Situation assessment-and-analysis-of-women-children-youth-of-different-red-light-areas-in-the-districts-of-bihar

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Situation assessment-and-analysis-of-women-children-youth-of-different-red-light-areas-in-the-districts-of-bihar

  1. 1. Situation Assessment andSituation Assessment and Analysis of Women, Children &Analysis of Women, Children & Youth of different Red LightYouth of different Red Light Areas in the districts of BiharAreas in the districts of Bihar Sponsored by Conducted by Mahila Development Centre, Rambagh Chowk Muzaffarpur, Bihar, 842001, India Telephone +91-621-2289428 Fax + 91-612-2249346 E-mail: mdc_2003@yahoo.co.in Website: www.mahiladevelopmentcentre.org
  2. 2. Page No. Acknowledgements 3 Research team 4 Executive summary 5 Chapter- 1 1.1 Introduction 9 1.2 Background and need of the study 13 1.3 Aims and objectives of the study 16 1.4 Study area 17 1.5 Methodology 18 1.6 Limitations 21 Chapter- 2 2.1 Legal frame work 22 2.2 Findings and Analysis 23 2.3 Case studies 37 Chapter-3 Recommendations 40 Conclusions 41 References 42 Appendixes 43 Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 2 Table of contents
  3. 3. Acknowledgements The purpose of this study is to analyze the current “Situation assessment and analysis of women, children and youth of different red light areas in the districts of Bihar,” their various demographic, socio-economic factors, knowledge, attitudes, practices & behavior to address the issues faced by them. The aim of the study was to come out with some viable leads for the general public, Non-governmental organizations, International non-governmental organizations and the Government to devise and formulate proper road map to curb the prostitution followed by rehabilitation and reintegration of the exploited women and children in this profession. This research study would not have been possible without the keen effort of Mahila Development Centre (MDC) in taking the lead role and providing the support. Nor would it have been possible without the generous encouragement and assistance of Geneva Global Office, India. I would also like to thanks Mr Pramahans Prasad Singh, Founder of Mahila Development Centre (MDC) for his valuable critical suggestions and guidance during the conceptualization and planning of the study. A special note of appreciation goes to my team of data analyst Mr. Ravi Ranjan Sinha for the skill full handling of data and presentation of work. It might be added that the purpose of the study will be more then fulfilled, if it manages to spark off citizens, voluntary organization and public authorities to move for a more effective implementation of women and child protection mechanism in the country. Last but not the least our special thanks to all the respondent families of Red-light areas who were participated in this study to make my headway. N.Haque Consultant Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 3
  4. 4. Research Team - Advisors: Advisory Committee – - Mr. Pramahans Prasad Singh – Secretary, Mahila Development Centre - Mr. Tarkeshwar Singh - Secretary SARTHI, Patna. Principal guide: Mr. Pramahans Prasad Singh Data Analyst: Mr. Ravi Ranjan Sinha Research Associate: Mr. Mokhtar Ahmed Research Associate: Mr. Abdur Rahim Report written by: Mr. Nawaz Ul Haque, Consultant Name of Survey team members. - Mohammad Salman, - Mohammad Sadique, - Mohammad Firoz, - Mohammad Majid, - Firoz Alam, - Mohammad Pappu, - Mohammad Ishteyaque, - Mohammad Kunal, - Mohammad Rahman, - Mohammad Fahim Ahmad, - Ravi Kumar, - Pappu Kamti, - Yasmin Khatun - Rajiv Kumar, - MohammadYunus, - Mohammad Bashir - Parmanand, - Suraj Kumar, - Geeta Devi, - Meena, - Julie - Meena, - Raushan Ara, - SShweta - NNaushaba Executive summary Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 4
  5. 5. A detailed study on “Situation assessment and analysis of women, children and youth of different red light areas in the districts of Bihar,” was taken up as test case and focuses on the present condition of the community living in the red light areas. The present study was an attempt to capture the rapid situational analysis of women, children, and youth of red light areas, their various demographic, age, religion, socio- economic factors, patterns and trend for migration and health. It should be emphasized that the data is not based on secondary sources but what can be defined as a sample of sufficient size (539 respondents) to yield reliable data. The research team covered all red light areas spread in different districts of Bihar purposefully and collected data. In addition research team gathers all secondary information and other published reports on the subject. The following are the some of the vital findings of this study. 1. Out of total 539 respondents, 336 (62.4 %) were males while only 203(37.6%) were females. 2. The survey reveals that majority of the respondents were male and in the age group of 26-30 years, which is same in the female age category. Only a small proportion of respondents were reported to be of age group of 19-25 years. 3. Majority of the respondent populations were from Muslim community (81.26%). It was due to more number of red light areas presences in the Purnea, Katihar and Araria district where Muslim population were recorded high comparatively than other districts red light areas. 4. Most of the respondents nearly 50% reported that their family occupation are commercial sex worker or brothel keeper meaning that the majority range are in the business of prostitution in a one way or another way. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 5
  6. 6. 5. Nearly (60.67) of the respondents were come higher income group more than 10,000. However (18.8%) respondents family income were in the range of 8000- 10,000. The respondents of Purnia, Katihar, Araria, Kishanganj have been recorded low. 6. The nature of the respondent’s families Houses were in Pucca 304 (58.8 %) category and 200 houses were in the type of Kutcha, 200 (38.68 %) type. It was reported that they own houses; few are rented. 7. The distribution of 1542 children of 539 families by district division (table 6) and it can be seen that Purnea and Kishanganj district has the highest numbers of boys and girls on their account correspondingly to the table 5. 8. The survey reveals that nearly 52% children irrespective of their sex fall in the age group of 6-14 years, 24% percent children were between 0-5 and 14-18 years category, cumulatively more than 48%. It is evident from the table that the concentration of children was in the category of 6-14years of age. These figures assist the policy makers to form such guidelines and course of action for this age class and also for early and adolescent group. Moreover this entire range are minors and susceptible to any kind of exploitation. 9. Only 6.6% said there are cases of child abuse in the family. However 4.4% answered no response. However it was revealed in informal discussions with the respondents’ families that they don’t share the full information due to their fears and apprehensions police raids and other precautions. 10. The survey found that 56.77% families have ration card and availing the facilities of the public distribution system in the state. Whereas 229 (42.49%) families don’t Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 6
  7. 7. have a ration card. The statistics reveal depressing picture that government officials when implementing government schemes unknowingly left the communities of the red light areas. It was reported to be high in Purnea, Kishanganj, Sitamarhi and Saharsa. We all know that how ration card is important document beside it use in public distribution system. 11. Nearly 58.25% reported that they family members having operating bank account. About 35.25% respondent replied negative. It is because of the fact that sometimes bank require more documents and identifier to open account. Distance is also one of the factors to the people living in the Red light Areas, for the reason of loot and snatching. 12. About 91% of the respondent’s families get money loan from their relatives (25.96%), followed by money lender (22.5%) and neighbors (21.52%). 18% respondents’ families used the bank loan facilities. 13. On the subject of male member support or participation in the family decisions it was found that (65.49%) respondent replied in affirmative. However 24.48% respond negative. It is quite apparent that majority of the families living in the red light areas were dominated by the male. On the other hand (24.48%) replied negative. This probably indicates social vulnerability of livelihood and other socioeconomic cultural factors. 14. The survey found that only (34.5%) children were immunized and vaccinated against different diseases like Polio, Tetnus, and Diptehria etc. About (65.5%) children were not immunized and vaccinated. The reasons for no immunization and vaccination is mainly related with lack of will of parents and demand side factors like singing, dancing, and prostitution etc. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 7
  8. 8. 15. About 60 persons were migrated for the purpose of better employment opportunities whenever and wherever they are available through any mode. Out of 60 persons 50 percent of them are within the state and neighboring state. It was reported high in Arwal, Begusarai, Purnea, Kishanganj and Munger. 16. The duration of migration was six months in majority of the cases (71.67%) followed by One year (16.67%) cases of migration. Though the number of migrated persons is less doesn’t mean trend of migration from red light areas are low or reduced. People are very reluctant to answer such question because in some cases migrated person never found again by the families they belonged. 17. Highest percentage of children (67.25%) falls in the category of school going children. This fact implies that whilst these children are already vulnerable but very much willing to go school. Nearly (13.29%) of children were enrolled in school by their parents but they attended the school for short time and consequently dropped out. About (19.46%) never attended any formal or informal school. 18. It was found that female children belonging to the age group of 12-14 years are more in drop-outs because of various reasons like poverty, lack of parent’s interest etc. Moreover it has been observed that boys who left their education work as daily labor, hawker, Chai seller etc. 19. The number of child labors report among 1542 children was only 294 (19.07%). It was found that mostly are involved as domestic help followed by doing petty Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 8
  9. 9. works outside the community. The proportion of children belonging to Muslim community is more or less high. The reasons came out from the discussions were primarily poverty & economic distress. Based on a careful analysis of the data as well as relying on the other secondary sources and non-governmental findings, The red light area is the place where not only commercial sex industry thrives but also every segment of the society which is connected thereto. The need of the hour is to pay attention to the “communities “of Red light areas and address the legitimate needs and rights of them and save their children from being forced into the trade. The study also recommends some suggestions for researcher s and NGOs working in the field of prostitution and among commercial sex workers. Chapter-1 Introduction Prostitutes and prostitution are the words that always generate curiosity to the young minds and at all times stimulate social researcher’s interest in the subject of sexual exploitation of women and girls. Prostitution as a profession has a long history in India. A whole chapter has been devoted to it in Kautilya’s Arthashastra written in circa 300 BC and Vatsayana’s Kama Sutra written between the first and fourth centuries AD. Vedic texts give account of a mythic empire builder, Bharata, and prove that Devadasi (handmaiden of god) system of dedicating unmarried young girls to gods in Hindu temples, which often made them objects of sexual pleasure to temple priests and pilgrims, was an established custom in India by 300 AD1 . The Mughal Empire (1526 -1857) also witnessed prostitution the word “Tawaif” and “Mujra” became common during this era. During the Mughal era in the subcontinent (1526 to 1857) prostitution had a strong nexus with performing arts. Mughals Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 9
  10. 10. patronized prostitution which raised the status of dancers and singers to higher levels of prostitution. King Jahangir’s harem had 6,000 mistresses which denoted authority, wealth and power. Prostitution was formalized for the first time in the Indian subcontinent by the British government in the mid-18th century. The British colonialists enacted special laws, created "red light" areas and assigned the task of protecting women sex workers to law-enforcing agencies. Municipalities overlooking the sex districts were given the responsibility of collecting taxes and providing health and sanitation services to the brothels. ["Supply and demand: Karachi's "call girls"". GreatReporter.com. Retrieved 2008-05-04.]2 “A red-light area” is a part of an urban area where there is a concentration of prostitution and sex-oriented businesses” Indeed it is very difficult to estimate the actual number of prostitutes in contemporary India due to the clandestine nature of the sex industry, geographical distribution and different modes of working. Gilada’s estimates of 100,000 in Bombay, 100,000 in Calcutta, 40,000 in Delhi, 40,000 in Pune and 13,000 in Nagpur are considered overestimates by some critics and underestimates by others. People were acquainted with prostitution through references to “loose women”, female “vagabonds” and sexually active unmarried girls. The advent of AIDS has generated few empirical studies along with intervention programmes in red-light areas of few large cities. The findings of these studies corroborate the common knowledge that prostitutes, in general, lead a poor standard of life in dilapidated and unhygienic environments. A major portion of what their clients pay has been shared by pimps, landlords, madams, financiers and policemen. They do not get nutritionally adequate food and they are exploited by local traders who sell them essential goods. Because of the strong prejudice against them they cannot take advantage of the government health facilities and have to depend mostly on local quacks who charge them exorbitantly for treatment and medicines. A large proportion of them suffer intermittently from various kinds of STDs. Most of them are forced to enter this occupation because of Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 10
  11. 11. adverse circumstances. Many prostitutes send a part of their income to their families. A survey conducted in a red-light area of Calcutta in 1987 found that 59% of prostitutes were abandoned by their husbands and many of them were originating in Murshidabad district, where young women in many poor families are expected to go into prostitution, remit a substantial amount of money (Rs. 475 per month, on an average) to their families. Factors influencing women to become prostitutes in India Based on the materials collected during a study on risk factors associated with cervical cancer among prostitutes in Domjur, Howrah, West Bengal, report of Sociological Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta explored various biosocial factors which may lead women to prostitution. When family and marital ties fail or disintegrate for various reasons, the life situations which a woman encounters may themselves generate a “process” of anchorlessness. In India, interviews with 33 female prostitutes in Domjur, Howrah District, West Bengal, were conducted to understand the processes by which women become prostitutes. Of them, 84.8% were Hindus, 72.7% of whom were from lower castes. Thirty-one prostitutes were illiterate. The prostitutes tended to have most recently worked as domestic workers, casual laborers or farm laborers. The main reason for leaving their last occupation was obligation to provide sex services. Twenty-one of them were married. More than 50%, who had been married before the age of 18, became prostitutes before 25 and were older than 30. Sixty-six percent did not engage in illicit sex before becoming prostitutes. About 20% had been prostitutes for more than 15 years. Most prostitutes earned about Rs. 1000 per month. Sixty-six percent had a maximum number of five clients/day. Three prostitutes had as many as seven to eight clients/day. Life events and their reactions that led them to become prostitutes belonged to two categories: (1) women who were either widowed (17 women) or abused by husband and in-laws (4 women), leaving them with no social or economic support and (2) women who chose prostitution as an easy means to support themselves (9 women) or because they had sexual urges or were curious (3 women) 3 . Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 11
  12. 12. Girl prostitution An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi enter the sex work at an early age. Their numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism has given impetus and thrust to this. These girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by government officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devadasis and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal states. About 85% are Hindus and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance and acceptance of prostitution. Most of them enter involuntarily and then become a part of the system of exploitation.4 A survey sponsored by the Central Social Welfare Board (CSWB) in 1991 in six metropolitan cities of India indicated that the population of women and child victims of commercial sexual exploitation would be between 70,000 to 1,00,000. It also revealed that about 30% of them are below 18 years of age.5 The major contributory factors for the commercial sexual exploitation of women and children are poverty and unemployment or lack of appropriate rehabilitation. 70% of them are illiterates. 43% of them desire to be rescued. Most of those who want to leave have given the reasons of desiring to save their children from commercial sexual exploitation and protection of the future of their children, fear of Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 12
  13. 13. diseases etc. The others continue to be exploited due to absence of alternative sources of income, social non acceptability, family customs, poverty, ill health and their despondence. Commercial sexual exploitation is found in a concentrated manner in brothels and red light areas. The more dispersed form may be found along major highways, in massage parlors, guest houses, call girl rackets, cabaret shows, female escort services etc. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 13
  14. 14. Background and need of the study Mahila Development Centre (MDC) is a nongovernmental organization registered under Society Registration Act, 1860 working primarily with the children of Red Light Area of Muzaffarpur for their mainstreaming and rehabilitation. It was started by Servodaya Activist Mr. Pramhans Prasad Singh who was also associated with veteran leader Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Narain. The main objective of the MDC is rehabilitation of commercial Sex Workers and their children through implementation of welfare program of government and nongovernment programs. The organization has been involved with the girl children of the commercial sex workers in order to prevent them from the net of brothels. The focused strategy of MDC is empowerment of girls through counseling, vocational training, capacity building training and exposure visits. MDC also aims to build a different future for a new generation of children and youth and, in this community in particular, where marriage at 13 or 14 remains a norm, for adolescent girls. The situation has improved as more children have been enabled to access education and vocational training. There is a long way to go but MDC has struggled to maintain its momentum and tried hard to get support from government and NGOs to address the problems of commercial sex workers and their family. Earlier MDC had done a detailed study of the Chaturbhujsthan area community, which is a famous Red Light Area of north Bihar Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 14
  15. 15. and worked on the gaps found out from study. It yields good result and many of the families of area community move towards from their older profession to more dignified ones. To know more viable solutions for intervention, Mahila Development Centre took up the task to conduct an in-depth study – “Situation assessment and analysis of women, children and youth of different red light areas in the districts of Bihar,” their various demographic, socio-economic factors, knowledge, attitudes, practices & behavior to address the issues faced by them. The aim of the study was to come out with some viable leads for the for the general public, Nongovernmental organization, International nongovernmental organization and the Government to devise and formulate proper road map to curb the prostitution followed by rehabilitation and reintegration of the exploited women and children in this profession. The study is limited to the state of Bihar, however, it is equally useful for the policy makers, social scientists, social reformers, and NGO’s who are interested in finding the way out to rehabilitate the commercial sex workers as well as rehabilitation of their children. The study is useful for other states too since it provides insights for understanding of the dynamics of social problems of red light areas and steps for care, protection, and welfare of families with their children living there. Brief state profile - Bihar is a state in northern India. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size at 38,202 sq mi (98,940 km2) and 3rd largest by population [82,998,509 (43,243,795 male and 39,754,714 female).] Nearly 85% of Bihar's population lived in rural areas. The sex ratio was 919 females per 1000 males. Bihar has a total literacy rate of 63.82% (75.7% for males and 55.1% for females), recording a growth of 20% in female literacy over the period of a decade. As of 2011 census, the density has surpassed 1,000 per square kilometer, India's densest state, but is still lower than West Java or Banten of Indonesia. It is bounded by Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, Northern part of West Bengal to the east and by Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is divided into two parts by the river Ganges which flows through the Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 15
  16. 16. middle from west to east. Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 km, which is 7.2% of its geographical area. Hindi and Urdu are the official languages of the state, while the majority of the people speak Angika, Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili and Bajjika. In 2000, Bihar was subdivided, the southern part becoming the state of Jharkhand. Almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India. Ancient Bihar was a centre of power, learning and culture in ancient and classical India. From Magadha arose India's first and greatest empire, the Maurya Empire as well as one of the world's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule. Its capital Patna, earlier known as Pataliputra, was an important centre of Indian civilization. Close to Patna, Nalanda and Vikramshila were centres of learning established in the 5th and 8th century respectively in Bihar, and are counted amongst the oldest and truly international universities of the time. Bihar has distinction of giving the world its first democracy through Lichchivi (modern days Vaishali) during ancient era. Since the late 1970s, Bihar lagged behind other Indian states in social and economic development terms. Economists and social scientists claimed that this is a direct result Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 16
  17. 17. of the policies of the central government, such as the freight equalization policy, its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism (resulting in no spokesperson for the state), and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company. The state government has however made significant strides in improving governance. The improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a diminution in crime and corruption. Indian and global business and economic leaders feel that Bihar now has good opportunity to sustain its growth and thus they have shown interest in investing in the state. Additionally, for the period 2011–2012, Bihar was also India's fastest growing state, with a growth rate of 13.1% for the year 2011–12, which had followed a growth rate of 14.8% for the previous year. Bihar has managed to record 11.95% annual growth rate, the highest among all the states, during the 11th Plan period. The Present study - The present study was intended to capture the Situational assessment and analysis of women, children and youth of different red light areas in the districts of Bihar, their various demographic, socio-economic factors, knowledge, attitudes, practices & behavior. Aims and objectives of the study - To have a detailed analysis of: 1. Demographic information; 2. Impact of family economic profile; 3. Family social profile; 4. Number of families involved in sex work; 5. Nature, extent and quality of Health problems of children in the area; 6. Patterns of Migration and its mode; 7. To access and analyze the problems of the Red Light Area and Community; Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 17
  18. 18. 8. To research and develop innovative intervention approach for the organization in the Red Light Areas; Study area - The study was conducted in 14 districts in Bihar state. The operational 25 red light areas of these districts were purposively selected for this study as indicated in table below. Sl. District Red light Areas 1. Araria 1. Uttari Rampur, Forbesganj 2. Khawaspur, Forbesganj 3. Kishanganj 3. Hathi Patti Road, Khagra 4. Samesar 5. Bibiganj 6. Bishanpur 7. Premnagar, Bahadurganj 8. Katihar 8. Kulipada 9. Saharsa 9. Bhartiya Nagar, Khiriyahi 10. Purnea 10. Raja Nagar, ‘O’ Mile 11. Rahmatnagar, Khankah 12. Mujrapatti, Gulab Bagh 13. Abdullahnagar, Ghosh Pada Khushkibagh 14. Rautara 15. Harda 16. Amrapalinagar, Banmankhi 17. Madhepura 17. Gaushala Chowk, Murliganj 18. Munger 18. Shrawan Bazar 19. Sitamarhi 19. Boha Tola 20. Arwal 20. Janakpur 21. Bettiah 21. Nazni Chowk 22. Begusarai 22. Kapasiya Agrasen Chowk 23. Muzaffarpur 23. Chaturbhuj Asthan 24. Bhojpur 24. Vikram Bazar 25. Gaya 25. Sarai Mohallah near tower Table-1 Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 18
  19. 19. Methodology - While considering the aims and the objectives the following sets of information were identified as crucial to the study: • Personal backgrounds: age , Occupation , family backgrounds, religion , educational status, marital status and dependents • Health status of women/child /youth • Migration • Indebtedness • Personal /family/ Area based problems Research design - The design for this study was an exploratory and descriptive survey which sought to elicit facts and information on the situation of women, children and youth of these areas, as well as respondent’s beliefs and opinion and vividly describe them. The study population - All the population of the study living in the red light areas. Extensive efforts were made to achieve a representative sample of the study population. Thus, prior to the selection of respondents a comprehensive exercise was undertaken to select the red light areas of the districts. Thereafter multiple sites of 14 districts were selected from where unequal proportions of study subjects were enlisted due to availability of them. Selection of districts - Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 19
  20. 20. The selections of districts in the state were based on presence of Red light Areas in the district. Further efforts were made to cover the districts with large concentrations. Sampling procedure - The respondents were purposively selected as they were available in required red light areas. In each area, the respondents were randomly selected. Random sampling was used to select respondent household. In all 539 respondents were interviewed. Table below illustrates the distribution of respondents of the study. District Areas Covered No. of Sample Total Arariya 1. Khwaspur 18 43 2. Rampur Utri 25 Arwal 3. Janakpur Dham 17 25 4. Janakpur Sarai 8 Begusarai 5. Agrasen Chowk 25 25 Katihar 6. Kulipada 25 25 Kishanganj 7. Bibiganj 10 100 8. Khagda Haathi Patti 47 9. Premnagar 10 10. Samoswar Haat 13 11. Bishanpur Haat 20 Madhepura 12. Gaushala Chowk & Thana Road 12 12 Munger 13. Srawan Bazar/ Toparpana Bazar 25 25 Muzzafarpur 14. Chaturbhuj Asthan 25 25 Purnea 15. Abdullah Nagar 25 150 16. Amar Pali Nagar 24 17. Banmankhi 26 18. Majrapatti 25 19. Rahmat Nagar 25 20. Raja Nagar,O-Mile 25 Saharsa 21. Bhartiya Nagar 38 38 Sitamarhi 22. Boha Tola 25 25 West Champaran 23. Nazni Chowk 25 25 Bhojpur 24. Vikram Bazar 10 10 Gaya 25. Sarai Mohallah near tower 11 11 Total 539 539 Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 20
  21. 21. Table-2 Red light Areas district marked by RED STAR Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 21
  22. 22. Data collection Both primary and secondary methods were used in soliciting information for the study. The secondary information was collected from different internet resources-documents, progress reports, annual reports and other published material of the Government of India. While the primary information was collected through interview schedules designed to collect primary data from sampled respondents Data processing and analysis - Data collected from the field was captured, cleaned and validated to ensure the integrity of the data set. Qualitative and quantitative information from the focus group discussions was categorized into relevant themes to identify common themes, patterns and interrelationships. The coded data was analyzed using EXCEL. Given this, the data entered in a computer file, tabulated and central tendencies were calculated using statistical methods. Descriptive statistics were produced and relevant statistical charts were used to represent information. Limitations - 1. The survey was administered in a day time after 9 AM, so that everybody is busy in his work and unable to give time and furnished complete details. 2. Majority of the respondents are unable to understand the questionnaire and refused the study team to give any interview even after repeated requests due to their pseudo fear of police raids and other precautions. 3. Problems of non-response and other attitudinal biases connected with perceptional questions. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 22
  23. 23. 4. The investigators during the conduct of field work posed some difficulty in getting their responses The above field veracity should be kept in mind while the reader interprets the result. Chapter-2 2.1 Legal frame work - The Constitution of India, under Article 23(1), prohibits trafficking in Human beings and forced labor6 . The relevant provisions under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) are 293, 294, 317, 339, 341, 342, 354, 359, 361, 362, 363, 365 and 366, 370, 371, 372, 373, 375, 376, 496, 498, 506, 509 and 511. The suppression of human traffic in women and girls Act 1956 (SITA) was enacted under Article 35 of Indian Constitution with the object of inhibiting or abolishing trafficking in women and girls. It was also in pursuance of the UN’s Trafficking Convention, which India signed on 9 May, 1950 The Act aimed to rescue exploited women and girls, to prevent the deterioration of public morals and to stamp out the evil of prostitution that was rampant in various parts of the country. In 1978, SITA was amended. This was owing to the realization that this social evil needed to be curbed and that the existing provisions had failed to do so. In 1986, SITA was drastically amended and renamed the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956. The Act is a special legislation that deals exclusively with trafficking and sex work in India. It does not criminalize prostitution or prostitutes per se, but mostly punishes acts by third parties facilitating prostitution like brothel keeping, living off earnings and procuring, even where sex work is not coerced. The Act defines the term brothel, child, corrective institutions, prostitutions, protective home, public place, special police officer and trafficking officer. The law confers inside powers on the concerned authorities to matters of the rescue and rehabilitation of victims and survivors and providers for strong action against exploiters, including inaction from brothels, surveillance, externment, as well as aggravated punishment when the offences are committed on children. Under Section 5 of the ITP Act procuring, inducing or taking a child or a minor for the sake of prostitution is punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term of not less than 7 Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 23
  24. 24. years but which may extend for life. Under Section 6 where a child is found with a person in a brothel there is a presumption of guilt for detaining the child on the person and he shall be punishable with imprisonment. Under Section 7 where a person commits the offence of prostitution in respect of a child or minor he shall be punishable with imprisonment for not less than 7 years or for life for a term which may extend to 10 years as well as the payment of fine. 2.2 Findings and Analysis - Profile of respondents - The survey involved a total 539 respondents from 12 districts of Bihar covering 25 Red light areas viz. Araria, Arwal, Begusarai, Katihar, Kishanganj, Madhepura, Munger, Muzafferpur, Purnea, Sahrsa, Sitamarhi, West Champaran, Bhojpur and Gaya. Out of total 539 respondents, 336 (62.4 %) were males while only 203 (37.6%) were females. Table 1 gives the percentage distribution of Respondents by Age and Sex. The survey reveals that majority of the respondents were male and in the age group of 26-30 years, which is same in the female age category. Only a small proportion of respondents were reported to be of age group of 19-25 years. Table 1: Percentage of Distribution of respondents by age & Sex Religion From table 2 it is very clearly visible that the majority of the respondent populations were from Muslim community Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 24 Age Group Responden t 6-14 years 15-18 years 19-25 years Percentage 26-30 years Percentage Male 336 0 0 20 80.00 316 61.48 Female 203 0 0 5 20.00 198 38.52 Total 539 0 0 25 4.64 514 95.36 Religion Number Percentage Hindu 101 18.74 Muslim 438 81.26 Sikh 0 0.00 Christian 0 0.00 Total 539 100.00 Table-2
  25. 25. (81.26%). It was due to more number of red light areas presences in the Purnea, Katihar and Araria district where Muslim population were recorded high comparatively, than other districts red light areas. No proportion of Christian and Sikh were found. Occupation of Household The occupation of respondents has been shown in table 3. Most of the respondents reported that their family occupation are commercial sex worker or brothel keeper meaning that the majority range are in the business of prostitution in a one way or another way. A significant number of respondents also said that they were involved in labor work. About 24.30% were involved in commercial sex work besides they also occupied with some other works like petty business like running small shops to augment their income. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 25 Occupation of Household Head Number Percentage Brothel Keeper / Commercial sex worker 136 25.23 Govt. Service 2 0.37 Labor 128 23.74 Private 49 9.09 Commercial sex worker 131 24.30 Traditional 1 0.18 No Response 91 16.88 Total 539 100 Table-3
  26. 26. It was found that 9.09% were involved in some kind of private work. Thus economic hardship is one of the aspect and push factors for them to engaged them in direct or indirect process of, part of commercial sex industry. 16.88% replied no response against this question compel the researcher to assume that respondents either don’t disclose their occupation or involved in “family traditional” activities directly or not direct way. Monthly Family Income of Respondents Nearly (60.67) of the respondents were come higher income group more than 10,000. However (18.8%) respondents family income were in the range of 8000- 10,000. The respondents of Purnia, Katihar, Araria, Kishanganj have been recorded low. Point to be noted that some of the red light areas in the above mentioned districts where standard of Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 26 Monthly Income Number Percentage 1000 to 3000 3 0.56 3000 to 5000 28 5.19 5000 to 8000 60 11.13 8000 to 10000 98 18.18 Above 10,000 327 60.67 No Response 23 4.27 Total 539 100.00 Table-4
  27. 27. living is below the normal life standard. This limits the chances of the respondents’ income from their regular “work”. Regarding the primary source of income indicated that majority were engaged in commercial sex work. Thus we can see the positive correlation between income of the respondents and poverty stricken districts where the living conditions are very poor. (Table 4) Type of House - The nature of the respondent’s family Houses were - Pucca (concrete) 304 (58.8 %) category and 200 houses were in the type of Kutcha (earthen) (38.68 %) type. It was reported that they own houses; few houses, however are rented (Table 4a). The number of semi pucca (mixed concrete and earthen) house were however found to be very nominal – only 24 (4.45%) Percentage distribution of children by Districts (0-18 yrs) Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 27 Nature of House Number Percentage Kutcha 210 38.96 Pucca 304 56.40 Semi pucca 24 4.45 Total 539 100 Table-4a
  28. 28. Table 5 gives the distribution of children by the districts where they were living at the time of interview. The survey reveals that majority of the children belong to the districts – Kishanganj, Purnea, Saharsa, Sitamarhi, Araria, & Arwal respectively. Kishanganj and Purnea, however account for the maximum, i.e., 19.97 percent and 20.04 percent children population respectively. Percentage distribution of children by Districts and Sex Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 28 District Number Percentage Ara 28 1.82 Arariya 106 6.87 Arwal 103 6.68 Begusarai 80 5.19 Gaya 29 1.88 Katihar 55 3.57 Kishanganj 308 19.97 Madhepura 30 1.95 Munger 86 5.58 Muzzafarpur 84 5.45 Purnea 309 20.04 Saharsa 125 8.11 Sitamarhi 124 8.04 West Champaran 75 4.86 Total 1542 100 Table-5
  29. 29. Table 6 represents the distribution of 1542 children of 539 families by district division and it can be seen that Purnea and Kishanganj district has the highest numbers of boys and girls on their account correspondingly to the table 5. District Number Percentage Boys Percentage Girls Percentage Ara 28 1.82 12 1.56 16 2.07 Arariya 106 6.87 52 6.75 54 6.99 Arwal 103 6.68 44 5.71 59 7.64 Begusarai 80 5.19 34 4.42 46 5.96 Gaya 29 1.88 14 1.82 15 1.94 Katihar 55 3.57 26 3.38 29 3.76 Kishanganj 308 19.97 163 21.17 145 18.78 Madhepura 30 1.95 16 2.08 14 1.81 Munger 86 5.58 36 4.68 50 6.48 Muzzafarpur 84 5.45 39 5.06 45 5.83 Purnea 309 20.04 157 20.39 152 19.69 Saharsa 125 8.11 70 9.09 55 7.12 Sitamarhi 124 8.04 69 8.96 55 7.12 West Champaran 75 4.86 38 4.94 37 4.79 Total 1542 100 770 100 772 100 Table-6 Percentage Distribution of RLA children Age & Sex Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 29
  30. 30. The survey reveals that nearly 52% children irrespective of their sex fall in the age group of 6-14 years, 24% percent children were between 0-5 and 14-18 years category, cumulatively more than 48%. It is evident from the table that the concentration of children was in the category of 6-14years of age. These figures assist the policy makers to form such guidelines and course of action for this age class and also for early and adolescent group. Moreover this entire range are minors and susceptible to any kind of exploitation. Case of child abuse in the family Respondents were asked to describe any case of child abuse in their family. Out of total 539 respondents, 480 (89.0%) respondents replied in negative. 6.6% said there are cases of child abuse in the family. However 4.4% answered no response. However it was revealed in informal discussions with the Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 30 Age Group in years Children in Red-light areas Boys Percentage Girls Percen tage Total Percen tage 0-5 185 24.03 185 23.96 370 23.99 6-14 398 51.69 401 51.94 799 51.82 14-18 187 24.29 186 24.09 373 24.19 Total 770 100 772 100 1542 100 Table-7 Case of Child abuse in the family Family Percentage Yes 35 6.6 No 480 89.0 No Response 24 4.4 Total 539 100 Table-8
  31. 31. respondents’ families that they don’t share the full information due to their fears and apprehensions police raids and other precautions (Table 8). How many families have ration card The survey found that 56.77% families have ration card and availing the facilities of the public distribution system in the state. Whereas 229 (42.49%) families don’t have a ration card. The statistics reveal depressing picture that government officials when implementing government schemes unknowingly left the communities of the red light areas. It was reported to be high in Purnea, Kishanganj, Sitamarhi and Saharsa. We all know that how ration card is important document beside it use in public distribution system (Table 9) Do any Adult member in your family have their name in voter list? Questions were asked about the adult family members have their name in voter list. About majority of the respondent 88.4% said they had the name of adult family members in the area voter list and they also exercised their voting rights. It was highly reported in Purnea and Kishanganj districts. Only small proportion of respondents (5.8%) replied negative. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 31 Families Having Ration card Number Percentage Yes 306 56.77 No 229 42.49 No Response 4 0.74 Total 539 100.00 Table-9
  32. 32. Over all appears that majority of the respondents have identity proof of Indian citizen but don’t have a ration card which caters the basic needs of the people. Does any family Member Have Bank Account The respondents were asked regarding any family member have bank account. Nearly 58.25% reported that they family members having operating bank account. About 35.25% respondent replied negative. It is because of the fact that sometimes bank require more documents and identifier to open account. Distance is also one of the factors to the people living in the Red light Areas, for the reason of loot and snatching (Table 11) Do family members take loan, if Yes from whom Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 32 Do any Adult member in your family have their name in voter list Number Percentage Yes 477 88.4 No 31 5.8 No Response 31 5.8 Total 539 100.00 Table-10 Does any Family Member have Bank A/C Number Percentage No 190 35.25 Yes 314 58.25 No Response 35 6.50 Total 539 100 Table -11
  33. 33. Based on reported data, 91% replied yes, most of the respondent’s families get money loan from their relatives (25.96%), followed by money lender (22.5%) and neighbors (21.52%). About 18% respondents’s families used the bank loan facilities. This means that greater part preferred all options to get money except the bank. The above statistics show the substantial chunk of the respondent families was dependent on relatives, money lender & neighbors due to easy availability of money not considering the high rate of interest charged by moneylenders or sometimes relatives or neighbors which is nearly 18-20 percent per month( Table -12). Do male members support family and participate in family decisions. In the context of male member support or participation to the family, it was found that (65.49%) respondent replied in affirmative. However 24.48% respond negative. It is quite apparent that majority of the families living in the red light areas were Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 33 Loan Taking From Number Percentage Bank 97 18.00 Money Lender 121 22.45 Neighbor 116 21.52 Relative 140 25.97 No Response 65 12.06 Total 539 100.00 Table-12
  34. 34. dominated by the male. On the other hand (24.48%) replied negative. This probably indicates social vulnerability of livelihood and other socioeconomic cultural factors (Table -13). Percentage distribution of Immunization and vaccination of children. The survey found that only (34.5%) children were immunized and vaccinated against different diseases like Polio, Tetanus, and Diphtheria etc. About (65.5%) children were not immunized and vaccinated. The reasons for no immunization and vaccination is mainly related with lack of will of parents and demand side factors like singing, dancing, and prostitution etc (Table 14) Percentage distribution of number of persons migrates within state, neighboring state and metro cities. District Migration Within State Neighboring State Metro cities No. % No. % No. % No. % Ara 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 34 Do Male Members support Family Number Percentage No 132 24.48 Yes 353 65.49 No Response 54 10.03 Total 539 100 Table-13 Immunization and vaccination of children Number Percentage Yes 532 34.5 No 1010 65.5 Total no of children 1542 100.00 N=1542
  35. 35. Arariya 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Arwal 17 28.33 15 83.33 2 9.52 0 0.00 Begusarai 13 21.67 0 0.00 13 61.90 0 0.00 Gaya 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Katihar 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Kishanganj 7 11.67 0 0.00 3 14.29 4 19.05 Madhepura 3 5.00 0 0.00 1 4.76 2 9.52 Munger 7 11.67 3 16.67 2 9.52 2 9.52 Muzzafarpur 4 6.67 0 0.00 0 0.00 4 19.05 Purnea 9 15.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 9 42.86 Saharsa 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Sitamarhi 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 West Champaran 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Total 60 100.0 0 18 30.00 21 35.00 21 35.00 Table 15 Table 15 reflects the status of no person migrates within state, neighboring state and metro cities. About 60 persons were migrated for the purpose of better employment opportunities whenever and wherever they are available through any mode. Out of 60 persons 50 percent of them are within the state and neighboring state. It was reported high in Arwal, Begusarai, Purnea, Kishanganj and Munger. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 35
  36. 36. Duration of Migration The duration of migration was six months in majority of the cases (71.67%) followed by One year (16.67%) cases of migration. Though the number of migrated persons is less doesn’t mean trend of migration from red light areas are low or reduced. People are very reluctant to answer such question because in some cases migrated person never found again by the families they belonged. When asked about the whom they migrated with, the responses were as expected nearly 50% migrated with known persons, not with relatives and parents. It was found that 20 percent replied “no response”. The common age of migration was above 14 years of age meaning that entire range of 14-18 which is in the minor class and very vulnerable group to any form of exploitation. People are unaware of safe and unsafe migration. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 36 Duration Number Percentage Six Month 43 71.67 One Year 10 16.67 Two Year 2 3.33 Above Two Year 4 6.67 No Response 1 1.67 Total 60 100 Table-15 Migration Through Number Percentage Known Person 30 50.00 Relative 10 16.67 Parents 0 0.00 Unknown Person 0 0.00 No Response 20 33.33 Total 60 100.00 Table-16
  37. 37. Educational scenario of children. Table 19 evidently shows that the highest percentage of children fall in the category of school going children. This fact implies that whilst these children are already vulnerable but very much willing to go school. Nearly (13.29%) of children were enrolled in school by their parents but they attended the school for short time and consequently dropped out. About (19.46%) never attended any formal or informal school. It was found that female children belonging to the age group of 12-14 years are more in drop-outs because of various reasons like poverty, lack of parent’s interest etc. Moreover it has been observed that boys who left their education work as daily labor, hawker, Chaiwala (tea vendor) etc (Table 19). Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 37 Common Age of Migration Number Percentage Less than 14 Year 1 1.67 Above than 14 Year 59 98.33 Total 60 100 Table-18 Category Number Percentage Enrolled in school (studying) 1037 67.25 Ever attended school 205 13.29 Never attended any school 300 19.46 Total 1542 100.00 Table-19
  38. 38. Child Labor The number of child labors report among 1542 children was only 294 (19.07%). It was found that mostly are involved as domestic help followed by doing petty works outside the community. The proportion of children belonging to Muslim community is more or less high. The reasons came out from the discussions were primarily poverty & economic distress. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 38 District Child Labor Total Children No % Ara 9 3.06 28 Arariya 27 9.18 106 Arwal 18 6.12 103 Begusarai 17 5.78 80 Gaya 3 1.02 29 Katihar 8 2.72 55 Kishanganj 50 17.01 308 Madhepura 5 1.70 30 Munger 14 4.76 86 Muzzafarpur 15 5.10 84 Purnea 54 18.37 309 Saharsa 24 8.16 125 Sitamarhi 34 11.56 124 West Champaran 16 5.44 75 Total 294 19.07 1542
  39. 39. 2.3 Case studies 1. Megha (name changed) Megha started dancing in orchestra to support her family. Her father was a drunkard and died due to heavy use of alcohol. She was a star orchestra dancer and has many friends in orchestra team. These friends tricked her into sex work. She had no choice but to entertain customers for her living. It was during this time that she fell in love with a pimp, and got married to him. Her husband was a drunkard, womanizer and a chain smoker. He never gave any money for household expenses. She had to borrow money to manage the family. One day her husband was found dead. Megha found it very difficult to meet both the ends with her two children, after his demise. She was, therefore, compelled to enter into sex work again for the sake of her sons. It was during this time that she came in contact with the peer educators of Mahila Development Centre a Geneva Global Inc. funded project. She was counseled and motivated by the counselor to become a peer educator herself. Today, for more than one year she is working as a peer educator for the female sex workers in Muzaffarpur red light area. She at the same time regularly takes part in activities of organization and provides us all possible help. She opened a cosmetic store and started her own business. Now she is happy to earn bread with respect and dignity. 2. Rukhsana Khatoon (name changed) 19 year old Rukhsana Khatoon, was an unemployed youth of Chaturbhuj Asthan. Her family's sole occupation was traditional sex work. She was very good in studies. Though a bright student, her family didn’t support her in her studies. They expected her to support in profession like pimping or support sisters and mother or accept traditional trade. She opposed sex work and kept herself away from these Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 39
  40. 40. types of activities. After completing her Intermediate, Rukhsana was on the lookout for a stable job but the job market was very limited that too for a mere Intermediate holder. She needed to find a vocation. She applied for and cleared the criteria for the Computer software diploma being run by MDC, finishing her training successfully. Upon completion of this course she was selected by Hyundai car Showroom. She is now working there as a Sales Executive. She is extremely happy. Not only had she landed a job soon after completing her studies; the job gave her the opportunity to interact with many people and also gain knowledge from them. She is able to save a good deal of money and she uses this to shore up the family kitty. 3. Nazia (name Changed) Nazia has fought many obstacles to complete her matriculation (10th Standard). Her mother has stopped her education because she is young and beautiful and Nazia is afraid that people will know she is the daughter of a Tawayaf. Her grandmother, Benazir Begum, was a great artiste in her time and continues to be a singer today. Unfortunately this unique historical art is no longer respected as it should be and her training in Taalim (the traditional education of the arts) has been unable to provide her with an income – she is now a mobile sex-worker. The family suffers many problems and it seemed likely that Nazia would have been forced into her mother’s profession. She has taken participation in the vocational training education of computer education trade. After completion of course she joined a private school as a computer teacher. She is very happy and extending her thanks to GG project for providing an opportunity, a pointer towards earning with respect. She has decided to marry with a good boy. 4. Seema (name changed) Seema is a daughter from the community. Her father is a tailor and very poor. He is an alcoholic and beats her and her mother when he is drunk. He has also been suffering from TB and the family has heavy expenses in medicines for him. There Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 40
  41. 41. are 8 children of whom Seema is the eldest. She is a beautiful teenager and fully understands the problems of her family. Her mother is a maid but is forced to do sex-work as well to support her husband’s drink habit. He beats her and the daughters with the intention of forcing them to take up sex work to further support the family. MDC project staffs encouraged the girl to go to school and she was admitted in Bipin High School, Bettiah. She went to school regularly and actively taking part in activities as volunteer in GG MDC project. She also admitted in screen printing training. After completion of vocational training in screen printing she was able to earn money out of her learnt skill. She has been able to protect her mother from her father and has warned him that she will report his behavior to the police, since when her father has ceased to beat her and has reduced his use of alcohol so their lives have become more normal. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 41
  42. 42. Chapter 3 Recommendations - The following points are concise recommendation for researchers and NGOs working in the field of prostitution. • Work with other Government & Non-governmental agencies to develop a broader understanding of communities of commercial sex worker problems and issues living in the red light areas, also wide agreement on rehabilitation of CSWs. • Develop Information, Education and Communicative (IEC) materials for women living in the red light areas communities about their rehabilitation schemes and supports provided by the governments and NGOs. • Develop a model for an aggressive exit strategy to support women leaving prostitution. • Develop a lobbying strategy for each political party for rehabilitation and reintegration of commercial sex workers in the mainstream of the society through dignified means. • Support interventions at grassroots level for the children of commercial sex workers for their education, livelihood and pursue them to live with dignity. • Harder punishments for those people who involved in human trafficking, procurement and selling of girls and women for prostitution. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 42
  43. 43. • General public should be aware and educated about human trafficking and its modern innovative forms i.e. safe & unsafe migration. Conclusions - The prostitution in India is the result of several factors - intense poverty, broken Homes, poor family lives and abused home lives are the major ones. Human trafficking is also contributing its share. The women in our society are the worst sufferers and facing acute pain in fighting these concerns on all fronts of their struggle to sustain themselves in the human society. Women who enter in the field of prostitution of their own volition are often targeted and exploited by external harmful forces. The red light area is the place where not only commercial sex industry thrives but also every segment of the society which is connected thereto. The need of the hour is to pay attention to the “communities “of Red light areas and address the legitimate needs and rights of them and save their children from being forced into the trade. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 43
  44. 44. References used for the assessment. 1. Nag M. Sexual behavior in India with risk of HIV/AIDS transmission; health transmission,1995;5:293-305 2. "Supply and demand: Karachi's "call girls"". GreatReporter.com. Retrieved 2008- 05-04. 3. Thappa DM, Singh N, Kaimal S, Prostitution in India and its role in the spread of HIV infection, Indian J Sex transm Dis 2007;28:69-75 4. Thappa DM, Singh N, Kaimal S, Prostitution in India and its role in the spread of HIV infection, Indian J Sex transm Dis 2007;28:69-75 5. Report of the committee on prostitution, child prostitution and children of prostitutes, Department of Women and Child Development, MOHRD, Government of India, 1998. 6. P.M Bakshi, constitution of India, Universal Law Publication Private Limited 2009 General Readings:- 1. Prostitution. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/prostitution. 2. A Study of the Children of Chaturbhuj Asthan The Red-Light District of Muzaffarpur, Bihar, 2007 3. Bihar. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bihar. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 44
  45. 45. 4. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, Vol 46. 5. Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 45
  46. 46. Appendixes - Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 46
  47. 47. Survey Form Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 47
  48. 48. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 48
  49. 49. Mahila Development Center, Muzaffarpur Survey - Red Light Areas in Bihar – June-2013 49

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