Akilananda Chellapermal & Aurelie Hermans, Commonwealth IAESD Group
Context The paper represents the consensus reached by SIDS officials attending the Commonwealth course on the International Architecture for Environment and sustainable development (Pacific – 8; Caribbean-11; AIMS-29; ComSec -4) It outlines the institutional framework at the global and regional level to support SIDS The political and policy context for the proposal The reasons for a technical regional mechanism in each SIDS region
Background Prior to 1992 (Adoption of Agenda 21 by the UNGA) small islands issues were marginal to international environmental diplomacy Call by Barbados August 1989 at the 1st Preparatory Committee session for UNCED Resulted in Chapter 17 (G) in Agenda 21 – Sustainable Development of small islands – recognition that SIDS are special case both for environment and development First UNGCSD of SIDS April-May 1994 in Barbados; landmark event and milestone for SIDS
Output of the BarbadosConference Declaration of Barbados: confirm some of the basic elements for the foundation for the sustainable development of SIDS BPOA for the sustainable development of SIDS (Outlines 15 programmes areas as a framework for implementing actions to facilitate the sustainable development of SIDS)
High Level InternationalMeeting(BPOA + 10), Mauritius January 2005 International Review meeting in Mauritius Mauritius Declaration Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action (MS/BPOA)- Further strengthens the social and economic dimension of the BPOA;- More targeted emphasis on issues such as culture, knowledge management, education for sustainable development, consumption & production, implications of globalisation & trade liberalisation
The Triangular Approach Three levels of Implementation: National, Regional & International Regional components of the BPOA need to be effectively coordinated through the preparation of a “regional implementation strategy”, Supported by an effective inter-governmental mechanism to advance the ideas of the POA and SD in general. Limited Resources (UN Resolution 21 January 2011) Same Resolution recognised the need for ‘timely action for the effective implementation of and follow up of MS/BPOA
Implementation structure and Status ofImplementation of the BPOA and MS/BPOA At global level: SIDS Unit (institutional output of the first United Nations Conference on sustainable development of SIDS) At regional level: situation differs; implementation entities are: For AIMS region: Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) Constraint: Not all the AIMS member states are members of the IOC (Maldives & Singapore - Indian Ocean; Sao Tomé & Principe, Cape Verde, Guinea – Atlantic Ocean) For Pacific region: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, relatively one of the effective region.
For Caribbean region: different approaches were experimented. May 1995 Joint coordinating mechanism of the secretariats of CARICOM and ECLAC/CDCC was established. 2006 Regional Coordinating Mechanism (RCM) established General constraints: Implementation at regional level remains weak.- Lack of strong regional technical mechanism with specific mandate for implementing BPOA & MS/BPOA; a major constraint to promoting inter- and intra-regional action;- Current institutional structure for sustainable development of SIDS insufficiently equipped to implement range of actions particularly at the regional level;- Cannot provide a more structured, systematic technical & legal analysis inputs at international level through AOSIS; UN Resolution 65/156 recognises these weaknesses and recommends the needs for timely action,, cooperation among SIDS, urgent need to increase the level of resources and the mainstreaming and integration of the MS/BPOA by the UN system
Rio + 20: An Opportunity Time forReviewing the Institutional Framework for theSustainable Development of SIDS. Issues surrounding the institutional framework for sustainable development provide opportunities to rethink the way the international environment and sustainable architecture deals with and makes provision for the most vulnerable nations which are special case for environment & development
Evolution of SIDS participation in internationalenvironmental and sustainable developmentnegotiations Use of continuum in order to show the evolution of SIDS in the negotiations: Four Phases: (i) Obscurity (ii) Recognition and Acceptance (iii) Consolidation (iv) Designation Phase One: Pre-1992 Era Phase Two: Recognition & Acceptance - Chapter 17 (G) in Agenda 21 - Consolidated through the Barbados Conference (1994) - 1994- 2012: SIDS have remained in this phase
Phase III: Consolidation Rio + 20: An opportunity for SIDS to lay the groundwork & propel to the next stage Characteristics of this phase:- More coherent UN Institutional Structure which caters for the needs of SIDS with stability and predictability;- Structure that adequately reflects the sustainable development priorities of SIDS;- Concrete actions based on national & regional priorities- Provision of adequate & predictable ‘support’ of financial resources to facilitate transition to sustainable green economies
Characteristics (Cont)- Sound Scientific basis- Credible commitment to capacity development & technology transfer
Consolidation Phase: Regionallevel The Regional Technical Arms, one in each region based on their respective unique characteristics & specificities;
Focus of the proposed RegionalMechanism Programme Implementation Technical Advisory Services Inter & Intra-Regional Collaboration & Coordination Formulation of Common Positions & Bridging the Gap between the Regional & International Levels Public Awareness & Education Resource Mobilisation Monitoring & Evaluation
Aims of the regional mechanism Aims: to provide an inter-governmental structure for the implementation of the BPOA and MS/BPOA to provide a platform for inter and intra regional collaboration between the SIDS in the various SIDS regions.
Form of the RegionalMechanism The regional mechanisms nested in existing regional institutions: In the AIMS region: consideration is given to IOC or the Universities in the region In the Pacific region: SPREP considered as the most appropriate institution In the Caribbean region: the Caribbean Community Secretariat or the Institute for Sustainable Development, University of Mona, Jamaica. Must function as autonomous entities.
Financing On a cost sharing basis Hosting institution provide the physical space Percentage of programmatic costs provided through the regular budget of the UN as part of the funding for the operations of the SIDS secretariat Establishment of Regional Funding Mechanisms
Global LevelThere is a need for: the strengthening of the SIDS international negotiating mechanism –AOSIS The establishment of a SIDS/AOSIS Secretariat to support operations of OASIS & structured inputs directly from SIDS Regions in support of SIDS negotiating positions Support from three autonomous technical arms from each SID region
The Way Forward Framework respond to deficiencies highlighted in UNGA Resolution 65/156 concerning the effective implementation of BPOA & MS/BPOA; First attempt since Barbados Conference(1994) to propose a design of a regional framework; Provide the guidance under Rio 2012 agenda area of ‘institutional framework for sustainable development’, one of the priority areas for consideration at the Conference Phase Four: Designation; one of the strategic targets of Barbados+ 20 for SIDS in 2014