NW2006 BasicFFA for beginners


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basic fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA, FA) for beginners

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    Antioxidants provide another key line of defence against oxidative damage. The RPE contains high concentrations of a wide variety of antioxidants, including water-soluble substances, such as vitamin C and glutathione, lipid-soluble substances, such as vitamin E, retinoids and carotenoids, and enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx).
    Studies in animals have shown that vitamin C supplements can inhibit light-induced damage to photoreceptors, and primate studies have shown that a deficiency of vitamin E results in disruption of photoreceptor outer segments and increased lipofuscin accumulation in RPE cells. Beatty et al carried out experiments in dark-reared rats injected with ascorbic acid, Hayes examined the pathophysiology of vitamin E in monkeys and Organisciak et al studied the effect of vitamin C in rats
    1. Beatty S et al. Surv Ophthalmol 2000;45:115–134.
    2. Winkler BS et al. Mol Vis 1999;5:32.
    3. Zarbin MA. Arch Ophthalmol 2004;122:598–614.
    4. Hayes KC. Am J Clin Nurt 1974; 27:1130-1140.
    5. Organisciak DT et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1985; 26:1580-1588.
  • NW2006 BasicFFA for beginners

    1. 1. Ocular (e.g.occlusion of the car Arterial HypoperfusionVenous Choroidal Changes of lood Flow Anastomosis Vitreal Hyperperfusion Retinal New-formed blood vessels Subretinal Tumor Margins of a hypoperfusion Malfunctioning regulation (?)
    2. 2. Occlusion of the central artery or one of its branches Retinal vessels Occlusion of the carotid Venous: branch occlusion, central vein occlusion Diabetes Vascular occlusion Postirradiation Sickle-cell disease Capillary bed Occlusion of the cartoid Other vaso-occlusive diseases ypofluorescence, After photocoagulation scular filling fect Eales’ disease Ischemic optic neuropathy Vessels of Optic atrophy with decreased capilary b the Optic pit optic nerve Coloboma of the optic nerve Physiology irregular filling of the choroi Occlusion of a choroidal vessel Primay disturbance of choroidal vascular Behcet disease Chorid So-called AMPPE Collagen diseases Other vaso-occlusive diseases Absence of AH
    3. 3. Opacities of the refractive media an of the vitreous Preretinal and intraretinal gliosis and Preretinal Retinitis Myelinated nerve fibers Intra-und preretinal hemorrhages Melanocytoma Hemorrhage ypofluoresPigment ence Intraretinal Hard exudates eakage Edema Hemorrhage Pigment Subretinal Inflammation Fluid Hard exudates Flecked-retina syndrome Different deposits Vitelliform degeneration Fundus albipunctatus
    4. 4. Hypofluorescence
    5. 5. Congenitally decreased pigment in the (albinism, myopia, physiologic variation Atrophy of the pigment epithelium After inflammation After detachment of the retina and pigm epithelium Tumors perfluorescence Angioid streaks ndow defect of the ment epitheliumPhotocoagulation Diathermy Cropexy Toxic damage Trauma Macular hole Drusen Choroidal folds
    6. 6. Hyperfluorescence
    7. 7. Choroid perfluorescence Retina omalous vessels Subretinal neovascularization Tumor vessels Chorioretinal anastomos Vascular tortuosities Dilation and shunts Anastomosis Neovascularization Aneurysms Teleangiectasia Tumor vessels Hamartoma Neovascularization Tortuosity Optic nerve head Dilation Hamartoma Tumor vessels
    8. 8. Retinal Cystoid edema In a preformed space (pooling) yperuorescence eakage Subretinal Detachment of the pigment epithelium Detachment of the sensory retina Retinal noncystoid edema Into tissue (staining) Subretinal e.g.dursen
    9. 9. Venous occlusion Arterial hypertension Retinal telangiectasia Macroaneurysm Retinal tumor Cystoid Epiretinal gliosis Uveitis Retinitis pigmentosa Diabetic retinopathy Retina Other vaso-occlusive diseases Vasoocclusive retinal disease Diabetic retinopathy Arterial hypertension Macroaneurysm Nonyper Irradiation cystoid uorescence Tumor eakage Inflammation Photocoagulation Detachment of sensory retina Choroid Detachment of pigment epithelium New-formed blood vessels Inflammation to the uvea, retinal and optic nerve hea Vitreous Tumors of the retina and of the optic nerve head Physiologic Vascular occlusion Drusen Optic pit Coloboma Optic Nerve Scar Choked disc Papilledema Inflammatory changes
    10. 10. Drusen of theoptic nerve head Autofluorescence uorescence ithout the dministration f fluorescein Hamartoma Scleral exudate Scar tissue Pseudofluorescence Foreign body Myelinate nerve fibe
    11. 11. Autofluo rescence