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  1. 1. The Use of Radio in the Dissemination of Agricultural Information to Farmers: The Ghana Agricultural Information Network System (GAINS) Experience Joel Sam Director Institute for Scientific and Technological Information Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Accra, Ghana Email: egy28@yahoo.co.uk Lucy Dzandu Librarian Institute for Scientific and Technological Information Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Accra, Ghana Email: lucydzandu@yahoo.comAbstractIn Ghana, agriculture is the mainstay of the economy and is vital to the overall economicgrowth and development as it is a source of livelihood for a great majority of the population.An important vehicle for increasing agricultural productivity is the provision of relevant andcurrent agricultural information on time and in the right format to stakeholders. This paperdiscusses the role that the Ghana Agricultural Information Network System (GAINS) hasplayed in disseminating agricultural information to farmers using radio. Recommendationshave been made on how to improve information dissemination and to collaborate with otherinstitutions to provide agricultural information to improve agricultural productivity, foodsecurity and rural livelihoods in Ghana. 1
  2. 2. 1.0 IntroductionAgriculture plays a very important role in Ghana’s economy. About 60% of the populationis employed by the agricultural sector, which supports about 80% of the populationeconomically through several activities such as farming, distribution of farm products, andthe provision of other related services. In economic terms, the sector was .for many yearsin the past the largest contributor to the GDP until the year 2006 when the service sectorovertook it. Data available from the Ghana Statistical Service showed that in 2006 theservice sector contributed 48.8% while agriculture contributed 30.4% to country’s GDP.This trend has been continuing and in 2010, the service sector’s contribution rose to 51.4%while that from agriculture fell to 29.9%. But in spite of this trend its development stillholds the key to poverty alleviation and improved food security in Ghana and otherdeveloping countries (GSS, 2011).The peasant farmers produce the bulk of the countrys food crops for home consumption,as well as cash crops for export. Their inability to sustain increased food production levelsover the years could be attributed to factors such as the lack of reliable information thatwill help them to adjust their farm management practices. To overcome this problem, theyhave to be provided with the requisite knowledge to enable them increase their output, andthereby increase their earnings from farming activities.In a situation where information about new methods of production hardly reaches thepeasant farmers, majority of whom have very little or no formal education, it becomesnecessary to adopt alternative methods which can adequately meet these demands. Suchan approach should aim at providing the information needed to solve their problems, andalso motivate them to accept changes and adopt improved practices. One basic andessential attribute of information is that it helps in solving problems. For this to be possiblehowever, it must be relevant to the users needs at any given time. In the agriculturalsector, information is one of the major resources to increase food production. Effectiveinformation delivery service greatly enhances agricultural development (Sam, 2011). 2
  3. 3. ICTs encompass a range of technologies that facilitate by electronic means, the production,storage and exchange of information, though a distinction is often made between new ICTssuch as computers, Internet and mobile phones and old ICTs such as newspapers, radio,television and landline telephony. The new ICTs are known for their digital transmissionmechanisms, greater interactivity, wider geographical coverage, cost-effectiveness, andavailability on 24/7 basis. By contrast, the old ICTs use analog transmission mechanismsand mostly provide one-way communication (Greenberg, 2005).The potential contribution of ICTs to development generally, and poverty reduction inparticular has received a growing attention worldwide in recent years. The widespreadavailability of ICTs has generated much interest in their potential use for development andpoverty alleviation. ICTs may play a role in the livelihoods of people in rural areas byfacilitating access to information which can boost agricultural production and providemarketing information for agricultural products, hence improving farmers’ income. ICTsmay also improve poor people’s access to education, health, government and financialservices (Cecchini and Scott, 2003). Arguably, the values of ICTs can be particularly high inareas where other forms of communication such as postal systems and roads are poor.This paper discusses the use of radio by the Ghana Agricultural Information NetworkSystem (GAINS) in the dissemination of agricultural information to farmers. The use ofradio was chosen as the channel through which agricultural information should bedisseminated to farmers as majority of them are illiterate and could therefore not bereached through the traditional channels of disseminating information. Radio was found tobe appropriate as the agricultural information programmes are broadcast in the locallanguages which is understood by the illiterate farmers. It is for this reason that GAINS hassince 2004 been disseminating agricultural information to farmers through the use ofradio.2.0 The Ghana Agricultural Information Network System (GAINS)The Ghana Agricultural Information Network System (GAINS) is a Ghanaian informationnetwork which has primarily been used for the sharing of agricultural research 3
  4. 4. information. Since 1991, it has linked the libraries of 18 of Ghana’s agricultural researchand academic facilities to each other and to external contacts. It facilitates a question andanswer service (QAS) to address stakeholders’ agricultural information needs, attempts toimprove the accessibility of locally produced research findings, and builds the capacity ofstakeholder institutions libraries and information management professionals. It ismanaged by a coordinating centre based at the Institute for Scientific and TechnologicalInformation-of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR-INSTI). (GAINS,2010).GAINS purpose is to bring together the creators and disseminators of agricultural researchinformation in Ghana to increase information sharing and collectively address theircommon needs. GAINS’ coordinating centre has been increasing stakeholders’ collectiveaccess to scientific information, especially international journals, and in seeking externalpartnerships. However, the network faces major challenges in assisting its memberinstitutes to improve their own information management and sharing capabilities. Despitethe efforts of the coordinating centre, locally generated research outputs are still quitedifficult to access, as very few of GAINS’ member institutes have functioning repositories oftheir research outputs, and even fewer effectively share their output with the rest of thenetwork (GAINS, 2010).2.1 Information and Knowledge Resources in GAINS - DatabasesSince March 2000 when GAINS started facilitating the Ghana-QAS, the Local Area NetworkEssential Electronic Agricultural Library (LANTEEAL) database has been found to be a veryrelevant source for providing information to users. LANTEEAL is a useful source ofinformation for the Ghana-QAS and also complements the AGORA database. With theacquisition of 3 sets of LANTEEAL, the information needs of research scientists andacademia are being met throughout the country as they are strategically placed in CSIR-INSTI, Accra, KNUST, Kumasi and UDS, Nyankpala, near Tamale. 4
  5. 5. A number of in-house databases such as Agricultural Experts in Ghana (AGRIEX), GhanaScience Abstracts (GHASAB), Ghana Agricultural Research Information (GHAGRI) and thethesis database, as well as the GAINS newsletter archive, are accessible from the GAINSwebsite, and many of the international databases (AGORA, HINARI, OARE and ScienceDirect) are accessible from their own sites. These databases have been very beneficial inserving the information needs of research scientists and academia as they provide a veryuseful source for Ghanaian generated information. They are however unhelpful to farmers,majority of whom are illiterate. Thus the need to use radio to repackage the informationand broadcast it using the local languages to reach the farmers.Within GAINS, a number of Ghanaian agricultural research information databases havebeen created with the collaboration of local partners to serve the information needs ofusers. These are: • Ghana Agricultural Research Information Database (GHAGRI) - a bibliographic collection of information on all aspects of agriculture and rural development in Ghana and contains over 9700 records largely of journal articles, books, conference proceedings, unpublished reports, thesis and dissertations dating back to the early 1900s. This database can be accessed online at: www.gains.org.gh. It was developed using the WINISIS software and indexed using AGROVOC Thesaurus. • Ghana Science Abstracts (GHASAB) - a bibliographic database of refereed journal articles published in Ghana or about Ghana in the area of science and technology and contains 1845 records. It can be accessed online at: www.gains.org.gh and was developed using the WINISIS software and indexed using Spine Thesaurus for Science and Technology. • GAPP Institutional Repository Database - is made up of metadata and associated full-text collection of information on all aspects of agriculture and rural development in Ghana. This database contains 1032 records of which are 25 metadata and 1007 full-text and was developed using the WINISIS software and indexed using AGROVOC Thesaurus.In recent times, attempts have been made by GAINS to expand its focus to address theneeds not only of research and academia, but also of end users such as farmers and 5
  6. 6. intermediaries such as extension agents. In serving the information needs of farmers,majority of whom are illiterate, the traditional resources (databases, books, journals) andmeans of disseminating information would not adequately meet their information needs.The need therefore arose to use radio to repackage the information and broadcast it usingthe local languages to reach the farmers.3.0 Radio and Agricultural Information DisseminationAgricultural information in Ghana is provided through two main channels. These are thewell-known formal channels which include libraries and information centres, radio andtelevision; posters and the informal channel of oral communication. Of these, farmers tendto rely on the oral method of communication and sometimes on the radio for theirinformation needs, while other users of agricultural information such as policy makers andresearchers depend on formal channels for their information needs (Hanson, 1994). GAINSin collaboration with its development partners notably CTA, FAO, FARA, IICD and KIT haveover the years explored the use of ICT in the dissemination of agricultural information toits stakeholders.Farmers need to be informed and educated about improved agricultural practices to enablethem increase their productivity and income. Several channels such as extension agents,individuals, farmer-to-farmer contact, print media (newspapers, magazines, newsletters,leaflets, pamphlets, and posters) and electronic media (radio, television, films) have beenwidely used to disseminate information to farmers (Rite FM, 2011).However, through the challenges and lessons learnt in the provision of agriculturalinformation to farmers under the CTA supported QAS project in Ghana, the use of radio wasidentified as a medium through which the information needs of farmers could be met. Manyfarmers in Ghana are peasant farmers who live in the rural areas of the country. Many ofthese farmers are illiterate and lack the formal skills to read and understand technicalresearch findings. It is on the basis of this that the QAS entered into partnerships withcommunity radio stations with CTA’s support to reach more Ghanaian farmers in their own 6
  7. 7. local languages to disseminate agricultural research findings to them, and also help themidentify solutions to their farming problems.Radio is one broadcast medium which almost all experts identify to be the mostappropriate for rural emancipation program. It beats distances, and thus has immediateeffect. It has been identified as the only medium of mass communication the ruralpopulation is very familiar with. This is because a radio set is cheap to obtain and is widelyowned in the rural areas. This is made possible by the advent of the battery-operatedtransistorized sets. Furthermore, radio is favored as a medium of communication in ruralcommunities because of the advantages ascribed to it in form of (i) transcending thebarriers of illiteracy, and (ii) demanding less intellectual exertion than the print mediamessages (Rite FM, 2011). Its limitation that it was a one-way communication channel hasbeen overcome in Ghana through massive improvement in telecommunication whichenables the audience to respond via telephone to radio broadcasts.3.1 Brief Profile of Radio StationsA study carried out by the CTA supported QAS project in Ghana revealed that it was betterto work with community-based FM stations, as they broadcasted programmes in locallanguages understood by farmers and fisher folks. It was also found to be more viableeconomically to work with community-based FM stations as opposed to the nationalbroadcasting station.In line with this, the repackaging of agricultural information into radio programmes startedin 2004 with Radio Peace, a community-based FM station in Winneba in the Central Regionof Ghana. The station serves 7 out of the ten regions of the Central region of Ghana. It isestimated that on the average about 5,000 people listen to the agricultural programme onThursday evenings when the live broadcast is aired with an equal number listening to therepeat programme on Saturdays. The programme is broadcast in the local language(Fante). 7
  8. 8. In addition to Radio Peace, GAINS now partners one community radio station (Royals FM)and two community-based commercial radio stations (Lorlornyo FM and Rite FM) toprovide tailor-made agricultural programmes to empower farmers with relevantagricultural best practices.Royals FM is a community Radio station based at Wenchi in the Brong Ahafo region. It isunder the management of a community based organization called Rural Organized Youth inAgriculture, Literacy and Sanitation [ROYALS]. One of the aims of this organization is tohelp educate the people in the Wenchi municipality and Tain district especially and beyondon improved farming technologies for farmers. It broadcasts an agricultural radioprogramme in Asante Twi known as Kua Pa Ye (Good Farming Practices) every Saturdayevening with a repeat the next Saturday. Thirty three community information centres inand around Wenchi & Tain districts are linked to the QAS radio programme.Rite FM is a commercial radio station based in Somanya in the Eastern region. It operates atwenty-four hour radio service. The prime focus of the station is on agriculture and socialdevelopment. Through its carefully prepared material, based on a solid foundation of well-structured programme platforms, the station disseminates timely information to primarilyfarmers and secondly to all stakeholders in the agricultural value chain in three differentlanguages namely, English, Twi and Krobo. With respect to the agricultural programme,Twi and Krobo (the local dialects) are used to broadcast the programme on Friday morningwith a repeat on Monday evening. The programmes are also streamed on the internet(www.ritefmonline.com) to get feedback from a wider audience. This website alsogenerates a newsletter that is sent to over 1000 agricultural professionals around thecountry. Since this website was made public it has had over 180,000 hits as at the end of2011 and usually attracts an average of 100-800 people daily.Lorlornyo FM is also a commercial radio station in Hohoe in the Volta region. Thebroadcast covers over ten districts in the Volta region, parts of the Eastern region and part 8
  9. 9. of Togo. Ewe and Akan are used to air the radio programmes on Thursday evenings with arepeat broadcast on Sunday afternoon.3.2 Format and Content Development for the Radio BroadcastThe radio programmes are broadcast live for duration of one hour once a week with arepeat broadcast either in the same week or the next depending on the radio station. Theissue for the week is advertised prior to the broadcasting for the listeners to be aware ofwhat will be aired. A topic is chosen based on an analysis made of the questions receivedeither by the radio station or the coordinating centre and the FAQs form the basis forthe broadcast series. FAQs allow for the identification of (i) agricultural issues that can beaddressed by scientists, policy-makers and other stakeholders, and (ii) priority informationneeds of the larger farming community. Once the priority information needs of the farmingcommunity are identified both from questions received by partners and from communityconsultation in the catchment areas of the radio stations, topics are selected for thedevelopment of radio programmes by CSIR-INSTI in collaboration with the radios based onthese findings. On the day of the radio broadcast, the resource persons introduce the issue,discuss it for about thirty minutes and listeners are then allowed to phone into theprogramme or send text messages (literate farmers) to ask follow-up questions, seekfurther clarifications, access information, and share knowledge with other listeners. Thosewho phone-in have their contact details and questions registered by the receptionistof the radio station.Farmers who do not have the means or know how to call into programs areencouraged to visit the radio stations with their problems or success stories so that itcan be shared with a wider community. The phone-in facility and sending of textmessages provides a good feedback mechanism to evaluate the programme and alsoreceive follow-up of related questions. It also makes the programme more participatory,interesting and widens the listenership. 9
  10. 10. Efforts are made to align programming with the various farming seasons so that farmerscan be provided with timely and pertinent information for the farming season. Theprogrammes are also recorded, and farmers who could not listen to the programme or whowant to keep a copy go to the station to get copies of a particular programme for future use.In developing content for the radio broadcast, certain vital roles are played by both thecoordinating centre of GAINS and the radio stations. These roles are outlined below:With respect to the radio stations, as a follow up to frequently asked questions they receivefrom the listeners or sent to them from the coordinating centre, they conduct communityconsultation at the local level and in consultation with CSIR-INSTI to develop relevantcontent for the broadcast series. Findings of the community consultations are thenanalyzed and synthesized to form the basis for the broadcast series. After the broadcast,they do a follow-up on some of the people who asked the question to find out howknowledge gained is helping them or possibly their neighbours. The stations also have toagree with CSIR-INSTI the materials/issues to be broadcast beforehand. The finally submitto CSIR-INSTI a copy of each broadcast on CD, certificate of broadcasts, an evaluationreport on the programme at the end of the series using the smart toolkit for radio.In the case of the coordinating centre, they provide resource persons for the production ofthe broadcast series when required, resource materials for the production of the broadcastseries, assist with the monitoring and evaluation of the programme to ensure its objectivesare being met, and provide financial support for the production and broadcast of the series.3.2.1 Resource PersonsIn producing radio broadcasts not only those with academic qualifications served asresource persons, but also others with a wide range of experience in the issue underdiscussion for example, farmers, extension officers, and fishermen. With this development,the programme is well patronized as the voices of the less privileged in society are alsoheard. 10
  11. 11. 3.3 Use of Tongshi RadioThrough the financial support of CTA, twenty tongshi radio receivers were acquired in2008 and distributed to assist the partners to facilitate access to agricultural research anddevelopment information available via digital satellite broadcasts for QAS partners.Personnel of the beneficiary institutions were trained on the installation of the equipmentand downloading of information. The information downloaded is then disseminated to thevarious stakeholders to meet their information needs.3.4 Evaluation and Impact Stories from Radio BroadcastIn April 2011, an assessment of Rite FM agricultural programs was undertaken todetermine the impact of radio agricultural programs on the target audience (farmers). Thedata was collected from 400 respondents, scattered in 13 communities, located in 7districts from 3 regions. The findings of the study showed that the programs broadcast onRite FM were relevant to the agricultural information needs of respondents. Majority of therespondents admitted that they gained some new knowledge through listening to theprograms. Times of day specific programs are broadcast and unreliable power supply wasindicated as constraints to listenership of the programs. The programs, to a large extent,had the desired impact on the listeners. It should therefore be sustained but with somemodifications in terms of time of presentation and encouragement of group listenership.Earlier in 2009, Radio Peace undertook a similar study with four hundred and forty sevenfarmers involved. The result of that study indicated improved livelihood of the targetaudience (farmers) by way of improved production practices, adoption of improvedtechnologies, the setting up of new businesses (agro-chemical shops) to supplement theirfarm income.The radio programmes seem to be having a tremendous impact in the lives of the ruralpeople. A number of impact stories have been shared with others by some listeners ofRadio Peace and Royals FM. These are: fishing communities have been having problemswith respect to the level of catch, primarily because of foreign fishing vessels encroaching 11
  12. 12. on the 3 kilometer zone protected under international law. The reefs were also beingdestroyed as well. Despite numerous complaints to government, no action was taken. Itwas only when the issue was broadcast by Radio Peace, Winneba that the government wentinto action to address the problem.Secondly, farmers no longer use intense labour to clear their fields. They mostly depend onweedicides. Some farmers had challenges regarding the proper application of the product.Experts provided by Royals FM discovered that the farmers were applying half of what wasprescribed. A special programme was aired to deal with the situation and the farmers latercalled to the programme to report of improvement in clearing their fields.Thirdly, a farmer had a problem with his cashew production. Apparently his trees hadreached maturity, but they were producing very little cashew. An expert from Royals FMvisited the farm and identified that the problem had to do with spacing and thick canopy ofthe trees; and the farmer was advised to prune them – which he did. Production increasedsignificantly.Finally, it has been observed that the status of farmers in the Winneba and Wenchicommunities has improved with the adoption of new agricultural technologies. It is alsoencouraging to note that, the youth in the communities reached by the radio programmesare getting involved in agriculture.3.5 Key Challenges in using RadioThe key challenges faced using radio to disseminate agricultural information was:Duration of the programme – one of the key challenges that has faced the radio programmeis the issue of the duration of the programme per week (1 hour). It has been observed thatthe period is too short for the issue at stake to be thoroughly discussed, explained and alsoto respond to the questions during the phone-in segment. This has resulted in the phone-insegment being truncated most of the time with a number of lingering issues unresolved. 12
  13. 13. Language barriers – most of the resource persons especially the research scientists are notfluent in the local of the radio stations so sometimes have to speak in English for it to betranslated by the host. This defeats the purpose of the programme which is to be aired inthe local language.Communication skills – some of the resource persons also lack the necessarycommunication skills to communicate to the audience. It therefore makes the programmeuninteresting.Road network – the poor road infrastructure in most of the rural areas makes it verydifficult for follow-up activities to be undertaken.3.6 Lessons Learned in using RadioA number of lessons have been learned in using radio to disseminate agriculturalinformation. These are: It has been established that the programme is useful and hasenriched the work of the farmers and extension agents who listen to it. The introduction ofthe phone-in facility has resulted in issues of concern to the listeners being addressed onthe spot by experts. It has also brought variety to the programmes due to the varied natureof the resource persons and their background knowledge.With this development the programme is well patronized as the voices of the lessprivileged in society are also being heard. The programme has therefore broken thesecrecy that used to be the hallmark of farmers in not sharing their success stories withothers. In conclusion, it must be emphasized that there is the need for more communitiesto be involved in such radio programmes to enhance access to information.One other key lesson that has been learned is the fact that the radio programmes haveincreased the outreach of responses to FAQs and more people have answers to issues ofconcern to them. It has therefore led to increased listenership. 13
  14. 14. It is also worth mentioning that farmers are now sharing experiences they have had asindividuals in farming. Though some of the information may have no scientific basis orproof, they were worth sharing as they were practical experiences.Record keeping and community entry in all the radio stations improved significantly. Priorto the project most of the stations were not keeping track of issues that were discussed andfollowing up to ensure that solutions provided are working.Conclusions and RecommendationsThe GAINS has become a major source of information for agricultural development inGhana. Through the creation of web-based information systems, there are better linkagesand information sharing among the partners of GAINS. Today, GAINS has established themechanism for the continuous gathering, updating, storage, processing and disseminationof data. It maintains national databases and information resources and provides valueadded information services. Finally, it provides primary information sources and helps tobridge the resource gap by making materials available electronically through the buildingof an online system and also providing access to international online resources.In addition through collaboration with rural radio FM stations, it has played significant rolein the dissemination of agricultural information to farmers and other stakeholders inagriculture living in rural areas. Farmers have improved their production practices,through adoption of new technologies. Follow-up visits revealed that the use of radio in thedissemination of information to farmers in agriculture has impacted positively on the livesof the rural community, increasing knowledge sharing among farmers, improvinglivelihood, ensuring food security, and enhancing rural development.However, in this information age where there is so much information, no one organizationor institution can provide the information needs of all stakeholders in agriculture. There istherefore the need for a coordinated and concerted effort of all the institutions, both publicand private, research, extension, university, and farmer based organizations to providerelevant, timely and accurate information. There is also the need for a combination of 14
  15. 15. methods, manual information system, radio, television, web-based system to meet theinformation requirements of the different stakeholders. With recent advances ininformation technology especially in e-collaboration tools, the potential for informationsharing among stakeholders is high.Efforts should be made for GAINS to collaborate with all the district agriculturalinformation centres (AICs) of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Such collaboration willassist greatly in reaching majority of the farmers and fishermen in a cost-effective manner.The radio programmes produced by one station can also be given to the other stations andthe AICs to use. This could help increase farmers and extension agents’ access toagricultural information.It is suggested that instead of a repeat broadcast, the previous broadcast be discussed bythe same resource persons briefly and the rest of the time given to the listeners to askquestions. This may cost a bit more, but would help people whose calls could not gothrough in the previous broadcast to try coming through with their questions and increasethe contribution of the listeners.It is further recommended that consideration should be given to the number of languagesto be used in the broadcast especially by Lorlornyo Fm, based on which the number oftimes it must be aired should be considered. Unlike other regions, Volta region always hasbeen faced with the issue of Ewe, Akan and the other numerous but relevant dialectspeaking communities that the region is made of.The Community Information Centre (CIC) - an initiative by the government of Ghana seeksto bring ICT close to especially those in remote parts of the country. The objectives are toassist in bridging the digital divide between rural and urban areas; to provide a Wide AreaNetwork (WAN) for the Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), hotels, schools,hospitals etc.; to provide community information needs and enhance national integration;to create ICT awareness in the rural areas; and to disseminate information to the ruralcommunities especially in areas of health, local government, environment, agriculture. 15
  16. 16. There is at the moment no direct linkage between the GAINS and any of the CICs. There is,however, the potential to collaborate with the centres in the future in the provision ofagricultural information to farmers and extension agents at the district level. GAINS cansupport the centres through training on how to repackage information, provision ofinformation materials in agricultural technologies and rural development. This will ensurethat many more farmers and fishermen are reached with current and relevant informationin a timely and cost-effective manner.For further enhancement and improvement of the GAINS service, there is the need tointroduce mobile phone based service. This is because more than 70% of the Ghanaianpopulation now own mobile phones. What is now left is to intensify training formore farmers on how to use the phones to access information.When all is said and done, it is believed that majority of farmers will have easy access totimely and cost-effective information to ensure increased agricultural production and foodsecurity.References 1. Cecchini, S. and Scott, C. (2003). Can information and communication technology applications contribute to poverty reduction? Lessons from rural India. Information Technology for Development 10(2), p. 73-84. 2. GAINS (2010). Case Study: Institution-based Systems, Ghana GAINS. p. 1-15. 3. Greenberg, A. (2005). ICTs for poverty alleviation: basic tool and enabling sector. Http://www.eldis.org/fulltext/sidaictpoverty.pdf. Retrieved on: 23 April 2012. 4. GSS (2011). Revised Gross Domestic Product 2010. 11p. Http:// www.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/GDP/revised_gdp_2010_may-2011.pdf. Retrieved on 26 April 2011. 5. Hanson, G. “Information for Sustainable Development”. GHASTINET Newsletter 4(1), 1994. p. 1-2 16
  17. 17. 6. Rite FM (2011). An Assessment of Radio Programs in Agricultural Information Dissemination: a case study of Rite FM, Somanya in Ghana. Http://www.bit.ly/JUPUFT. Retrieved on: 15 November 2011.7. Sam, J. “Delivery of Information through Rural Advisory Services of Ghana”. Report to the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) of the Netherlands in connection with the External Evaluation of the Question and Answer Service. June 2011. 29p. 17

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