasive influences on the frequency of strategy
use and the type of strategies used by language learners (Oxford et
al, 1993; Oxford and Ehrman, 1995; Oxford and Nyikos, 1989).
Motivated language learner uses language learning strategies more
often than the less motivated language learner (Oxford et al,1993;
Oxford and Nyikos, 1989).
Politzer and McGroarty (1985)
indicated that the goal of the English language learning is a
major topic in any discussion of language learning strategies.
argued that learners learn target languages for different reasons
and purposes and this could have an effect on their choice of
Intrinsic Motivation: motivation to learn English
because of their 'love of languages',
type of strategies used was influenced by motivation that
was internally generated through their desire to use
language outside the classroom
extrinsic motivation is the desire to perform a task to
gain extemal rewards, such
as, praise, grades, money')
Nyikos and Oxford (1993)
reporting on a study of university language learners in the
USA who were taking a language as a
requirement, reported that the students concentrating on
obtaining good grades.
rule related processing strategies and academic study
strategies, rather than on strategies which improve skills for
authentic and communicative language use.