Transcript of "1. j.omiti youth and agriculture ppt wageningen-nov 2012"
Youth, Agriculture and RuralDevelopment in Developing countries/ACP regions John Omiti Nancy Laibuni Simon Githuku firstname.lastname@example.org 1
Definition of Youth Age (15-35 years) Differences across regions – Political Importance [‘leaders of tomorrow’] – Cultural aspects (Gender, Marriage) – Unemployment // Wealth Gaps – Emerging issues (ICT, Migration) 2
African Youth - Demographics Large share of youth in population (youth bulge) 70 % is aged below 25 years (200 million) 37% of the total labor force Youth unemployment rate (2009) - North Africa ≈ 24 % - Sub-Saharan Africa ≈ 50-60? Unskilled youth = (25 - 50 %) 3
Key Issues Rural poverty Migration of the youth: Urban areas Overseas (OECD) High levels of unemployment/underemployment Deferred plans [e.g., investments, marriage] Ageing farm populations [future of agriculture] Youth bulge (social unrest) 6
Youth are key agents Social change Access to higher and innovative education Culture (music, arts, etc) Economic development Broad range of opportunities Access to physical and financial resources Technological innovation dynamic conditions to incubate ideas and innovate Political Change 7
Involving Youth in Agriculture Africa Average age of farmer ≈ 55 years Average life expectancy ≈ 49-54 years Caribbean Average age of farmers ≈ 55 years Average life expectancy ≈ 65-70 years 8
Why interest youth in Agriculture Public Perceptions [‘grow own food’] Self Reliance and Self Sufficiency Building Human Resource Base Political goodwill and Investments 9
Youth perceptions towards Agriculture Generally negative youth perceptions withrespect to participation in agriculture• Not perceived as a viable business initiative• Employer of last resort (urban-rural youth)• Not an attractive career path• offers no opportunity for a better life• Not appealing - no prestige (status) regardless of the economic outcomes.
Youth and ICT ICT is attractive to the youth ICT applications (software) – forecast e.g. weather patterns, precision farming, etc. Managing agricultural information data- creating agricultural databases, payment systems, marketing, price trends, satellite- based insurance, etc. ICT is dynamic and challenging 11
Youth and Agribusiness – value chain Factors that limit youth participation in agribusiness: Limited market information Inability to access credit Inadequate training Skills mis-match Low profitability associated with agri- enterprises 12
Ways to engage youth in agriculture • Demystifying the negative myths about agriculture • Presenting agriculture as a profitable venture • Availing special agriculture funding for youth • Providing incentives to young people engaged in agriculture • Preferential treatment for young farmers e.g. water levy, taxation laxity • Availing fair market opportunities for youth • Modernizing agriculture • Providing training opportunities in new technologies
Ways to engage youth in agriculture• Recognition and supporting young graduates as potential employees within the agribusiness sector• Support youth in establishing and managing a youth network in agriculture• Include youth in policy decision making and implementation• Agriculture in Education system since primary level
Policy Suggestions Employment Employability Addressing Technical Skills Mis-matches Addressing Non-Technical Skills Mismatches (skills development) Employment Creation: Address slow job/career growth Equal Opportunities: Addressing youth-discrimination / deficiencies in the labour market and Inadequate Job Matching Facilitating Entrepreneurship Business Development Services (BDS) + Futures Markets 15
Policy Suggestions Agri-Business Innovations Package technology for young farmers Green house farming Grafting of fruits / vegetables Use integrated and multifunctional business approach Targets young farmers Use Mobile phones for recordings, management, etc 16