UNECA- State of ICT policy and linkage with agriculture in africa
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State of ICT policy development and linkages with Agriculture in ACP countries by Abebe Chekol Hunegnaw, UNECA

State of ICT policy development and linkages with Agriculture in ACP countries by Abebe Chekol Hunegnaw, UNECA

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UNECA- State of ICT policy and linkage with agriculture in africa Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Abebe ChekolICT for Development ExpertUnited Nations Economic Commission for Africa2013 ICT Observatory : Strengthening e-agriculture strategies in ACPcountriesHotel Hof Wageningen, 24 - 25 AprilCTA headquarters, Wageningen, 26 AprilStateof ICT policy development andlinkageswithAgriculturein African countriesUNECA
  • 2. ECAContentsBackgroundDrivers – Regional and International levelsThe NICI frameworkState of ICT policy developmentSectoral e-strategiesLinkages to AgricultureE-agriculture strategies – country casesOpportunities for e-agricultureConclusion
  • 3. ECABackground: - Status ICT policy, access and usage in AfricaICT – became a nationalpriority in manyAfrican countriesICT – became a nationalpriority in manyAfrican countriesBy 2012, 45 adopted ICT policy2 in the dev’t processBy 2012, 45 adopted ICT policy2 in the dev’t processAs of Sep 2011, with 620 million subscribers, Africa has overtaken Latin America,making it the 2ndlargest mobile market in the World after Asia Pacific(GSMA and ATKearney 2011))As of Sep 2011, with 620 million subscribers, Africa has overtaken Latin America,making it the 2ndlargest mobile market in the World after Asia Pacific(GSMA and ATKearney 2011))# of Internet subscribers grew by > 150 % in 2007 in several sub-Saharan African countriesalthough the continent remains to be one of those with the lowest penetration rate(9.6 % in 2010)# of Internet subscribers grew by > 150 % in 2007 in several sub-Saharan African countriesalthough the continent remains to be one of those with the lowest penetration rate(9.6 % in 2010)Wireless broadband Internet access is growing faster than the fixedBroadband (in which penetration remains less than 1%) mainly driven by thegrowth in mobile phone technologiesWireless broadband Internet access is growing faster than the fixedBroadband (in which penetration remains less than 1%) mainly driven by thegrowth in mobile phone technologiesBetween 2009 & 2011, 9 under sea cables landed in the African coastswith a cumulative capacity of 21.36 terabitsBetween 2009 & 2011, 9 under sea cables landed in the African coastswith a cumulative capacity of 21.36 terabitsAdditional 19.2 terabits expected in 2012-2013(African Under Sea Cables (2013) http://manypossibilities.net)Additional 19.2 terabits expected in 2012-2013(African Under Sea Cables (2013) http://manypossibilities.net)
  • 4. ECABackground: - The African ICT landscape as percentageof world totalICT in Africa - as a percentage of world total, 2010 (unless indicated)1.21.20.21.50.61.2104.114.80 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16ICT Imports - goodsICT Imports - servicesICT Exports - goodsICT Exports - servicesInternational bandwidth, aggregate Mbit/sInternet subscriptions, fixed (2009)Mobile subscriptionGDP, PPPPopulationSource: ITU, WTO and IMF databanks
  • 5. ECADrivers at regional and internationallevelsAISI – African Information Society InitiativeAISI – African Information Society InitiativeGuided by the African Information Society Initiative launched in 1996 as Africa’s digital agenda tobuild inclusive information society in the continent, ECA and partners supported countries inAfrica with the formulation of national ICT policies, commonly known as, NICIs which resulted inover 45 countries adopting their NICIs by end of 2012 and a further 2 in the process ofdeveloping one;AISI – African Information Society InitiativeAISI – African Information Society InitiativeGuided by the African Information Society Initiative launched in 1996 as Africa’s digital agenda tobuild inclusive information society in the continent, ECA and partners supported countries inAfrica with the formulation of national ICT policies, commonly known as, NICIs which resulted inover 45 countries adopting their NICIs by end of 2012 and a further 2 in the process ofdeveloping one;WSIS – World Summit on the Information SocietyWSIS – World Summit on the Information SocietyAccording to the WSIS Plan of Action, “Specific targets for the information society will beestablished as appropriate, at the national level in the framework of national e-strategies and inaccordance with national development policies, taking into account the different nationalcircumstances. Such targets can serve as useful benchmarks for action and for the evaluation ofthe progress made towards the attainment of the overall objectives of the information society”.Furthermore, the document stresses that national e-strategies should be encouraged by allcountries by 2005, based on national priorities.WSIS – World Summit on the Information SocietyWSIS – World Summit on the Information SocietyAccording to the WSIS Plan of Action, “Specific targets for the information society will beestablished as appropriate, at the national level in the framework of national e-strategies and inaccordance with national development policies, taking into account the different nationalcircumstances. Such targets can serve as useful benchmarks for action and for the evaluation ofthe progress made towards the attainment of the overall objectives of the information society”.Furthermore, the document stresses that national e-strategies should be encouraged by allcountries by 2005, based on national priorities.
  • 6. ECAApproaches to ICT policy making inAfricaCountries that followed the AISI, NICI model – the involveddevelopment of elaborate policy framework and implementationplan through a consultative process – majority of the countries(over 30 countries)Countries that followed the AISI, NICI model – the involveddevelopment of elaborate policy framework and implementationplan through a consultative process – majority of the countries(over 30 countries)Incremental models yet organic approach with a focus on buildingblocks such as national delivery through educational capacity,infrastructure, content and public service delivery through ICT(e.g. Botswana, Mauritius, Morocco, South Africa and Tunisia)Incremental models yet organic approach with a focus on buildingblocks such as national delivery through educational capacity,infrastructure, content and public service delivery through ICT(e.g. Botswana, Mauritius, Morocco, South Africa and Tunisia)Countries that didn’t develop theirpolicy due to historical and poliicalchallenges (e.g. Eritrea, Equatorial Guinea, Libya, Somalia andSao Tome & Pricincipe)Countries that didn’t develop theirpolicy due to historical and poliicalchallenges (e.g. Eritrea, Equatorial Guinea, Libya, Somalia andSao Tome & Pricincipe)
  • 7. ECANICI Development processPhase 1 – Frameworkdocument – thru baselinestudy which establishbenchmarksPhase 2 – PolicydocumentPhase 3 – Plan – anintegrated ICT and socio-economic devt planPhase 4 – Implementationof specific programs in theplanNICI cycleThe NICI development processcycle
  • 8. ECAICT Policy Focus Areas in AfricaAs gathered from ICT policies and plans of 33 Africancountries
  • 9. ECAMoving from policy formulation toimplementationMany countries moving towards translating NICI visions and objectives intosectoral strategies;Sectoral strategies are tailor-made for the specific needs of each sector andaccord each sector the opportunity to build on its strengths and adapt to itsneeds;To implement the Ghana ICT for Accelerated Development Policy, forexamples, sector strategies developed:e-Commerce and Trade Development Strategy;e-Government and Governance Strategy;Telecommunication and Communications Sector Policy Statement;National ICTs in Education Strategy;National ICTs in Agriculture Strategy;National ICTs in Health Strategy;National Strategy on ICTs and Gender; andNational e-Security Strategy.
  • 10. ECASectoral e-strategies & e-legislations√ Adopted » In progressSource: ECA WSIS questionnaire – 2009 and 2011Rwanda‘se-agriculturestrategy development isalso in progress** Cameroon and Malawi havealso agricultureasapillar in their national policyCountry Sector specific policies and strategies Legislations enacted AgricultureAs one of thekey pillars(priorities) inNational ICTPolicye-government ICT for educationpoliciese-agriculturee-commercee-currencye-transaction, e-payment, e-contractConsumerprotection andarbitrationDigitalsignatureCyber-securitylawsBenin √ √ √Burkina Faso √ √ √ √ √Burundi √Congo »Cote d’Ivoire √ » √ √ √DRC √ √ √Egypt √ √ √ √Ethiopia √ » √Gambia √ √ √ √Ghana √ √ √ √ √ √Guinea-Bissau √ √ √Kenya √ √Madagascar √ √ √Mali √ √ √ √ √Mozambique √ √ √ √Niger √ √ √ √ √ √Nigeria √ √ √ √ √ √Senegal √ √ √ √ √Sudan √ √ √ √Togo √ √ √Uganda √ √Zambia √
  • 11. ECAICT policy priorities or strategies that supportthe agriculture / rural development sectorICTforcommunity development strategie(e.g. Chad, Ghana, Malawi and Rwanda have this as one oftheir priority area of focus)ICTforcommunity development strategie(e.g. Chad, Ghana, Malawi and Rwanda have this as one oftheir priority area of focus)Universal access service strategies(many countries have this strategy to promoteAccess to ICTs in rural areas)Universal access service strategies(many countries have this strategy to promoteAccess to ICTs in rural areas)
  • 12. ECACountry cases – Burkina FasoProjectsto implement strategy•Web portal for rural community andthepromotion of multimediaproducts• Information centreand training on ICTsolutionsadapted to rural areas• E-servicesplatform for rural areas• Fund for centresfor community electronresourcesfor rural areasGoal
  • 13. ECACountry case - MaliGlobal ObjectiveStrategic pillarsProgrammes to implement e-agri strategy
  • 14. ECARwanda ICT policy evolutionsOut of 16 key countrysectors, five identifiedas priority sectors inthe implementation ofthe NICI-2015Governance sectorHealth sectorEducation sectorAgriculturesectorFinance sector (alsoto a large extentinclude tax,business, trade andtourism)
  • 15. OpportunitiesOpportunities
  • 16. ECAICT infrastructure - almost all countries arenow connected to submarine fibre optic cables
  • 17. ECAOnly 0.5Tbps of the 18Tbps of the submarine capacityavailable is currently in use on the continent – more potentialfor ICT services expansion
  • 18. ECAThe Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa program envisagesdevelopment of the ICT infrastructure as shown in the map to ensure access toall stakeholders with quality, security and high-level of availability by 2020
  • 19. ECAConclusionOpening of ICT market since 1990s thru – liberalisation – separation of postsfrom telecom – independent regulatory authorities – countries re-aligning theirICT plans with overall national dev’t planLegal and regulatory frameworks being in placeCoordination (institutional framework) – roles, conflicting objectives, domesticresource mobilisation and lessening donor dependence, ownership, etc.HR capacity development still remain a challenge including in specific areas(e.g. e-agri).Three key considerations for success:Quality of the policy in understanding the context and setting the obj andpriorities right;Managing how to mobilise and commit all relevant stakeholders throughoutthe process; andGathering data to continuously evaluate, monitor to re-align/adjusting policypriorities
  • 20. ECAThank you!