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14. Maiava

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  • 1. Green Growth Potential in the Pacific Islands: Why, Where and How? Iosefa Maiava Head , ESCAP Sub-regional Office for the Pacific Suva, FIJI
  • 2. 2011 Pacific Regional MDGs Tracking Report (PIFS)
  • 3. The Pacific Ocean: Big and Critical• 165.2 million square kilometres, about one-third of the Earth’s total surface area, and larger than all of the Earths land area combined• Rich resource base (fishery, biodiversity, minerals) and provides ecosystems services (e.g., climate regulator) critical to the survival of the planet
  • 4. Islands:Small and Vulnerable
  • 5. Size and GDP-weighted Distance from Production (World Bank, 2012) 11,000 WorldGDP weighted distance (km) PICs TON VUT FJI 9,000 TUV WSM SLB Carribeans KIR TMP MHL PLW FSM 7,000 5,000 Log (pop) 3,000 (1k) -3 -2 (1m) -1 0 (1bn)1 2 3 4
  • 6. High production costs! World Bank, 2012 Costs of Production by Country Size as Percent of Costs in Large Economy 70Costs of Production as % Costs in Median 60 50 40 Economy 30 20 10 0 Electronic Assembly Clothing Hotels and Tourism Small economy (4 million) Threshold (1.6 million) Very small economy (200,000) Micro economy (12,000)
  • 7. Impact of the GEC! IMF, 2012 Annual Average Real GDP Growth (In percent)7.0 LICs Small States ECCU PICs6.05.04.03.02.01.00.0 1971-80 1981-90 1991-00 2001-10
  • 8. WHEN and H0W:“Turning crises into opportunities is like surfing waves,not drowning! Only the Brave jumping into the water can swim and/or surf”
  • 9. New Consumers still want MORE, but they are defining that differently. Not more shiny trifles and mountains of consumer goods but, rather, more meaning, more deeply felt connections, more substance and a greater sense of purpose.•72% say they are trying to improve the way they live•71% are trying to improve who they are as individuals•59% worry that society has grown too disconnected from thenatural world•55% worry more about their future or that of their family that theyused to•51% would like to be part of some important cause•67% believe most people would be better off if they lived moresimply•69% claim to be smarter shoppers than they were a few yearsago•64% say that making environmentally friendly choices makesthem feel good about themselves.
  • 10. Nature Business Opportunities
  • 11. Patterns of Coral Diversity: The Coral TriangleSource: J.E.N. Veron and Mary Stafford-Smith. Corals of the World (Cape Ferguson: AIMS, 2000)
  • 12. Marine Management Sites
  • 13. Tuna: Scope for better “returns” from, and sustainability of, the stocks60% global tuna stocks;Total landed value annually of around US$2billion and an estimated market value ofUS$3-4 billion;Access agreements for distant-water fishingnations US$60–70 million annually andincreasing;Uneven proportion of catch value retainedby PICs;Yellowfin and bigeye tuna at serious risk ofoverfishing.
  • 14. THE RISK TO FOOD SECURITYIN THE PACIFIC HAS BEEN Local ProduceRECOGNIZED AT THE HIGHESTPOLITICAL LEVEL.At the 39th Pacifi c Islands Forum, heldin Niue from 19 to 20 August 2008,Forum Leaders:“Acknowledged the high importance offood security as an emerging issuewhich poses challenges for the futurewell- being of people across theregion” and “called on all countries tomaintain open markets and, wherepossible, to increase the productionand supply of healthy food”.Leaders “committed theirgovernments to immediate action toaddressfood security issues nationally and,where possible, regionally through arange of measures across key sectorssuch as agriculture, fisheries, tradeand transport”.
  • 15. THE RISK TO FOOD SECURITY Tuna fishing boats damaged by a cyclone inIN THE PACIFIC HAS BEEN French Polynesia (Ph. F. Sodter)RECOGNIZED AT THE HIGHESTPOLITICAL LEVEL.At the 39th Pacifi c Islands Forum, heldin Niue from 19 to 20 August 2008,Forum Leaders:“Acknowledged the high importance offood security as an emerging issuewhich poses challenges for the futurewell- being of people across theregion” and “called on all countries tomaintain open markets and, wherepossible, to increase the productionand supply of healthy food”.Leaders “committed theirgovernments to immediate action toaddressfood security issues nationally and,where possible, regionally through arange of measures across key sectorssuch as agriculture, fisheries, tradeand transport”.
  • 16. THE RISK TO FOOD SECURITYIN THE PACIFIC HAS BEEN Traditional Fishing MethodRECOGNIZED AT THE HIGHESTPOLITICAL LEVEL.At the 39th Pacifi c Islands Forum, heldin Niue from 19 to 20 August 2008,Forum Leaders:“Acknowledged the high importance offood security as an emerging issuewhich poses challenges for the futurewell- being of people across theregion” and “called on all countries tomaintain open markets and, wherepossible, to increase the productionand supply of healthy food”.Leaders “committed theirgovernments to immediate action toaddressfood security issues nationally and,where possible, regionally through arange of measures across key sectorssuch as agriculture, fisheries, tradeand transport”.
  • 17. Fuel: scope for lessening vulnerability including through bulk buying Total Oil Oil Oil Oil Imports as % Consum Compone Component of GDP ption nt of of Goods (Ktoe) Imports of and Services Goods and Exports % Services %Cook 19.4 31.4 2070.1 28.8IslandsPNG 840 3.3 3.3 2.1Samoa 69.2 17.9 30.1 9.4Tonga 45 29.6 103.1 15.1Vanuatu 33 14.3 15.9 6.9
  • 18. And Renewables: Several PICs have ambitious targets• Tokelau: independence from imported fuels by progressively increasing the use of renewable energy with the ultimate goal of 100% renewable energy;• Cook Islands: 50% of electricity from renewable energy sources by 2015 and 100% by 2020;• Nauru: 50% of energy demand provided by ‘…alternative sources of energy, including through renewable sources…’ by 2015;• Tonga: 50% of electricity generation through renewable resources by 2012; and,• Tuvalu: 100% renewable energy for power generation by 2020.
  • 19. Regionalism: scope for managing cross- border and production issuesShared regional • Achieve economies of scaleinstitutions • Help overcome capacity constraintsHarmonization of laws • Ease cross-border businessand regulations • Help overcome capacity constraintsLabor market • Allow people to move to areas whereintegration opportunities exist • Allow access to necessary skills and capacitiesBetter transport and • Reduce costs of businesscommunication links • Facilitate flow of knowledge and ideas
  • 20. Government have to jump start GG• By closing 2 gaps Price Gap: by internalizing Ecological Price into Market Price by Ecological Tax Reform (ETR) Time Gap: by investing in long term gains through Green Budget Reform (GBR)• GG is not just an incremental change promoting green technologies, agro-forestry and removing subsidies, it should be greening whole economy.
  • 21. EconomicSocial Ecological