Regional Policy Briefing No.7 Building resilience in small island economies: from vulnerabilities to opportunitiesPanel 3: Enhancing Sustainable Development of Small Island Economies Mauritius, 23-24 April 2012
Blue economy: new threats and opportunities to sustainable use of marine resources by Terrence Phillips Outline- CRFM- Importance of fisheries- WCR: CLME - EAF and governance arrangements- CRFM/CARICOM region - new threats and initiatives/opportunities
Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM)Inaugurated: 26 March 2003 in Belize (HQ), Eastern Members:Caribbean Office – St. Vincent and the Grenadines *Anguilla, *Antigua and Barbuda, *The Bahamas,Mission: to promote and facilitate the responsible *Barbados,utilization of the region‟s fisheries and other aquatic *Belize,resources for the economic and social benefits of *Dominica,the current and future population of the region. *Grenada, *Guyana, *Haiti, *Jamaica,SIDS: low-lying coastal countries that share similar *Montserrat,sustainable development challenges, including *St. Kitts / Nevis,small population, limited resources, remoteness, *St. Lucia, *St. Vincent andsusceptibility to natural disasters, vulnerability to the Grenadines,external shocks, and excessive dependence on *Suriname,international trade. *Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands.
Importance of the fisheries sector Economic data from 14 CARICOM/CRFM Member States• 2008 GDP contribution of fisheries ranged from 0.01% to 2.5%, or from 0.115 M US to 77 M US$• Employs approx. 332,000 fishers, boat owners/operators, boat builders, dock workers and processors.• Marine production (2007): over 102, 000 tons, with total exports being approximately 47, 800 tons or 208 M US$. The fisheries sector is a major contributor to income, employment, food security and social and economic stability, especially in coastal communities throughout the Caribbean.
Sustainable management of the shared living marine resources (LMR) in the Wider Caribbean Region„Blue-green‟ economy - transition towards a human-ocean centered relationship wherehumankind would be living with the ocean and from the ocean in a sustainable way. Threepillars of sustainable development (environmental, economic, social).SIDS: “Green Economy is a Blue Economy”.Wider Caribbean Region: provides valuable ecosystem services, including throughfisheries, tourism, energy, coastal defences and biodiversity support. These systems areunder growing threat from direct and indirect human activities, including climatevariability and change .Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem (CLME)Participating states: 23 GEF-eligible countries and 2 associated countries.Considerable ecosystem resources that contribute to the socio-economic growth of theregion and offer ecological and biodiversity value.Objective: Sustainable management of the shared Living Marine Resources of theCaribbean LME and adjacent areas through an integrated management approach that will
Sustainable management of the shared living marine resources (LMR) in the Wider Caribbean Region cont‟dEcosystems Approach to Fisheries (EAF) : Reef, pelagic and continental shelfecosystems.Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDAs): unsustainable exploitation of fishand other living resources (overfishing, IUU fishing, by-catch and discards);habitat degradation and community modification; and pollution.3 issues: impact on the overall health and functioning of all three fisheriesecosystems. Negative effect on the socio-economic development andsustainability of the WCR reducing the benefits available from the ecosystemservices.Common root causes: poor or inadequate governance, poverty, inadequate dataand lack of public and governmental interest.Need for a coherent marine governance structure to protect and allow forsustainable development in the region.Approach: EAF/policy cycle - case studies/pilot projects (lobster, shrimp andgroundfish, large pelagics); development of a proposed regional governanceframework; development of IMS/REMP – Strategic Action Programme (SAP).
Generic governance policy cycle ANALYSIS AND ADVICE DATA AND INFORM -ATION DECISION MAKING REVIEW AND EVALUATION IMPLEMENT -ATION
Sustainable fisheries and aquaculture development in the CRFM/CARICOM regionCRFM region: “subset” of the WCR – reef, pelagic and continental shelf ecosystemsFisheries sector: Mainly artisanal/small-scale fisheries - concentrating on mostly primary production, utilising small boats and limited technology such as traps, seines and hook and line. Industrial fisheries - targeting high priced species such as spiny lobsters (Jamaica and the Bahamas), conch (Jamaica,The Bahamas and Belize), shrimp (Guyana , Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago). Recreational fisheries - spanning various aspects of tourism, including domestic and international sports fishing tournaments, weekend group and family fishing events. Fisheries of the region which stretches from Suriname to Belize and The Bahamas is varied. Ranges from shrimp and groundfish stocks off Guyana and Suriname to the carite and kingfish fishery of Trinidad and Tobago. Also, contains reef species of the Eastern Caribbean, and the conch and lobster of Jamaica and Bahamas. Migratory pelagics such as wahoo, tuna, flying fish and dolphin fish roam through the area.
Sustainable fisheries and aquaculture development in the CRFM/CARICOM region cont‟d• Aquaculture sector - significant development limited to countries like Jamaica and Belize. Other countries like Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago have begun to put more emphasis on aquaculture as an area for development.• Practices mainly involve the use of ponds to culture such species as penaeid shrimp, tilapia, carp and cachama. Long line culture for algae in St. Lucia and the mangrove oyster in Jamaica.• Most CARICOM states have limited land and fresh water resources, however some, like Belize, Guyana and Suriname, do have ample supplies. On the other hand, most states have larger expanses of marine space than land mass, which offers the potential for the promotion and development of mariculture.• Aquaculture - identified as a sector in the region that has potential for improving social and economic conditions of rural and coastal people, while contributing to regional and national economic growth, generating employment and earning foreign exchange.• Challenges: inadequate policy and legislation; inadequate institutional capacity (research and development, extension services); inappropriate technologies; and inadequate market intelligence.
“New” threatsIn addition to such issues as unsustainable exploitation of fish; habitat degradation andcommunity modification; pollution; challenges to aquaculture development andproblems related to trade (SPS).Climate variability and change - likely to have profound effects on fishing and fishfarming communities in the region.- Ecosystem productivity is likely to be reduced because of surface water temperature increases which will have feedback effects on food chains.- Increased temperatures are likely to adversely affect coral reefs with greater incidences of coral bleaching occurring, especially in the wider Caribbean.- Increasing ocean acidification is also likely to affect reef structures and a wide array of other marine organisms with calcium carbonate structures.- Storms are likely to damage fishing boats, fish processing facilities, landing infrastructure and houses.- Sea level rise is likely to increase coastal flooding and the ingress of salt water into coastal areas will affect fish farming.
“New” threats cont‟d- Sea level rise, although it may take place slowly, will make coastal fisheries and aquaculture communities more exposed to storms and tsunamis.- Changes in fish abundance and distribution are likely to affect their availability to local fisheries and may result in mass migration of fishers affecting the wealth generated by fisheries in localised areas.- Changes in weather patterns will affect traditional fish processing methods.- Post-harvest effects will be particularly important to women who, in many parts of the region, play the major role in fish processing and trade.- Changing weather patterns are also likely to affect non-fisheries livelihood strategies and in many cases increase pressure on people to join the fishery where other opportunities have decreased.Sector - demonstrated considerable resilience to climate variability in the past,however factors such as lack of consistent governance, access to capital onreasonable terms, weak fisherfolk and other stakeholder organizations andconsequently low bargaining power will compromise adaptation capacity in the future.
InterventionsInterventions within the fisheries and aquaculture sector must be fully integrated with wider national,sub-regional and regional strategies. Key strategies emerging from these adapted for the fisheriesand aquaculture sector, include: To fully recognize the interconnectedness of climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk management (DRM), to integrate them into a combined strategic approach and mainstream them as an integrated part of fisheries and aquaculture development strategies. To more closely link poverty reduction to sector development, ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture, climate change and DRM. To strengthen national mechanisms, legal frameworks and capacities for mainstreaming and implementing DRM and CCA strategies and programmes in the fisheries and aquaculture sector. To strengthen long-term capacities at regional, sub-regional, national and local levels to systematically contribute to building resilience to hazards in fishing and aquaculture communities. To ensure that institutions concerned with fisheries and aquaculture development at the local, national, sub-regional and regional levels develop and maintain sustainable mechanisms of coordination to support the implementation of regional programmes for DRM and CCA across the fisheries and aquaculture sector. To work with a range of other sector agencies to implement systematic approaches to livelihood diversification for poor fishing and aquaculture communities in ways that build their resilience and reduce their vulnerability.
Initiatives/Opportunities2011 Caribbean Community Common Fisheries Policy (CCCFP)Vision: effective cooperation and collaboration among Participating Parties in the conservation,management and sustainable utilisation of the fisheries resources and related ecosystems in theCaribbean region in order to secure the maximum benefits from those resources for the Caribbeanpeoples and for the Caribbean region as a whole.Key elements: goal, objectives, fundamental principles, conservation and management (EAF), fisheriessector development, statistics and research, MCS, dissemination of Information, marketing.Challenge: strengthening the institutional arrangements for implementation.2006 – 2009 CTA/CRFM partnership with FFOs to create Caribbean Network of Fisherfolk OrganisationsPurpose: to develop institutional capacities of fisherfolk organizations at the regional, national,community levels. Phase II: policy influencing and implementation.2009 – 2012 CARICOM/CRFM/Kingdom of Spain Diagnostic Study to Determine Poverty Levels in FishingCommunities in CRFM Member StatesObjective: determine poverty levels of fishing communities in selected CRFM members States, and itseffects on quality of life and structure, so as to identify suitable planning models and implementalternative livelihood and poverty alleviation programs in these communities.Identified poor and vulnerable fishing communities in 10 selected CARICOM/CRFM Member States.Livelihood assessments.
Initiatives/Opportunities cont‟dEU ACP Fish II ProjectOverall objective: to contribute to the sustainable and equitable management of fisheries in ACPregions, thus leading to poverty alleviation and improving food security in ACP States.Outputs: improved fisheries policies and management plans; reinforced control and enforcementcapabilities; reinforced research strategies and initiatives; developed business supportiveregulatory frameworks and private sector investment; and increased knowledge-sharing onfisheries management and trade at the national and regional levels2009 – 2012 CRFM / JICA Study to formulate a Master Plan on Sustainable Use of FisheriesResources for Coastal Community Development in the CaribbeanObjectives: to formulate a master plan for sustainable use of fisheries and aquaculture in theCaribbean, focusing on small-scale operators in coastal communities.Components: pelagic resource development and management; aquaculture development policyformulation (small-scale aquaculture, network of aquaculture organisations); support forcommunity-based management; and regional fisheries database development.FAO/CRFM/CDEMA/CCCCC Formulation of a strategy, action plan and programme proposal ondisaster risk management, climate change adaptation in fisheries and aquaculture in the CARICOMregionOutputs: assessment study on the interface between DRM, CCA and fisheries and aquaculture inthe CARICOM region, with a focus on small scale fisheries and aquaculture ; strategy and actionplan for integrating DRM, CCA and fisheries and aquaculture; and programme proposal.