7. Cox1

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  • This is a compilation of the general observations and approaches common in all countries
  • 7. Cox1

    1. 1. Regional Policy Briefing no.7Water Resources Management in theCaribbeanProtecting fresh and coastal watersand building climate resilience Christopher Cox PhD Programme Director Caribbean Environmental Health Institute 23rd April 2012 Pointe aux Piments, Mauritius
    2. 2. Presentation outline  Background  Climate change and water resources challenges  Response toward building resilience • The IWRM approach • Initiatives • Lessons learnt • Partnerships
    3. 3. About CEHI  CEHI was established by the Governments of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) 1989 to respond to the Environmental Health and Management concerns of its Member States.  Through CARICOM Protocols it is an Institution of the Community  Has 16 Member States  Located in St. Lucia
    4. 4. Status of freshwater resources  Water supply • Surface (rivers, springs, ponds) – dominant overall • Groundwater – drier islands/karstic environments • Desalination - drier, more populous islands • Rainwater harvesting – micro-islands; isolated communities  Internal Renewable Water Resources (IRWR) (source: FAO) • Antigua & Barbuda – 800 m3/capita/yr • Bahamas - 66 m3/capita/yr • Barbados – 301 m3/capita/yr • Jamaica – 3,651 m3/capita/yr Bahamas  Main demand sectors: • Tourism Antigua & • Agriculture Barbuda • Industry Jamaica • Residential • Hydroelectricity Barbados
    5. 5. Status of freshwater resources  Uneven rainfall distribution, periodic drought conditions;  Infrastructure – high vulnerability to hurricane / flood damage  Poor and aging water distribution and sanitary system networks  Land-based pollution - poor solid and liquid waste management & unsustainable land management  Force to look at alternatives – desalination; rainwater; recycling
    6. 6. Fresh and coastal waters degradation  Pollution - greatest threat to natural environment; impacts long-term socio-economic development  Fresh and coastal waters – receiving environments for pollution.  Primary pollution sources • Point sources (industries, sewage treatment plants, marine vessels); • Urban non-point runoff (stormwater runoff and combined overflow discharges); • Non-urban non-point runoff (farms, livestock pastures); • Irrigation return flows (irrigation water return to a lake, stream or canal)
    7. 7. Climate Change and water  CC will force additional stresses  Caribbean climate modeling predictions: • changes in patterns of rainfall accumulation and distribution • overall trend to less annual rainfall – 25 to 30% reduction • more extreme events  Serious implications for water security • reduced aquifer recharge rates • sea-level rise; saline intrusion • storm damage to infrastructure and contamination: landslides, floods  Health impacts • Vector proliferation
    8. 8. Water governance issues  Institutional and regulatory frameworks not ideal • no unified WRM policy • absence of national “apex” bodies • Inadequate national water laws • Multiple agencies - fragmentation • Inadequate data  WR management - typically within realm of water utility operations by statutory authority - dual, conflictive roles  Water not valued as an economic good • Low level of priority; Cost recovery challenges
    9. 9. Integrated Water ResourcesManagement (IWRM) approach  Process of sustainable development, allocation and monitoring of water resource use in the context of social, economic and environmental objectives  IWRM in SIDS must consider both domains of freshwater and coastal waters • Other ways of saying; in context of the spatial dimension: • Ridge to Reef (R2R) • Integrating Watershed and Coastal Areas management (IWCAM) • White water to Blue Water (WR2BR)  IWRM provides unified management for water services provision and waste water management • Waste waters are typically discharge to sea with coastal resource user conflicts  Work supported under GEF-IWCAM Project
    10. 10. Land-based Sources of Marine Pollution(LBS) Protocol  Cartagena Convention (1986) – protection of Caribbean Sea  LBS Protocol - General Obligations • National Planning e.g. EIAs • Integrated Coastal Zone & Watershed Management • Environmental Monitoring & Assessment  Specific Obligations for Major Pollutants • Effluent & Emissions limitations, Time Tables for implementation, & Classification of Recreational Waters • Best Management Practices • Most Appropriate Technologies  Embodied within the National Plan of Action (NPA)
    11. 11. Progress - National actions  National water policies, strategies developed – highlight climate change as a key driver • Grenada, Jamaica, St. Lucia have policy statements • Jamaica advanced toward development of IWRM Plan • Trinidad & Tobago WR master planning process underway  Community mobilization in WRM • Water conservation  Application of new technologies; water augmentation • Ground water exploration in Tobago, St. Lucia • Rainwater harvesting – many countries  Land zoning for water supply protection • Barbados – 5 zones based on sensitivity; longstanding policy  Water supply and sanitation • Rural infrastructure expansion – all countries; variable progress  SUPPORTED BY VARIOUS REGIONAL & INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES – PROJECTS AND PROGRAMMES
    12. 12. Challenges…lessons being learned  Selling IWRM; concept is vague to most - Climate change provides a good entry point • Perceived to be rather academic; tangibles not readily apparent • IWRM remains in realm of water and natural resource professionals  One size does not fit all • Varying circumstances between countries • Geography (water regime), demographics, biodiversity  How does it fit in day-to-day? • How does it affect a business bottom-line, what does it matter to communities?  What are the costs to implement? • Current national circumstances; can we afford dedicated resources? • Resource constraints – limits implementation  Water-land management • Land management and administration creates dysfunction re: resource supply side  MOVING FORWARD… • Development of national IWRM Plans
    13. 13. Partners in water
    14. 14. Caribbean Environmental Health InstituteThe Morne, PO Box 1111, Castries, St. LuciaTel: 758 452-2501; Fax: 758 453-2721E-mail: cehi@candw.lc For more resources and information see our website at www.cehi.org.lc

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