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In-Vitro Breadfruit Propagation by FARC (Mauritius)
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In-Vitro Breadfruit Propagation by FARC (Mauritius)

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  • 1. IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF BREADFRUIT ( Artocarpus altilis)
  • 2. INTRODUCTION
    • In Vitro propagation (tissue culture) offers prospects for rapid bulking up of Breadfruit planting material
    • Usually vegetatively propagated using shoot or root cuttings and is essential for multiplication of seedless varieties
    • Seeds: are rarely planted because of genetic variability and viability
    • Research is being conducted at the FARC Tissue Culture Section, Réduit on Breadfruit “ In Vitro Mass Propagation”
  • 3.
    • Aims: Development of a commercially efficient Micropropagation Protocol for Breadfruit
    • Expected to contribute to Local Sustainable Resources for Agriculture, Backyard Planting, Agro-forestry, Reforestation and ultimately Food Security
    • Possibility for safe trans-boundary movement towards other countries interested in Breadfruit farming.
  • 4. BENEFITS OF IN VITRO PROPAGATION
    • FAST: More plants produced in a given period
    • Plantlets produced are genetically identical
    • Plants are produced under sterile conditions
    • Year round production of plantlets and not dependent on external environment
    • Little space requirement for multiplication
    • Propagated material can be stored for a long time
    • Little attention required for In Vitro cultures between subcultures
  • 5.
    • Requirement for specialised production facilities
    • Propagation Protocol development is time consuming
    • Plantlets obtained are small and juvenile
    • Genetic Variability can occur upon excessive sub-culturing
    • Transitional phase required for adaptation of plantlets to In Vivo conditions
    CONSTRAINTS
  • 6. GENERALISED METHODOLOGY
    • The General steps undertaken for the In Vitro Mass Propagation protocol development were:
    • Explant Collection and Surface Sterilisation
    • Establishment of Aseptic Cultures
    • Shoot multiplication
    • Rooting of shoots
    • Acclimatisation of Rooted TC Plantlets
  • 7.
    • Three Culture media have been Successfully formulated at the FARC Tissue Culture Section based on Literature Leads available
    • These media are referred to as:
    • Establishment Media (EM)
    • Shoot Multiplication Media (SM)
    • Rooting Media (RM)
    TISSUE CULTURE MEDIA
  • 8. INITIATION OF STERILE CULTURES
    • In vitro cultures were initiated from shoot buds collected from Réduit
    • The buds were thoroughly cleaned and surface sterilised
  • 9.
    • Cultures were then inoculated on Establishment Media
  • 10.
    • Four trials were undertaken for development of an efficient Surface Sterilisation Protocol
    • Success rate of the Selected Sterilisation Protocol was 85 % after modifications brought
    • Contamination was mainly of bacterial origin
    RESULTS and OBSERVATIONS
  • 11. MORTALITY
    • Despite successful initiation of Aseptic Cultures death of explants was a major drawback during trials
    • Mortality from trials due to explant necrosis were principally because of:
    • Unsuitable Establishment Media
    • Too Severe Surface Sterilisation Procedures
    • Release of Phenolics by explants
  • 12. MICROPROPAGATION
    • Mass production of Breadfruit plantlets was achieved by transferring explants to Shoot Multiplication Media
  • 13. SUBCULTURE
    • Sub-culturing of plantlets was done every 5-7 weeks
    • Axillary branches and buds were excised from main shoots and inoculated on fresh media
    • An overall multiplication rate of 2.5-3 was observed
  • 14. Growth Room Conditions
    • Cultures were kept in Growth Room at a temperature of 25 o C and a 16 hrs photoperiod
  • 15. ROOTING OF PLANTLETS
    • Rooted plantlets were obtained 5-6 weeks after inoculation on Rooting Media
    • However, Root development on Rooting Media was observed for only about 60% of plantlets.
  • 16. HARDENING
    • Rooted plantlets of about 5cm in height were selected for hardening
    • Trials have been performed on different hardening media ( Soil, Rocksand and Perlite)
    • Plantlets were kept in the ECU for adaptation to In Vivo conditions
  • 17.
    • Hardening is expected to last between 5-8 mths
    • Leaf Margins were smooth in In Vitro cultures compared to the typical Lobed leaf morphology under In Vivo conditions
    • Hardening could be considered successful as soon as plantlets develop the typical lobed leaves characteristic
  • 18. FUTURE WORKS
    • Fine tuning and Optimisation of protocol
    • Reducing production time and cost of plantlets production
    • Assessment of genetic fidelity of plantlets after successive sub-culturing
    • Optimisation of conditioning & hardening for higher % survival
    • In Vitro conservation of Breadfruit Varieties
  • 19.
    • THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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