013 simumba

1,482 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,482
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
985
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

013 simumba

  1. 1. AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NETWORKS IN ZAMBIA (ZAR4DIN) AND GHANA (GAINS) Joel Sam Director, Institute for Scientific and Technological Information, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Accra, Ghana Justin ChisengaInformation Management Specialist, Food and Agriculture Organization Regional Office for Africa Accra, Ghana Valeria Pesce Information Management Specialist, Global Forum on Agricultural Research, GFAR Secretariat, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy Davy Simumba Principal Biometrician, Zambia Agricultural Research Institute, Chilanga, Zambia
  2. 2. OUTLINE • Background – Ghana Agricultural Information Network System – Zambia Agricultural Research for Development Information Network • Institutional Networks and Information architecture – Institutional policies: towards open access – Digitization and institutional repositories – Information architecture, standards and tools • Challenges and Conclusions – Institutional Challenges – Technical Challenges21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 2
  3. 3. BACKGROUND• Agriculture Research for Development (AR4D) and the knowledge generated from such research are essential catalysts for accelerating agricultural production development in a country• Efficient provision of access to relevant and timely AR4D information to research scientists contributes to quality research through which a country is able to select appropriate technologies, which if applied can help productivity, and thus contribute to the overall growth of the country’s economy. 21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 3
  4. 4. • In many developing countries, much of the AR4D output is in the form of grey literature and rarely gets distributed outside the research organizations.• Today many opportunities are provided by the new information and communication technologies (ICTs), to make the outputs of AR4D visible outside the owner institution21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 4
  5. 5. Constraints:•Lack of resources and information andcommunication management policies andstrategies (institutional capacities); and•Lack of awareness of the opportunities presentedby modern ICTs and of standards and methods tomake information more accessible (humancapacities). 21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 5
  6. 6. Rationale behind the principles set forward by the CIARD initiative:• Issues of lack of institutional capacities, human capacities and little awareness of standards and technologies to make information accessible• Aims at making agricultural research information publicly available and accessible to all• See the CIARD Manifesto at http://www.ciard.net/ciard-manifesto21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 6
  7. 7. “Pathways to Research Uptake” The “Pathways” illustrate and recommend institutional policies, content management methodologies and information sharing approaches that help make research outputs visible and more accessible.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 7
  8. 8. This paper illustrates how the Ghana AgriculturalInformation Network System (GAINS) and theZambia Agricultural Research for DevelopmentInformation Network (ZAR4DIN) projects adoptedsome of the recommended “paths” andcontributed to the development of an integratedagricultural information system in the respectivecountries.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 8
  9. 9. Ghana Agricultural Information Network System• Ghana Agricultural Information Network System (GAINS) was established in 1991.• GAINS comprises a network of libraries that include – all the agricultural based research institutes of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), – faculties of agriculture of the publicly funded universities, – the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA), – and the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute,21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 9
  10. 10. GAINS PortalA first portal was built in 2003, but in 2008 itwas agreed to improve on the provision ofonline access to agricultural sciences andtechnology (AS&T) information generated inGhana through the re-design of the GAINSportal, which was completed in 2010 under theGhana AGRIS Pilot Project (GAPP).21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 10
  11. 11. GAINS Member Institutions The GAINS member institutions on the GAPP were the CSIR-INSTI, the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG), the CSIR Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), the CSIR Food Research Institute (FRI), the CSIR Animal Research Institute (ARI), the Ministry of Food and Agriculture Information Resource Centre (MOFAIR), and the College of Agriculture Education (Ashanti-Mampong) of the University of Education, Winneba.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 11
  12. 12. Zambia Agricultural Research for Development Information Network• The Zambia Agricultural Research for Development Information Network (ZAR4DIN) project was launched in January 201021-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 12
  13. 13. The main goal of the ZAR4DIN project was to develop a national network of institutions and individuals involved in AR4D information generation, management, dissemination and exchange in order to facilitate access to AR4D information, including metadata and full-text documents, through interlinked institutional repositories accessible through a national AR4D portal.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 13
  14. 14. The pilot institutions on the project are: – the Zambia Agriculture Research Institute (ZARI) – the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR) and – National Agricultural Information Services (NAIS) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 14
  15. 15. What the GAPP and ZAR4DIN have in common isthat they both aimed at:b)creating (or strengthening) a network ofresearch institutions and information managersin their respective countries;c)enabling research institutions to manage theirresearch outputs appropriately;d)making research outputs owned by individualinstitutions accessible through a national portaland through international bibliographicdatabases21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 15
  16. 16. Institutional networks and information architecture21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 16
  17. 17. Institutional policies: towards open access The GAINS implemented a series of strategies aimed at gaining support for its activities towards opening access to agricultural research information and digitization initiatives.These included:21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 17
  18. 18. • Introducing the CIARD Manifesto and Values to the Committee of Directors of the CSIR research institutes in February 2009. The bulk of GAINS member institutions are CSIR agricultural-based research institutes.• Institutional seminars on opening access to public domain agricultural scientific and technical information in three pilot institutions at which participantsincluded research scientists and management.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 18
  19. 19. • A workshop on Open Access for representatives of the pilot institutions to create awareness on the concept of public domain literature and open access publishing.• A seminar on Copyright Management and Institutional Repositories to sensitize information technology specialists, librarians, information managers, research managers and research scientists on copyright issues that may affect provision of access to information resources in an institutional repository and introduce them to SHERPA-RoMEO facilities and Creative Commons Licensing system21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 19
  20. 20. • On a positive note, MOFAIR, all the institutions participating in the GAPP project developed institutional policies and strategies for information and communication management (ICM).21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 20
  21. 21. • GAINS, as a network, also developed its information and communication management/technology (ICM/T) policies and strategies, which are more favourable to opening access to agricultural sciences and technical information generated in Ghana.These include strategies to:21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 21
  22. 22. • develop mechanisms for collection of agriculture information in electronic format;• develop institutional repositories of metadata and full-text documents of agricultural information resources;• support national, regional, and international initiatives aimed at opening up access to agricultural information resources21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 22
  23. 23. In Zambia, the results of a survey on theviews of research scientists regarding openaccess showed that 82.5% of therespondents supported the “basic principleof open-access” and the notion of providingopen-access to publications of scientificresearch outputs in scholarly journals byagricultural research scientists in thecountry.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 23
  24. 24. ZAR4DIN worked on consolidating thissupport in the pilot institutions, especially atNISIR and ZARI. In this regard:21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 24
  25. 25. • ZAR4DIN stakeholders at the project’s inception meeting, in January 2010, proposed guidelines for promoting open access and agreed that ZAR4DIN member institutions should endeavour to collect and preserve outputs of AR4D in digital format.• A seminar on “Opening Access to Science and Technology Research” was organized at ZARI for research scientists and research officers.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 25
  26. 26. • Senior managers in ZAR4DIN member institutions participated in a seminar on information management and knowledge sharing policies and strategies.• NISIR and ZARI held seminars to review their ICM/T policies and related strategies to establish how they relate to national policies and strategies and how they facilitate and promote access to and dissemination of agricultural research information and knowledge generated by the institutions.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 26
  27. 27. • ZARI senior management also expressed interest in developing appropriate ICM/T policies and strategies to facilitate management of digital information resources in the institution.• The ZAR4DIN also adopted policies to maximize the visibility, citation, usage and impact of research outputs by maximizing online access to it for all users and researchers worldwide and to ensure that all peer-reviewed research outputs including journal articles, except those protected under copyright arrangements, are to be self-archived in the institutional e-repositories.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 27
  28. 28. • ZAR4DIN member institutions signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) which, among others, allow harvesting of metadata from ZAR4DIN by service providers using Open Access Initiative-Metadata Harvesting Protocol (OAI-MHP) to enhance wider exposure and dissemination of AR4D content from Zambia.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 28
  29. 29. Digitization and Institutional Repositories21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 29
  30. 30. • To increase the availability, accessibility and applicability of research outputs, the CIARD initiative, among others, recommends to institutions to ensure that their research outputs are available digitally, and to develop institutional or thematic repositories of the outputs as open archives.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 30
  31. 31. • In this regard, all the participating institutions in GAINS’ GAPP project and ZAR4DIN developed institutional repositories.• Tables 1 and 2 below provide statistics regarding the contents of the institutional repositories.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 31
  32. 32. Table 1: GAPP - Metadata and Full-text documents in institutional repositories January 2012 Institution Metadata Full-Text Documents CSIR-ARI 328 170 CSIR-FRI 291 291 CSIR-INSTI 1178 1152 CAGRIC 589 587 CSIR-FORIG 503 503 CRIG 158 145 MOFAIR 520 674021-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 32
  33. 33. Table 2: ZAR4DIN - Metadata and Full-text documents in institutional repositories January 2012 Institution Metadata Full-Text Documents ZARI 850 100 NISIR 420 420 NAIS 120 4521-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 33
  34. 34. • The ZAR4DIN Portal (http://zar4din.org) provides access to about 900 metadata records and 102 documents harvested mainly from ZARI and NISIR repositories while the GAINS Portal (http://gains-instigh.org) provides access to about 1158 metadata records and 1136 full-text documents.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 34
  35. 35. Information architecture, standards and tools21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 35
  36. 36. • The technical architecture of the networks was deliberately conceived to be flexible and the focus was on exchange standards and interoperability rather than on the homogeneous use of specific tools.• The information architecture comprises the information management practices adopted (metadata model, authority data for indexing, exchange standards) and the information flows (from the institutional repository to a national portal and to international bibliographic databases).21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 36
  37. 37. • The information management practices adopted in the GAINS and ZAR4DIN projects follow these recommendations: the national portals expose records both as XML files using the AGRIS Application Profile and through an OAI-PMH interface also using the AGRIS Application Profile; subject indexing is done using AGROVOC terms and internal authority files support the controlled management of authors, journals, publishers and conferences.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 37
  38. 38. • The reason for adopting standards is the intention of sharing institutional research outputs with others and making them accessible through other search engines.• The use of the above mentioned standards indeed helped to make the records created in the institutions participating in the two projects more visible and accessible. The XML exports from the institutional repositories are harvested into the respective national portals (http://gains-instigh.org and http://zar4din.org ) which act as one-stop shops for all the research outputs managed by the participating institutions in the country; 21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 38
  39. 39. • In Zambia, in the first phase, while ZARI and NAIS installed the AgriDrupal software tool as repository management system in their institution and started cataloguing and managing their resources exploiting the cataloguing and indexing features of the tool (standard bibliographic metadata set; internal authority lists for authors, journals and conferences; integration of the AGROVOC thesaurus); NISIR catalogued their first batch of documents using Microsoft Access (which resulted in a few issues regarding the consistency and syntax of data, considering which NISIR decided to migrate all records to an AgriDrupal installation). 21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 39
  40. 40. • Although the output formats from AgriDrupal (XML files compliant with the AGRIS Application Profile) and from Access were different, the use of a similar metadata set allowed to import the three sets of metadata records into the ZAR4DIN national portal ( http://zar4din.org), thus giving access to information resources from the three institutions through one web-based portal.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 40
  41. 41. • In Ghana, the bibliographical records to be integrated in the portal come mostly from Institutional repositories created with the WebAGRIS software, which produces XML files compliant with the AGRIS Application Profile that the GAINS portal ( http://gains-instigh.org) can import. At the moment, the portal gives access to records coming from CSIR- INSTI. The portal will also give access to four searchable online metadata databases (AGRIEX, GHASAB, GHAGRI and THESIS) containing records from member institutions. 21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 41
  42. 42. • WebAGRIS is a system for distributed data input, management and dissemination of metadata on information objects: http://aims.fao.org/tools/webagris-221-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 42
  43. 43. • AgriDrupal is both a “suite of solutions” for agricultural information management and dissemination, built on the Drupal Content Management System, and the community of practice around these solutions: http://aims.fao.org/tools/agridrupal• AGROVOC is the world’s most comprehensive multilingual agricultural vocabulary: http://aims.fao.org/standards/agrovoc/about• http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/ae909e/ae909e00.h tm21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 43
  44. 44. Challenges and Conclusions •Institutional Challenges •Technical Challenges21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 44
  45. 45. Institutional Challenges•Low Commitment of Pilot Institutional Heads•Lack of Institutional ICT/M Policy andWorkflows•Inadequately trained human resources•Absence of Clear IPR/Copyright Guidelines21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 45
  46. 46. Technical Challenges•Integration of data in the national portals.•Although most of the records came fromsoftware tools that produce standardoutputs that can be easily imported andintegrated into other platforms, the issuein some cases was not the metadata modelbut the actual data21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 46
  47. 47. • The availability of experienced and dedicated cataloguers also made a difference in this respect: most institutions in Ghana had experienced cataloguers dedicated to the job, which resulted in very rich bibliographic records, while in some other institutions the time that the cataloguers could devote to the project was limited and many of them also had to help with the digitization of the printed material, which didn’t allow them to specialize in their task.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 47
  48. 48. In conclusion, the agricultural informationnetworks in Zambia and Ghana have shown howworking towards adopting appropriateinstitutional policies, content managementmethodologies, and information sharingapproaches that follow the “Pathways toResearch Uptake” proposed by the CIARDinitiative, could contribute to the developmentand strengthening of integrated agriculturalresearch information systems in the countries.21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 48
  49. 49. THANK YOU21-May-12 Agricultural Information Networks in Zambia (ZAR4DIN) and Ghana (GAINS) 49

×