HAI HAI - HOSPITAL ASSOCIATED INFECTION HAI - HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTION a NASO- COMIAL INFECTION HAI HAI HOSPITAL HAI - HEALTH CARE ASSOCITED INFECTION HEALTH CARE ASSOCIATED AFTER 24 hours Within 48 hrs Back with infection With in 30 days
HOSPITAL ASSOCIATED INFECTION When a infection manifested within 48 hours of admission. Patient is incubating from a outside infection. HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTION These are infections that are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit. Infections are considered nosocomial if they first appear 48 hours or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge. Nasocomial comes from the Greek word ‘ nasokomeio ’. noses= disease, komeo= to takecare of HEALTH CARE ASSOCITED INFECTION The modern CDC definition of hospital acquired infection is Healthcare associated infection. Healthcare-associated infections are infections that patients Acquire during the course of receiving healthcare treatment for other conditions
IMPORTANCE OF HAI In the United States , the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that roughly 1.7 million hospital-associated infections, from all types of microorganisms , including bacteria , combined, cause or contribute to 99,000 deaths each year In Europe , where hospital surveys have been conducted, the category of Gram-negative infections are estimated to account for two-thirds of the 25,000 deaths each year. Nosocomial infections can cause severe pneumonia and infections of the urinary tract , bloodstream and other parts of the body. Many types are difficult to attack with antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance is spreading to Gram-negative bacteria that can infect people outside the hospital.(Wikipedia)
PREVALANCE OF HAI • USA: Up to 2 million healthcare-associated infections per year, of which 80,000 are lethal or may contribute to death (3) • Europe: 5 million HAI per year, of which 50,000 (1%) are lethal and contribute to death in 135,000 cases (2.7%) (4) • Japan: Resistance Isolation Rate of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus): 40-80% • India: An estimated 10 to 30% of patients admitted to hospitals and nursing homes acquire a nosocomial infection (5) • Up to 70% of organisms causing HAI are resistant to at least one antibiotic (6) (www.biomerieux-diagnostics.com/upload/HAI_KeyFigures.pdf)
DYNAMICS OF HOSPITAL INFECTION THREE FACTORS: THREE PROCESS H OST A GENT I NTIMATE ENVIRONMENT
THREE PROCESS: HAI H OST A GENT I NTIMATE ENVIRONMENT I NJECTION TO HOST A VEHICLE OF TRANSPORTATION H AVE A PORTAL OF EXIST
PREVENTION OF INFECTION A VOID TRANSMISSION H EALTH EDUCATION I SOLATION OF PATIENT 1 2 3
Do you know hospital infection control rules and regulation?
Are you praticing aseptic hospital procedures?
Are you taking part in health education?
Are you reporting abuot hospital infection.?
Are you following barrier nurshing in infected cases?
Are yu washing hand before and after touching patient?
ARE you ensuring proper segregation of BMW?
Are you using protective gears when in isolation ward?
Are you immunised against hepatitis B?
H ave A ll I nformed
Inform all,about hospital guide line for hospital inf. control .
Teach aseptic pratice to patient,relatives and visitors.
How to suspect hospital infection.
Teach all hand washing and universal precaution.
Proper treatment of fomites.
Proper segregation and disposal of BMW.
SPECIFIC ROLE OF HOSPITAL EMPLOYEES HAI HOST PROTECTION AGENT DESTRUCTION INFECTION PREVENTION ROLE OF:- DOCTOR NURSE PARAMEDICS ROLE OF STAFF DOCTOR NURSE PARAMEDICS ROLE OF STAFF DOCTOR NURSE PARAMEDICS ROLE OF STAFF DOCTOR NURSE PARAMEDICS
On suspicion send sample for culture and sensitivity.
Investigate cause and prevent spread.
Ensure infection control guidelines followed.
Restrict over crowding and visitors to infected patient.
Regular medical checkup of staff for carriers.
Carriers must not be posted in sensitive wards.
Immunise hospital staff against hepatitisB.
HOST PROTECTION B. NURSES Barrier nursing to all infected cases. Issue fresh and clean linen to patients. Chang bed sheet and patient dress regularly. Encourage use of disposables. Washing of hands before and after touching patient. Proper sterilisation of instruments and dressings. Routine bacteriological sampling for test. Storing instruments and linens in close cabinets. Disinfect linen in hypo chloride before sending to laundry. Ensure sanitary house keeping and pest control. Restrict visitors, and give health education. Separate trolley for clean and dirty supplies
HOST PROTECTION C. PARAMEDICS Good and hygienic house keeping. Wet mopping of floors to avoid dust. Disinfect the bed after death or discharge of infected patient. Proper segregation of waste, and washing of hands. Spray of insecticide to prevent vector born diseases. Assist nurse in restricting visitors. Transport clean and dirty in separate trolley. And samples to lab carefully.