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  1. 1. 1. Origin and Distribution of BreadfruitReview of the literature:Annex IV, pages 1-3What do we know? Origin (from literature) Tropical Distribution worldwide (from literature)Where are we now? Do not know the number of varieties locally Do not know about the distribution of varieties locallyWhere should we be? Number of varieties introduced Number of trees More exhaustive review of literature Other sources of information?What is missing to get there? Eco-geographical survey on breadfruit treesWhat questions are we asking ourselves? What is the Geographical distribution of breadfruit trees in Mauritius? Should we do a Tree census in Mauritius? Can we use a GIS system? Breadnut - number of trees and distribution? Is a census of breadnut trees required? Can there be other sources of information?Stakeholders involved in issues related to Origin and Distribution of breadfruit Who? Why? How?1. CSO Involved in census Include breadfruit on household survey2. All stakeholders in the To map distribution of On consortium wiki breadfruit sector breadfruit trees across the island3. Documentation centres Involved in documentation More exhaustive review of (MAIFS/ AREU/ MSIRI/ literature FARC)
  2. 2. 2. GermplasmReview of the literature:Annex IV, pages 4-8What do we know? Twenty varieties identified as core varieties (literature) Can be conserved by tissue culture(literature) Seem to have two varieties or phenotype locally (round & oblong)(observation) Breadnut can be used as root-stock for grafting (local validated practice) Breadnut has an edible seed (high protein)(literature)Where are we now? Propagating only two seedless varieties locally In vivo production of plants using root only (Literature Revue agricole)Where should we be? Characterisation of our varieties (morphological & molecular) Any development project for which we need new germplasm Introduction of new varieties if there is a need In-vitro propagationWhat is missing to get there? Breadfruit to shift from an under-utilized crop to a commercial crop Collaboration with international and local institution dealing with BreadfruitWhat questions are we asking ourselves? Which varieties exist in Mauritius? Is there a possibility of extension of production season particularly with increasing urbanization Has there been genetic erosion or drift in our local varieties? Should we increase our genetic pool? Can we look for germplasm of dwarf varieties to facilitate harvest? Is there a need to promote conservation of existing germplasm? Do Reunion, Comores and Seychelles, for example, have the same varieties? Are we having any pest/disease problems? Are bats a problem with breadfruit? Breadnut - is there a demand for it? What do we know about it? Why breadnut as a root stock? Is breadfruit a suitable alternative to breadfruit in Mauritius? Why bother about breadnut?
  3. 3. How to differentiate between young plants of breadnuts and breadfruit? Which institutions will be involved in this? Or has capacity? Private labs or propagators?Stakeholders involved in issues related to germplasm Who? Why? How?1. UoM Studies on general Student projects erosion or drift in local varieties Research existent and facilities available2. AREU Varieties existing in Survey by extension Mauritius services Introduction of new Evaluation trials varieties Collaborative programs On-going research on (UoM?) breadfruit Research on usefulness of breadnut regarding nutritional properties and on a rootstock3. MAIFS (NPPO & Facilitate introduction of PRA & Disease/ pest Entomology) new germplasm surveillance4. MAIFS (Horticulture Already involved in In-vitro and In-vivo division) conservation collections5. FARC Already involved in In-vitro collections conservation of germplasm6. Research organizations Already involved in Collaborative programs in different countries Research and development
  4. 4. 3. Environmental RequirementsReview of the literature:Annex IV, pages 9-11What do we know? Wide range of adaptation (literature) Agro-climatic requirements (literature)Where are we now? Distribution is nearly all over the island Not clear if there are concentration zones of treesWhere should we be? Mapping of trees distribution Identifying agro-climatic zones suitable for optimal productionWhat is missing to get there? Agronomic studies that report on adaptation in Mauritius Experimental trialsWhat questions are we asking ourselves? Are there specific micro-climates that are ideal for breadfruit? Tolerance to drought with relation to climate change? Tolerance to cyclones? What is the yielding period in different zones and where to obtain the general yield data? Check germplasm with different production & harvesting time to extend period of supply? Is it possible to extend the production season? Can breadfruit be grown in super-humid regions of Mauritius? Is soil pH and high rainfall limiting factors to breadfruit tree growth in Mauritius? Is breadfruit an invasive species?Stakeholders involved in issues related to environmental requirements Who Why How 1. AREU On-going research Trials in different locations 2. Meteorological Meteorological data Provision of Services available meteorological data
  5. 5. 4. Propagation methods and planting materialsReview of the literature:Annex IV, pages 12-14What do we know? Can be propagated by root cuttings , air layering, stem cutting, grafting, T.C methods, seedsWhere are we now? Studies already started Selected clones being propagated Root cuttings main method, higher success rate In-vitro propagation (under experiment) Air-layering(under experiment) GraftingWhere should we be? Should have already mastered vegetative propagation methods Should have already large number of breadfruit plants for sale Planting material at affordable price (current price at Barkley Rs 185/unit)What is missing to get there? Research facilities and funds Skilled labour Need more starting materialsWhat questions are we asking ourselves? Tapping funds (from where)? Training for propagation required? Pros and cons of propagation method Is any method of propagation highly recommended What are the success rates of the different propagation methods? Do we have facilities for mass propagation (large scale)? What are the problems encountered for different propagation methods Is it easy to propagate by in-vivo methods What if someone use root cuttings from grafted plants? Is there any subsidized price for large scale? What are the current prices? Cost effective method of propagation
  6. 6. Where to get readily available planting materials? Do we have enough planting materials and root stock? Which rooting system/ propagation method is suitable against cyclone? Who is and how to coordinate gathering of information on amount of planting materials available, rate of production? Which institutions have capacity to do this? Private sector? Can people /farmers/ students be trained on grafting techniques? Who can/will train producers on propagating methods?Stakeholders involved in issues related to propagation methods and planting materials Who? Why? How?1. MAIFS (Barkly ES) Propagation Propagation and sale by Sale of planting material conventional means Adapt protocol for Tissue culture method for sale2. AREU Research and Development Research and Information Dissemination Development on different Training methods of propagation of breadfruit Sale of breadfruit planting material Training of Extension Officers and growers3. FARC (Tissue Research and Development on Research on in-vitroCulture Lab) protocol development propagation of breadfruit Production and sale of planting Sale of tissue-culture materials plants Research on Tissue culture in collaboration with UoM4. UoM Research Research on Tissue culture in collaboration with FARC5. Labourdonnais and Propagation and sale of planting Propagation byother private sectors materials conventional means and Production and sale of sale agricultural produce Collaborate in on-farm trials (OFT’s)
  7. 7. 5. Agronomy and cultural practicesReview of the literature:Annex IV, pages 15-20What do we know? Fast growing/long life Hardy Productive Well adapted to local conditions Old trees can be rejuvenatedWhere are we now? Evaluation plots set up at AREU Rejuvenation under observationWhere should we be? Germplasm (local) characterization completed (molecular/phenotypic) Establish local clones conservatory Map of growing areas should have been availableWhat is missing to get there? Funds Insufficient planting materials Absence of guidelines No training to growers Using elevators for plucking Mechanized techniquesWhat questions are we asking ourselves? What are the factors responsible for fruit drops? What are the production constraints? Can we go for high density planting materials Can reports on the evaluations be made available( preliminary) How does pruning affect yield? Recommendations on pruning Are the training materials/leaflets suitable? Is there need to revise/updates Do we have agro-climatic maps? What are the known production seasons in Mauritius? Are there any appropriate tools for harvesting
  8. 8. Can tall trees be pruned? What are irrigation requirements? Should we have specific varieties for fresh and processing? Bearing time for different planting materials(stem cuttings, root cuttings, grafting) Can we do intercropping? Can fruiting be enhanced like litchis? What is the recommended pathway ‘to move from under-utilized crop to commercial crop’Stakeholders involved in issues related to Agronomy, Cultural practices & Fruiting Who? Why? How?1. AREU Research and Agronomic evaluation Development Production of Information recommendation sheets dissemination Workshops/ Field days/ Training visits2. SFWF Provide support to Identify constraints faced farmers (insurance, by growers in schemes etc.) collaboration with AREU3. Private firms Importer of machinery/ Make available tools appropriate harvest tools for breadfruit4. Growers/ MAMCF/ Producers of breadfruit Collaborate with AREU Ministry of cooperatives for on-farm trials5. MAIFS Schemes for pest control Support/ incentives for Control of pests control of bats
  9. 9. 6. FruitingReview of the literature:Annex IV, pages 21-25What do we know? Seasonal Large trees can be regenerated Maturity indices easy Fruit production capacityWhere are we now? Production season known Fruit drop high Tall trees difficult to harvest Production capacity of local accessions(yield) knownWhere should we be? Less fruit dropWhat is missing to get there? Local agronomic studiesWhat questions are we asking ourselves? In case of attacks by fruit bats, bird-netting needed? What are the post harvest losses? Have the fruits got good preservation qualities? What are the approved pesticides on breadfruit? What are the pest and diseases affecting breadfruit? When do we know that the fruits are ready for harvest? Can it be grown in super humid zones? How to produce off season fruits? Introduction and evaluation of new clones? Support from NPPO for introduction?
  10. 10. Stakeholders involved in issues related to Agronomy, Cultural practices & Fruiting Who? Why? How? 1. AREU Research and Agronomic evaluation Development Production of Information recommendation sheets dissemination Workshops/ Field days/ Training visits2. SFWF Provide support to Identify constraints faced farmers (insurance, by growers in schemes etc.) collaboration with AREU3. Private firms Importer of machinery/ Make available tools appropriate harvest tools for breadfruit4. Growers/ MAMCF/ Producers of breadfruit Collaborate with AREU Ministry of cooperatives for on-farm trials5. MAIFS Schemes for pest control Support/ incentives for Control of pests control of bats
  11. 11. 7. Harvest and Post HarvestReview of the literature:Annex IV, pages 26-32What do we know? Grading/sorting Waxing Water Treatment Traditional minimal processing (e.g water treatment) Rod Plucking Climbing using ladder Picking up falling fruits Quality index at harvest Packing (Leno bags, gunny bags, bamboo baskets)Where are we now? No information on existing varieties Using traditional harvest technique International post-harvest practices existWhere should we be? Develop quality parameters (Norms/Standards) Pruning activities Early and late varieties Develop dwarf and early maturity plants disease Packing to reduce post-harvest losses (e.g agricultural crates)What is missing to get there? Schemes/loans for post-harvest/harvest facilities Effective collaboration between partners No existing protocols for harvesting/post-harvest Sharing of information More research and development funding International collaborationWhat questions are we asking ourselves? At which stage to harvest? (Maturity index – optimum and actual) Is the practice of placing fruit in water documented and justified? Do we have appropriate tools for harvest in Mauritius? E.g. Aluminum poles
  12. 12. After harvest (green) No. of days kept (Stored) for local marketing? What can be done (Backyard/for local market) to increase shelf-life of breadfruit? What are the recommended packaging/storage materials for Mauritius? Appropriate methods to increase shelf-life? Effect of pruning on yield/quality? Develop protocol – Responsibility? Can we put breadfruit in under cool conditions to increase shelf-life? Which type of wax can be used? Available?Stakeholders involved in issues related to harvest and post-harvest Who? Why? How?1. Cooperatives To achieve economies of Regrouping of farmers scale2. Associations and Better management Trainingcompanies (SMEDA) Incentive schemes Appropriate funding mechanisms3. AREU Harvest and post-harvest Research and trials protocol Norms and standards Literature and research Shelf-life improvement Literature and research Improvement in Training/ information harvesting techniques kits/ grants/ schemes for Pest and disease equipments management Awareness campaigns/ Improved cultural information materials/ practices identification of pests and diseases4. UoM/AREU Harvest and post-harvest Research protocols5. MSB/ UoM/ AREU Norms and standards Literature and research6. Private companies/ Improvement in Training/ informationAREU harvesting techniques kits/ grants/ schemes for equipments7. SFWF/ Meteo/ Private Risk management Support/ assistance/companies insurance schemes8. AREU/MAIFS Pest and disease Awareness campaigns/ management information materials/ identification of pests and diseases
  13. 13. 8. Product development and marketingReview of the literature:Annex IV, pages 33-43What do we know? Marketing channel – local/export Animal feed (Pigs) Processing awareness exist (chips, canned, flour, boiled) Human consumption (boiled, chips, curry, snacks) High potential for export High risk crop (cyclone prone) High land requirementWhere are we now? Export of product (approx. 100mT) Development and research on flour production Long-term storage (freezing) shelf-life studies Development of frozen French fries, wedgesWhere should we be? Increase usage as staple food side dishes Unacceptable fruits, waste from processing as animal feed Resource material for composting Substitute for current bad eating habits (e.g. oily foods, saturated foods) Tap on outer island resources (Rodrigues)What is missing to get there? More research and development and funding Lack of information on product Critical mass to invest in commercial production Loans/incentive schemes Setting up of food parksWhat questions are we asking ourselves? How do we think we are going to increase usage as staple? Regarding increasing consumer awareness, what is being done? What is the demand for breadfruit on the local market? Can it be used for baby foods? For flour making, are there any specific requirements (varietal, stage of maturity)?
  14. 14. Fresh products or processed? Market consumption? Is there scope for development of SME (Processing)? Is there any kind of risk management strategy in place? Land availability for setting up orchards? When is the next fruit tree census?Stakeholders involved in issues to product development and marketing Who? Why? How?1. FARC/SFWF Demand for fresh and Survey processed breadfruit Breadfruit festival2. AREU/ UoM Consumer preferences/ Survey/ sensory New products evaluation3. Enterprise Mauritius New markets International exhibitions/ partnerships4. AREU/ UoM/ NPPO Type of varieties Literature Trials Research5. Land use division/ AS/ Land availability Land bank MAIFS6. APAU/ MAIFS Census on breadfruit Survey trees in the Republic of Complete enumeration Mauritius Editable/clickable map7. Food security fund/ Access to capital Schemes DBM/ Private banks Grants Loan facilities8. MAIFS/ MAMCF/ Continuous/ Reliable Partnerships/ Bi-lateral Private stakeholders/ supply of breadfruit agreements SFWF9. AMB/ Freeport Storage facilities Provide storage facilities
  15. 15. 9. Markets/ExportReview of the literature:Annex IV, pages 44-46 What do Where are we Where should we be? What is missing to get we know? now? there?Different Fresh breadfruits Wider range of Identify localtypes of for export products and germaplasm/ Accessproducts Breadfruit flour breadfruit varieties other germplasm Other usages at Develop R&D on processed level of commercial products household e.g. production Identify interested chips, cakes entrepreneursDifferent E.U Regional and Data on volume andmarkets international value of exports and markets country of destination Identify new export markets Identify competitors in export marketsMarket E.U and local Australia, USA, Determine currentdemand markets Canada and New annual production in Zealand Mauritius Tourist industry Work with hotel chef Domestic markets Local market e.g. frozen chips, intelligence canned, flour Market intelligence for Gluten free Gluten free products productsMarket Fulfilling SPS Infrastructure for Financial Resources forAccess requirements for commercially investment E.U processing Identify SPS Food safety requirements for requirements potential export markets SPS requirements (e.g. fruit flies) for other Develop packaging international Develop certification markets (Market system for food safety barriers) and allergens free Logistics for packaging and export (Perishable) Certification (evidence for Gluten free products)
  16. 16. What questions are we asking ourselves?Types of products What is current production volume? What is current export volume? To which markets are breadfruit exported? What are other potential markets?Different Markets In these export markets, what are customs duties applied? In these export markets what are SPS requirements? Can Mauritius abide by these SPS requirements? Market intelligence in current and potential export markets: Who are the buyers? Price? Need specific varieties? Potential for market development? How consumed?Market demand Who are our competitors? Their Prices? Cost analysis including freight cost? Seasonality of supply from Mauritius v/s others? Development of other products; Processed; Pulp/ canned/ frozen / possible? Cost?Market access Export markets potential for these processed products? What inputs are needed: Infrastructure, technology, packaging, storage conditions, transport conditions, cold-chain? (processed) Forecast of production volume in next 5-10 years? What are requirements to import/ propagate varieties? What is shelf life of varieties? What are current standards for export? Size/ type of packaging? Determine regularity of supply for export markets? Are breadfruit destined for export coming from orchards or backyards? Any orchard project? Can orchard be certified global gap? If marketed as Gluten free, who will certify? What are health and nutritional advantages and How can these be used for marketing? Sensitization of farmers on gap to produce good quality breadfruit, Who/How? What is potential for absorption on local market?
  17. 17. Market intelligence: Who are buyers? Preferred way of consuming? Price? Potential for processed products and prioritize? Hotels: Potential? Should new recipes be developed? Marketing of breadfruit on local market: How? Who? For both processed and fresh? What time of the year are competitors exporting? What are the conditions for import of new breadfruit accession? Any strategy to market breadfruit as potential candidates for food security? What are the priorities for Mauritius? Should we have a brand name- branding breadfruit of Mauritius? What are storage conditions of breadfruit before export? What are the requirements for export? (size, weight, type and so on) What is the current practice for sale of breadfruit (whole/ whether semi processed?) Are there any post harvest treatments for breadfruit before export? Which sources of information exist on international trade of breadfruit? Stakeholders involved in issues related to markets and export Who? Why? How? 1. APEXHOM Involved in export policies Information on export and information standards, market access Facilitation 2. Exporters Know export markets Information on export data and constraints 3. Producers/ Processors Need markets to sell Production information 4. AREU Post-harvest for exports Research and Development on shelf-life, post-harvest, storage, packaging, Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) etc. 5. Enterprise Mauritius Know export markets Participation in trade fairs to present breadfruits 6. NPPO SPS for imports and Allow import of germplasm exports and information on SPS of export matkets 7. Laboratories (Food Testing of pesticides Testing of pesticide residues Tech Lab) 8. Women entrepreneurs Capacity to produce/ Start processing process 9. Chefs/ hotels Use in restaurants Use breadfruits – new recipes 10. Media Communicate Inform public about breadfruit 11. Consumer Inform consumers Inform consumers about organizations benefits
  18. 18. 10.Uses of Plant parts other than the fruitReview of the literature:Annex IV, pages 47-49 What do we know? Where are we Where should we be? What is now? missing to get there?Different parts of use of the other use of the other parts R&D on thebreadfruit tree, plant parts at of breadfruit other medicinalmultipurpose tree household than at household value level level, e.g. handicraft for tourism industry/exportCan use timber, fruits, Using onlyseeds, peel bark, latex, fruitsbuds, leaves, flower,spike, treesFood Developing flourUsed for animal FeedUsed for medicinalpurposesUsed for clothingAgro-forestry shadeCaulking for canoesAdhesivesUsed for constructionof buildings,handicrafts, surfboardsWhat questions are we asking ourselves? What are the possible uses of by-products from breadfruit processing? Is there any economic importance of plant parts other that fruit for Mauritius?Stakeholders involved in issues related to uses of plant parts other than the fruit Who? Why? How?
  19. 19. 11.Consumer preferences, Education and ProductsReview of the literature:Annex IV, pages 50-53 What do we Where are we Where should we what is missing to know? now? be? get there? Most people are People should find itPreferred by discovering how normal that Peoples’ awarenessAsian niche to use breadfruit breadfruit forms part of nutritional valuemarkets in their menu of their diet Develop breadfruit asPreference for a disaster relief foodfresh fruits (food security)Wide range ofproducts Awareness on gluten(international free productsmarkets) e.g.canned Support from the governmentWhat questions are we asking ourselves? Is breadfruit also consumed by Europeans in replacement of potato? In what forms consumers would like to eat breadfruit? Fresh or frozen? Are products demand driven? How has the perception/status of breadfruit changed over the years? Nutritional analysis of derived products (w.r.t. snacking at school)? Need for educating consumers? Survey on consumer preferences? What need to be done to increase consumer? Awareness on importance of breadfruit? Concept of breadfruit festival? Which countries are producing breadfruit flour? Quantity of flour exported and where? How many breadfruit need to replace 1kg of wheat? Cost of production of flour?
  20. 20. Stakeholders involved in issues related to Consumer preferences, Education andProducts Who? Why? How?1. Exporter (Sarjua?) Already have access to Provide information on export market consumers from international markets and their requirements2. Producers and Processors Customer Satisfaction Development of new products3. MoA/ Producers Create awareness Breadfruit festivals Breadfruit consumption campaigns World Food Day4. Consumer Protection Platform for local Consumer acceptance/ Association consumers consumer awareness5. CSO, AREU Data on breadfruit Surveys consumption locally Data on per capita consumption of breadfruit6. Media Consumer education Radio talks, TV programs