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Markets and export

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  • 1. 9. Markets/ExportBreadfruit seeds are a valued food in New Guinea and are widely collected. Gathered seeds aresold in village markets, providing an important source of income for women in some areas. Thefruits, and to a lesser extent, seeds, are a major subsistence food in the eastern Solomon Islandsand Vanuatu.Actually, there is an increasing demand for fresh breadfruit in Hawaii by Hawaiians returning totraditional diets for health reasons and other Pacific islanders such as Samoans, Tongans andMarshall Islanders who reside in Hawaii. Development and increasing urbanization, especiallyon the island of Oahu, have greatly decreased the numbers of trees growing throughout the state.Fresh breadfruit is occasionally available in ethnic grocery stores and local farmers markets butdemand far exceeds supply. There is interest in establishing commercial breadfruit plantings toprovide fresh fruit and chips for the local market.Besides, the fruit is produced and sold locally as chips in Fiji, Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, and otherislands.Breadfruit is also canned in brine and sold in the Caribbean and speciality markets in theUnitedStates, Europe, and Canada.Usually, breadfruit is available for sale in markets throughout the Pacific and Caribbean islands.An estimated 100–300 tons of breadfruit is sold in Samoa annually, with 60–130 tons sold in theFugalei Market in Apia.MarketdataarehardtocomebyformostcountriesinthePacificregion.Fresh,cooked,andpreparedfruitaregenerallyavailablethroughmarkets,roadsidestands,andothersmallvendors.Processedproducts,mainlychips,aresoldatthe samevenuesandbyretailers.Breadfruit-baseddishesareoccasionallyavailableatrestaurantsservinglocalfoods.Samoasells100–300MT(110–330T)offreshfruitannually,with60–130MT(66–143T)soldintheFugaleiMarketinApia(McGregor2002).Thecurrentmainexportmarketisfreshfruitshippedbyairfreight.Onaverysmallscale,traditionalproductsare shippedinternally,suchasnamba(fromtheTemotuProvincetoGuadalcanalintheSolomonIslands)andapreservedfruitpaste(fromKapingamarangitoPohnpeiIsland,FSM).In fact,alargepotentialmarketforfreshbreadfruitandbreadfruitproductsalsoexistsinthecommunitiesofPacificislanderswhoresideinHawai‘iandontheU.S.mainland.Inaddition,marketscanbecreatedinthefoodserviceindustrywherenewcuisineshavedevelopedinrecentyears,incorporatingAsian/Pacificinfluencesintothemessuch asHawai‘iregionalcuisine.Breadfruit is being exported from the Pacific Islands, although a vast potential market for freshbreadfruit exists in the large communities of Pacific islanders living in urban areas such asAuckland, New Zealand, Honolulu, Hawaiiand the west coast of the United States, if theconstraints of perishability and short shelf-life can be overcome.The 1980s saw the emergence of breadfruit as an export crop and today the Caribbean is themajor supplier of breadfruit to Europe, the USA and Canada (Marte 1988). In 1985, 1025 tonnes Source 1; Breadfruit( Ragone, 1997); Source 2; Artocarpus atilis (Ragone, 2006); Source 3; . Breadfruit. Morton, J.1987; Source 4; Regeneration guidelines for breadfruit(Ragone 2008); Source 5; Postharvest handling Technical Bulletin(New Guyana Marketing Corporation, 2004) ; Source 6: Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Breadfruit(Ragone,2011); Source 7; First International Symposium on Breadfruit Research and Development (Taylor.M&Ragone. D, 2007, Nadi, Fiji)
  • 2. were imported by the UK from St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the demand by 1987 was up almost10-fold. Export figures for the six Windward Islandscompiled for 1985-89 (Andrews 1990) areshown in Table 10.The exportofbreadfruit(intonnes)from the Caribbean Islands is given in the table below. Island 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 Barbados 25 n.a.† 65 66 123 Dominica 0 23 24 38 24 Grenada n.a. 1415 1429 1400 n.a. SaintLucia 911 833 809 867 1137 St. Vincent 94 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Trinidad n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 26 † n.a.=noinformationavailable.In 1990, total exports of non-traditional crops from the Windward Islands totaled 10 058tonnes,of which breadfruit accounted for 10% (Roberts-Nkrumah 1993). The Caribbean currentlyprovides more than 90% of the breadfruit for the United Kingdom market with the rest comingfrom Mauritius (Worrell 1994). Mauritius is the only other production area that produces andexports breadfruit for international trade.Jamaica is one of the largest exporters of breadfruit, especially to the USA (Roberts-Nkrumah1993). Haiti, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic also export to the USA. In 1985,approximately 15tonnes were exported to the USA and in 1988 a single importer was looking forreliable sources that could guarantee at least this amount weekly (Marte 1988). The USAimported 438.3 tonnes of fresh breadfruit from the Caribbean and 13.0 tonnes of frozenbreadfruit from Asia in 1986 (Crane and Campbell 1990). Recent interest in propagation and theestablishment of breadfruit orchards has arisen to support and expand the export market in theCaribbean (Roberts-Nkrumah 1993).Besides, there is interest in establishing small-scale orchards to provide fresh fruits and chips forexport from Pacific islands to New Zealand, the United States, and Canada. Fresh mature fruits,treated for fruit flies by hot forced air, are being exported to New Zealand from Fiji andSamoa.Furthermore, some breadfruit is canned in Dominica and Trinidad for shipment toLondon and New York.Small amounts are also exported to Canadaand the U.S. Breadfruit is a seedless breadnut,producing nearly spherical fruit with adiameter of 10 cm to 30 cm (4 in to 12 in) and a weight of1 kg to 4 kg (2 lb to 9 lb).WholeroastedfruitareoccasionallyairfreightedfromTa-hitiandHawai‘itoPacificislands,NewZealand,andthemainlandUnitedStates.CommercialexportsoffreshfruitinthePacificregioncommencedin2001withshipmentsfromSamoaandFijitoNewZealand.Currently, NewZealandimportsfreshfruitof‘Maopo’,‘Ma‘afala’,and‘Puou’fromSamoaand‘Utodina’and‘Balekana’fromFiji.If Source 1; Breadfruit( Ragone, 1997); Source 2; Artocarpus atilis (Ragone, 2006); Source 3; . Breadfruit. Morton, J.1987; Source 4; Regeneration guidelines for breadfruit(Ragone 2008); Source 5; Postharvest handling Technical Bulletin(New Guyana Marketing Corporation, 2004) ; Source 6: Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Breadfruit(Ragone,2011); Source 7; First International Symposium on Breadfruit Research and Development (Taylor.M&Ragone. D, 2007, Nadi, Fiji)
  • 3. supplyandfruitqualityconstraintscanbemet,itisestimatedthatNewZealandmarketscouldreadilyconsume4MT(4.4T)perweekoffreshbreadfruitwithamarketpotentialof500–1,500MT(550–1,650T)peryear(Sticeetal.2007).Samoaexported74MT(81T)in2004–2006(TuivavalagiandSamuelu2007).AnnualexportsfromFijiwere2MT(2.2T)in2001,increasingto12MT(13T)in2005(Sticeetal.2007).Upto9MT(10T)permonthoffrozenbread-fruitpieceswereexportedfromFiji(Beyer2007).In2007,1–2MT(1.1–2.2T)perdaywereneededbyacommercialprocessortofillthedemandforcannedbreadfruitshippedtoAustralia,NewZealand,andCanada(FijiTimes2007).FreshandcookedbreadfruitimportstoAustraliafromthePacificarecurrentlyprohibited,althoughcommerciallyproducedpeeled,seeded,andfrozenpulpispermitted(Goebel2007).TheU.S.DepartmentofAgriculture(FederalRegister2008)allowedtheshipmentofirradiatedbreadfruittotheU.S.mainland,openingthedoorforfreshfruitexportsfrom Hawai‘i.SeveralCaribbeancountries(Jamaica,St.Lucia,Dominica,St.Vincent,andtheDominicanRepublic)shipfreshfruittotheU.S.,Canada,andEurope.Exportsdeclined from2,023MT(2225T)in1998to1,203MT(1,320T)in2005,eventhoughdemandremainedhigh(Roberts-Nkrumah 2007). Jamaicaisthelargestexporterinthe region,exporting3,437MT(3,780T)during2000–2004(517–776MT[570–850T]peryear)withatotalvalueofapproximatelyUS$3million (RADA2003–2006).MauritiusexportsbreadfruittoEuropeonasmallscaleof0.4MT(0.44T)in1996,20MT(22T)in1997and1.9MT(2.1T)in2000(MAFTNR2003).MauritiusMauritiusexportsbreadfruittoEuropeonasmallscaleof0.4MT(0.44T)in1996,20MT(22T)in1997and1.9MT(2.1T)in2000(MAFTNR2003).AlekiSisifa, Director, SPC Land Resources Division, opened the proceedings of the 1stinternational breadfruit symposium report (April 16-19, 2007, Nadi, Fiji), with an excellentoverview of breadfruit in the Pacific and how it has developed into an export commodity forsome countries, such as Fiji and Samoa, yet remains an important food security crop especiallyfor atoll countriesMoreover, important aspects such as development of trade agreements, promoting andsupporting export and include import substitution policies, where necessary to support trade inbreadfruit products were also reviewed by the group.The group also recommended choosing innovative approaches for improving marketing—health,cultural, food security, environmental, or fair trade and produce a comprehensive productionmanual for export as well as simple leaflets for growing breadfruit in your backyard. Source 1; Breadfruit( Ragone, 1997); Source 2; Artocarpus atilis (Ragone, 2006); Source 3; . Breadfruit. Morton, J.1987; Source 4; Regeneration guidelines for breadfruit(Ragone 2008); Source 5; Postharvest handling Technical Bulletin(New Guyana Marketing Corporation, 2004) ; Source 6: Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Breadfruit(Ragone,2011); Source 7; First International Symposium on Breadfruit Research and Development (Taylor.M&Ragone. D, 2007, Nadi, Fiji)
  • 4. Source 1; Breadfruit( Ragone, 1997); Source 2; Artocarpus atilis (Ragone, 2006); Source 3; . Breadfruit. Morton, J.1987; Source 4; Regeneration guidelines for breadfruit(Ragone 2008); Source 5; Postharvest handling Technical Bulletin(New GuyanaMarketing Corporation, 2004) ; Source 6: Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Breadfruit(Ragone,2011); Source 7; First International Symposium on Breadfruit Research and Development (Taylor.M&Ragone. D, 2007, Nadi, Fiji)

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