ACP-EU_CTAREGIONAL POLICY BRIEFING No. 7Building Resilience in Small Island Economies: from Vulnerabilities to Opportunities ENHANCING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ON SMALL ISLAND ECONOMIES Hotel Victoria, Pointe aux Piments Mauritius; 23rd ~ 24th April 2012
STRENGTHENING NATIONAL RESILIENCE THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OFSUSTAINABLE LAND PLANNINGMr Tarakabu TofingaSnr Land Planning OfficerLand Management DivisionMinistry of Environment, Lands & Agriculture Dev.
Presentation Overview• Kiribati ~ A Brief Introduction• Kiribati ~ Environment & Development Context• Climate Change & Kiribati• Land Planning & Climate Change• Strengthening Resilience through Sustainable Land Planning• Land Planning, Sustainability & Food Security – Agricultural Land Uses & Practices – Agricultural Activities at Urban & Rural Settings• Summary & Conclusion
Kiribati ~ A Brief Introduction• The Republic of Kiribati (Kiribati) is an island nation lies astride the equator in the mid Pacific Ocean• Consists of 33 low-lying coral atoll islands (total land area of 800 sq. km) spread across an oceanic EEZ of 3.5 million square kilometers• Part of former British colony (Gilbert & Ellice Islands) gained independence in 1979• Population of 103,000 (2010 pop. Census)• 50,402 (48%) lives in S.Tarawa – Capital & Main Urban Centre of 684 hectare in area
Kiribati ~ Environment &Development Context• The islands have diverse marine environ for food, transport, traditional practice & recreation• The atoll terrestrial environment is more limited but essential for water, food & shelter• The people have relied on natural resources for livelihood & enjoyed relative high standard of living owing generally to favorable resources for subsistence living• Poverty, starvation & severe malnutrition are generally non-existent with basic food & shelter readily available for modest efforts
Environment & Dev. Context – cont’d• Dominant transition from traditional subsistence lifestyle to contemporary market-based economy has posed key challenges• Development performance has been poor with ‘stagnating & low economic growth rate’ – Low productivity of investments, inefficient public enterprises, low return from resource exploitation & public expenditure forms the bulk of all expenses• Constraints to sustainable economic growth; – Isolation & vulnerability, high reservation prices of labor, land & capital, low standard of workforce skills…etc. Land tenure is often an issue...
Climate Change• C/Change is complicated by tremendous no. of variables linked with climate and complex interaction of atmosphere, ecosystems, ocean & land forms.• There’s always level of uncertainty associated with C/Change predictions• Often anticipated C/Change impacts on the natural & built environments includes; Droughts, flooding, thawing permafrost, storm surge, sea-level rise, heat waves and other• IPCC however states that impacts will mostly manifest themselves in regional/land variables
Kiribati & Climate Change• The fragile physical environment of Kiribati makes it one of the most vulnerable to the adverse impacts of C/Change• The atolls rise 3-4 meters above mean sea level & a few hundred meters wide• Inundation, storm surge & erosion will destroy land areas of the already small islands & contaminates fresh groundwater lens vital for all living organisms/farm land – Challenges!!!• Addressing the predictable impacts dominate the national environment and development agenda.
Kiribati & Climate Change• Government has embarked in process of mainstreaming C/Change adaptation & disaster risk reduction in its development plan by implementing series of initiatives such as: – launch of the Kiribati Adaptation Program (KAP) in 2003 and ongoing phases – Adoption of Climate Change Adaptation Policy Note – Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (‘05) – Consultation process and consequent adoption of a National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA-’07) – Adoption of a 10 years National Integrated Environment Policy (NIEP: 2012 ~ 2022)
Land Planning & Climate Change• Planning can play an important role in influencing societal actions that can ‘mitigate’ effects that do occur & allow ‘adaptation’ to impacts.• Planner’s role is significant as it deals with basic issues as community design, land use and development guidelines• Planners can play a key role in enhancing resilience through improved adaptive land uses, efficient use of climate-sensitive resources ~ (water), promote sustainable land activities …etc.
Strengthening Resilience throughSustainable Land Planning• Regulate land uses through zoning considerate of mitigate/adaptive measures – Open/Green Space, Environmental Significance Sites, Sanctuary, Protected Areas & Reserves• Promote land uses that support sustainability – Mixed/Compact Uses (commercial/residential/civic), Agricultural/Farm Land Uses• Encourage Green Development Standards – Urban Land Development Guideline & Policies (solar powers, gardening, natural lights/ventilations & setbacks from hazard areas…etc.)
Land Use, Sustainability & FoodSecurity ~ Agricultural Land Uses &Practices• Agriculture is mainstay of most Pacific Is. including Kiribati & subsistence farming continues to be significant/efficient component of subsistence living & income earning• Designating land for agricultural initiatives is a testimony to the efficiency of subsistence production & improve opportunity for cash earning in domestic & outside markets• Agricultural land uses support local food production & stimulate agro-market system
Land Use & Sustainable AgricultureDev. ~ Urban Setting• High population density & competitive demand for land thus promoting ‘Mixed Land Uses’ – Water Reserve + (Organic) Farming Area – Urban Development Project & Temaiku Subdivision• Well established farmers’ associations with formal setups/nursery, products markets & readily available land – Eita Community Farmers Coop, KOFA, Eco-farm…• Easy access to collaborative technical support with favorable number of customers – Agriculture Division & Taiwan Technical Mission
Land Use & Sustainable AgricultureDev. ~ Rural Setting• Less population density = non competitive land use thus easy access to agricultural land• Informal setups vs. urban but higher yields• ‘Growth Center Concept’ that will stimulate more productive agricultural activities & market system & also aims to decentralize urban center & promote utilization of idle rural lands & boost productivity• Establishment of public services & infrastructures + easier access to technical assistances
Summary• Land use planning offers significant C/Change mitigation & adaptation opportunity• Land planning has a significant role in the attainment of sustainability through initiation of land uses that are conductive to land productivity especially one that considers food security & economic development.• Through commitment & well implemented plans is realization of opportunities & attainment of sustainability
Conclusion• Kiribati being a Least developed country (LDC) & Small Island Developing State (SIDS) it’s among countries most vulnerable to C/C• Their special circumstances being LDCs make them unable to meet costs of adaptation & SIDS physical susceptibility to effects of C/C.• Always welcome assistances (technical & financial) from interested development partners to effectively/efficiently formulate & implement relevant programs
Reference & sources:• Land Management Division, 2011, Urban Planning & Development Policy, MELAD-Government of Kiribati, Kiribati• Environment & Conservation Division, 2011, National Integrated Environment Policy, Draft Report, MELAD-Government of Kiribati, Kiribati• Asian Development Bank, 1995, Strategy for the Pacific; Policies & Program for Sustainable Growth, Manila, Philippines.