DTCW 4103 – SoftwareDevelopment     Chapter 1 ~ INFORMATION     SYSTEM : What are they?
Objectives:   At the end of this chapter students    should be able to:-       Understand the types of systems       Un...
Overview   IS are crucial to the success of modern    business organization.   Constantly being developed to make    bus...
Overview   Systems analyst – KEY to successful    system/software development.       Understanding and specifying in det...
What does Analyst Solve?   Some typical problems are :       Customer wants to order products any        time of the day...
What is Information System?   Information System – A collection of    interrelated components that collect,    process, s...
What is Information System?   System – A collection of interrelated    components that function together to    achieve so...
Types of systems   Transaction Processing System (TPS)   Office Automation System (OAS) and Knowledge    Work Systems (K...
Transaction ProcessingSystems (TPS)   To capture and process large amount    of data for routine business    transactions...
Office Automation Systemsand Knowledge Work System   OAS       to support data workers       To share and manipulate th...
Decision Support System(DSS)   is a highly flexible and interactive IT system that is    designed to support decision mak...
Expert System and AI   Artificial Intelligent (AI) is the science    of making machines mimic human    thought processes ...
Expert System   Expert System is an artificial intelligence system    that applies reasoning capabilities to reach to    ...
Group Decision SupportSystem   A group decision support system (GDSS) is    a type of decision support system that    fac...
Executive Support System   Help executives organize their    interactions with the external    environment   Rely on TPS...
Integrating Technologies forsystems   Ecommerce Applications and Web services       Increase awareness       24 hrs acc...
Need for systems analysis anddesign   System analyst:-       Analyze data input       Data processing       Data stora...
Roles of System Analyst   System Analyst must be able to work with    different types of people and must be very    exper...
System Analyst as Consultant   Analyst may be hired specifically to address information    systems issues within a busine...
System Analyst as SupportingExpert   The analyst would draw on    professional expertise concerning the    computer hardw...
System Analyst as Agent ofChange   An agent of change is defined as a person who serves as a    catalyst for change, deve...
Quality of System Analyst   Must be a problem solver who enjoys devising    workable solutions   Must be an effective co...
Required skills of the SystemAnalyst   Technical Knowledge and Skills   Business Knowledge and Skills   People Knowledg...
Technical Knowledge andSkills   The System Analyst should    understand the fundamental of:-       Computers and how the...
Technical Knowledge andSkills   System Analyst should also know a lot    about tools such as:-       Integrated developm...
Technical Knowledge andSkills   System Analyst should also know a lot    about tools such as:-       Project planning te...
Business Knowledge andSkills   What does the analyst need to know?       What business functions do organization        ...
People Knowledge and Skills   It is critical that the analyst understand    how people:       Think – to better anticipa...
Integrity and Ethics   Keep information private – salary, job    performance, health, etc.   Expected to sustain the hig...
Types of TechnologyEncountered   Future analysts may encounter these    following:       Desktop system.       Networke...
Typical Job Titles   Some of the job titles that you may encounter:       Programmer analyst.       Business SA.      ...
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  1. 1. DTCW 4103 – SoftwareDevelopment Chapter 1 ~ INFORMATION SYSTEM : What are they?
  2. 2. Objectives: At the end of this chapter students should be able to:-  Understand the types of systems  Understand the role of System Analyst  Qualities of System Analyst  Required skills of the System Analyst  Job titles Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 2
  3. 3. Overview IS are crucial to the success of modern business organization. Constantly being developed to make business more competitive. Clear IT in IS can have dramatic impact of technology & profits. BUT not the technology itself, it is the people who develop IS solution that strap up the power of this tech that makes benefits possible. Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 3
  4. 4. Overview Systems analyst – KEY to successful system/software development.  Understanding and specifying in detail what the information system should do.  Understanding what the business requires from the IS.  System design – Specifying in detail how the many components of IS should be physically implemented. Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 4
  5. 5. What does Analyst Solve? Some typical problems are :  Customer wants to order products any time of the day and night. Problem: How to process those orders round the clock without adding to the selling cost.  Management continually wants to know the current financial picture of the company including profit and loss, cash flow and stock market forecast. Problem: How to collect, analyze and present all the financial information mgmt wants. Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 5
  6. 6. What is Information System? Information System – A collection of interrelated components that collect, process, store and provide as output the information needed to complete business tasks. Information – Raw data that already been process. Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 6
  7. 7. What is Information System? System – A collection of interrelated components that function together to achieve some outcome. Subsystem – A system that is part of a larger system. Supersystem – A larger systems that contains other systems. Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 7
  8. 8. Types of systems Transaction Processing System (TPS) Office Automation System (OAS) and Knowledge Work Systems (KWS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Decision Support System (DSS) Expert System (ES) and Artificial Intelligent (AI). Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) and Computer-Supported Collaborative Work Systems Executive Support System (ESS) Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 8
  9. 9. Transaction ProcessingSystems (TPS) To capture and process large amount of data for routine business transactions such as payroll and inventory A TPS reduces the time, increase efficiency Manager will use up to date data from TPS monitor what is happening in the company Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 9
  10. 10. Office Automation Systemsand Knowledge Work System OAS  to support data workers  To share and manipulate the information  Disseminate the information in organization  Eg: Word processing, spreadsheet, desktop publishing, electronic scheduling, and communication through email, and video conferencing. KWS – support professional workers such as scientists, engineers, and doctors  Allow them to create new knowledge and allow them to contribute it . Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 10
  11. 11. Decision Support System(DSS) is a highly flexible and interactive IT system that is designed to support decision making when the problem is not structured A DSS is an alliance between you, decision maker, and specialized support provided by IT. IT brings speed, vast amount of information, and sophisticated processing capabilities to help you create information useful in decision making. DSS is to improve your effectiveness as a decision maker by providing you with assistance that will compliment your insights. Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 11
  12. 12. Expert System and AI Artificial Intelligent (AI) is the science of making machines mimic human thought processes and behavior. Four types:  Expert System  Neural Network  Genetic Algorithm  Intelligent System Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 12
  13. 13. Expert System Expert System is an artificial intelligence system that applies reasoning capabilities to reach to conclusion. ES captures and makes available to you the expertise of a human expert ES solves problems by mimicking the reasoning process of a human expert to reach a conclusion The problem-solving strategy of a domain expert, the domain expertise, is transferred to the knowledge base by the engineer using the knowledge acquisition component Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 13
  14. 14. Group Decision SupportSystem A group decision support system (GDSS) is a type of decision support system that facilitates the formulation of and solution to problems by a team. A GDSS facilitates team decision making by integrating  Groupware  DSS capabilities  Telecommunication Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 14
  15. 15. Executive Support System Help executives organize their interactions with the external environment Rely on TPS and MIS Address the unstructured decision Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 15
  16. 16. Integrating Technologies forsystems Ecommerce Applications and Web services  Increase awareness  24 hrs access  Standard design  Global system Enterprise Resource Planning System  Integration of information of many IS on different management level and different functions System for wireless and handheld devices Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 16
  17. 17. Need for systems analysis anddesign System analyst:-  Analyze data input  Data processing  Data storage  Information output SAD is used to analyze, design and implement improvements in the functioning of businesses Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 17
  18. 18. Roles of System Analyst System Analyst must be able to work with different types of people and must be very experienced in working with computers. The three primary roles of the System Analyst are:  Consultant  Supporting Expert  Agent of change Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 18
  19. 19. System Analyst as Consultant Analyst may be hired specifically to address information systems issues within a business This can offer many advantages since outside consultants can bring in new suggestions with fresh perspectives The only disadvantage of hiring an outside consultant is that he/she would never truly understand the true nature of the organization Outside consultants would rely heavily on systematic methods to analyze and design appropriate information systems for a particular business Outside consultants also rely on the system’s users to obtain a clearer picture of the organization Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 19
  20. 20. System Analyst as SupportingExpert The analyst would draw on professional expertise concerning the computer hardware and software and their uses in the business This work is often used for making small modifications or decision affecting a single department Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 20
  21. 21. System Analyst as Agent ofChange An agent of change is defined as a person who serves as a catalyst for change, develops a plan for change and works with others in facilitating the change An analyst is considered to be an agent of change whenever:  He/she performs any of the activities in the system development life cycle (SDLC)  He/she is present in the business for an extended period of time At the very beginning, the analyst needs to interact with the users to get a better picture of the current system If changes is warranted than the analyst needs to develop a plan for change along with the people who would be carrying out the changes The analyst must also inform the users who would be affected by the changes Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 21
  22. 22. Quality of System Analyst Must be a problem solver who enjoys devising workable solutions Must be an effective communicator who is capable to relate meaningful information to other people over extended periods of time Must be experienced enough to program, to understand the capabilities of computers, to obtain and understand information from the users and to communicate what is needed to programmers Must be self-disciplined and self-motivated Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 22
  23. 23. Required skills of the SystemAnalyst Technical Knowledge and Skills Business Knowledge and Skills People Knowledge and Skills Integrity and Ethics Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 23
  24. 24. Technical Knowledge andSkills The System Analyst should understand the fundamental of:-  Computers and how they work  Other devices (input, storage, output)  Communication networks and protocol  Database and DBMS  OOP languages and class libraries  Operating system and Utility Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 24
  25. 25. Technical Knowledge andSkills System Analyst should also know a lot about tools such as:-  Integrated development environment (IDEs). Eg: Sun ONE studio for JAVA or VB.NET  CASE tools eg: Rational XDE modeles, Borland Together  Program code generator, testing tools, support tools, project man Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 25
  26. 26. Technical Knowledge andSkills System Analyst should also know a lot about tools such as:-  Project planning technique  Cost/benefit analysis technique  Interviewing technique  Requirement modeling technique  Architectural analysis technique  Network configuration technique  Database design technique Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 26
  27. 27. Business Knowledge andSkills What does the analyst need to know?  What business functions do organization perform?  How are organizations structured?  How are organizations managed?  What types of work goes on in organizations? ( finance, manufacturing, marketing, customer service ) Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 27
  28. 28. People Knowledge and Skills It is critical that the analyst understand how people:  Think – to better anticipate they way to interact.  Learn – new technologies adapt  React to change - must be prepared to change to see the benefits of change.  Communicate – influence and motivate  Work (in variety of jobs and levels) – support the personnel Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 28
  29. 29. Integrity and Ethics Keep information private – salary, job performance, health, etc. Expected to sustain the highest ethical standard – can destroy any impropriety appearance. Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 29
  30. 30. Types of TechnologyEncountered Future analysts may encounter these following:  Desktop system.  Networked desktop system that shared data.  Client-server systems.  Large-scale centralized mainframe systems.  Systems using Internet, extranet technology. Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 30
  31. 31. Typical Job Titles Some of the job titles that you may encounter:  Programmer analyst.  Business SA.  System liaison.  End-user analyst.  Business consultant.  System consultant.  System support analyst.  System designer.  Software engineer.  System architect.  Webmaster.  Web developer. Prepared by Ms. Nur Erlida bt Ruslan 31  Project leader/Project Manager
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