Modern Agricultural Practices

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Modern Agricultural Practices

  1. 1. By: Nawaraj Kumar Mahato Pankaj Verma
  2. 2. What Is Agriculture? Agriculture, also called farming or husbandry, is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel and other products used to sustain human life.
  3. 3. Introduction – All humans depend on agriculture for food – Urban-industrial societies depend on the base of food surplus generated by farmers and herders – Without agriculture there could be no cities, universities, factories, or offices
  4. 4. Introduction • Agriculture—the principal enterprise of humankind through most of recorded history – Today remains the most important economic activity in the world – Employs 45 percent of the working population – In some parts of Asia and Africa, over 80 percent of labor force is engaged in agriculture
  5. 5. What is Modern Agriculture? Modern agriculture is a term used to describe the wide type of production practices employed by American farmers. It makes use of hybrid seeds of selected variety of a single crop, technologically advanced equipment and lots of energy subsidies in the form of irrigation water,fertilizers and pestisides.
  6. 6. Modern Agriculture • More than 90% of farmers today work using the most innovative practices and growing techniques to produce enough food, fuel and fiber for a growing world, while minimizing their environmental footprint at the same time. • The term “modern agriculture” depicts their commitment to innovation, stewardship and meeting the global food challenge all at once – there is nothing conventional about that
  7. 7. Traditional Agriculture Perhaps the most important difference between the categories is the way farmers see themselves and their roles. Traditional farmers, for example, often say that they seek to work effectively with resources at hand. That is, they use the land, rainfall, seeds, tillage methods and power sources they have to produce what nature offers. Conventional processes are used to till the land, select and plant seeds, protect plants from competing plants and animals and gather the harvest. Surpluses are marketed through nearby outlets. Such producers frequently report only limited capacity to change these processes—and some seek to avoid
  8. 8. Why Modern Agriculture is Important? • By 2050, the world’s population is expected to grow to nearly nine billion – the equivalent of two more China’s – while the ratio of arable land to population continues to decrease. • The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization predicts that global food production will double by 2050, and 70 percent of the world’s additional food needs can be produced only by adapting new agricultural technologies. • In view of all these challenges, modern agriculture enables farmers to utilize new innovations, research and scientific advancements to produce safe, sustainable and affordable food
  9. 9. Why Modern Agriculture is Important? • The significant hunger and malnutrition that persist in many parts of the world would have been far worse had agricultural systems not grown and developed as they did . • More people the world over eat more and better because of modern agriculture. Increased production continues to enable steadily improving diets, reflecting increased availability of all foods, dietary diversity and access to high-protein food products .
  10. 10. Types of Agriculture • Types: – Peasant/Subsistence – Commercial • Subsistence farming, or subsistence agriculture, is a mode of agriculture in which a plot of land produces only enough food to feed the family or small community working it. • SF – the provision of food by farmers only for their own family or the local community without any surplus.
  11. 11. • Commercial farming - The production of crops for sale, crops intended for widespread distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets (e.g. supermarkets), and any non-food crops such as cotton and tobacco. • Includes livestock production and livestock grazing. Commercial agriculture does not include crops grown for household consumption (e.g backyard garden or from a vegetable garden or a few fruit trees.) • Occurs on a large, profit making scale. These farmers seek to maximize yields per hectare.
  12. 12. Major contrasts between “modern” and “smallholder” rice farming • Modern Farming: • Smallholder farming: • • • • • • • • Large / intermediate scale Commercial Mechanised External inputs (seeds, ag.chemicals) • Capital intensive Small – variable scale Self sufficiency – surplus Mainly manual Local inputs (seeds, manure, compost, et c.) • Labour intensive
  13. 13. Modern Agricultural Revolutions Technology allows much greater production (surplus) with less human labor, but has high social and environmental costs. Metal plows, Reapers, Cotton Gin Tractors (Internal Combustion Engine) Combines Chemical Pesticides/Fertilizers Hybrid crops The Green Revolution Genetically modified crops
  14. 14. Agribusiness: The industrialization of agriculture Modern commercial farming is very dependent on inputs of chemical fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides. Oil is required to make fertilizer and pesticides. It takes 10 calories of energy to create 1 calorie of food in modern agriculture. Small farmer can’t buy needed equipment and supplies. Fewer than 2% of U.S. population works in agriculture
  15. 15. Shifting Cultivation Vegetation “slashed” and then burned. Soil remains fertile for 2-3 years. Then people move on. where: tropical rainforests. Amazon, Central and West Africa, Southeast Asia Crops: upland rice (S.E. Asia), maize and manioc (S. America), millet and sorghum (Africa) Declining at hands of ranching and logging.
  16. 16. Pastoral Nomadism The breeding and herding of domesticated animals for subsistence. Bedouin Shepherd Somali Nomad and Tent where: arid and semi-arid areas of N. Africa, Middle East, Central Asia animals: Camel, Goats, Sheep, Cattle transhumance: seasonal migrations from highlands to lowlands Most nomads are being pressured into sedentary life as land is used for agriculture or mining.
  17. 17. Classifying Agricultural Regions Commercial Agriculture • Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming • Dairy Farming • Grain Farming • Livestock Ranching • Mediterranean Agriculture • Truck Farming North Dakota Potato and Wheat Fields
  18. 18. Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Where: Ohio to Dakotas, centered on Iowa; much of Europe from France to Russia crops: corn (most common), soybeans In U.S. 80% of product fed to pigs and cattle Highly inefficient use of natural resources Pounds of grain to make 1 lb. beef: 10 Gallons of water to make 1 1b wheat: 25 Gallons of water to make 1 1b. beef: 2500
  19. 19. Dairy Farming Where: near urban areas in United States, Southeast Canada, Europe Locational Theory: butter and cheese more common than milk with increasing distance from cities and in West. milkshed: historically defined by spoilage threat; refrigerated trucks changed this. Dairy Farm, Wisconsin
  20. 20. Mediterranean Agriculture Where: areas surrounding the Mediterranean, California, Oregon, Chile, South Africa, Australia Climate has summer dry season. Landscape is mountainous. • crops: olives, grapes, nuts, fruits and vegetables; winter wheat • California: high quality land is being lost to suburbanization; initially offset by irrigation
  21. 21. Truck Farming: Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming Where: U.S. Southeast, New England, near cities around the world • crops: high profit vegetables and fruits demanded by wealthy urban populations: apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, tomatoe s, etc. • mechanization: such truck farming is highly mechanized and labor costs are further reduced by the use of cheap immigrant (and illegal) labor. • distribution: situated near urban markets.
  22. 22. Green House A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a building in which plants are grown with perfect climatic conditions. Used to overcome shortcomings in the growing qualities of a piece of land, such as a short growing season or poor light levels, and they can thereby improve food production in marginal environments.
  23. 23. Paddy rice farming • Draft animals—water buffalo—used more by farmers in India • Japanese have mechanized paddy rice farming • Green Revolution – Achieved by introducing hybrid rice during the last half of the twentieth century – Chemical fertilizers introduced – Heightened productivity achieved
  24. 24. Paddy rice farming • Most paddy rice farms outside Communist area of Asia are tiny – Three acre plot is considered adequate to support a farm family – Irrigated rice provides a large output of food per unit of land – Small patches must be intensively tilled to harvest enough food – Small rice sprouts carefully transplanted by hand from seed beds to paddy – Double-cropping—harvest same parcel of land two or three times each year – Apply large amounts of organic fertilizer – Per-acre yields exceed those of American agriculture
  25. 25. Advantages  The last 150 years has witnessed a huge shift in the U.S.’s connection with agriculture.  In 1900, 70 to 80 percent of Americans made their living from the land. In 2012, that number has went down to less than 2 percent.  We now import many of our fruits and vegetables from foreign borders.  New technology like pesticides and mechanical farm equipments make it possible to grow large amounts of food with relatively few human hands.
  26. 26. Advantages • During the latter half of the twentieth century, what is known today as modern agriculture was very successful in meeting a growing demand for food by the world's population. • Yields of primary crops such as rice and wheat increased dramatically, the price of food declined, the rate of increase in crop yields generally kept pace with population growth and the number of malnourished people was reduced slightly
  27. 27. Disadvantages Removal of buffers to make large fields for maximum efficiency leading to lower food costs and greater food availability to the poor. It limits the natural habitat of some wild creatures and can lead to soil erosion.
  28. 28. Disadvantages Use of fertilizers can alter the biology of rivers and lakes.  Some environmentalists attribute the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico as being encouraged by nitrogen fertilization of the algae bloom.
  29. 29. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SUBSISTENCE & COMMERCIAL FARMERS TRADITIONAL/SUBSISTENCE MODERN/COMMERCIAL Proportion of output sold off the farm Low High Destination of foods Local direct consumption & some processed locally High proportion processed & to food manufacturers Draught animals Legumes, ash, bones, manure Crop rotations, intercropping Petroleum, electricity Chemical fertilisers Insecticides, fungicides, break crops Herbicides Origin of inputs i. Power ii. Plant nutrients iii. Pest control i. i. ii. i. Weed control Implements & tools Seed Livestock feeds Rotations, hoeing, use of plough Hoe, plough, sickle, scythe From own harvest Grass & fodder crops grown on farm/common land Machinery, often self-propelled combine harvesters Purchased from seed merchants Purchased from compound feed mixers
  30. 30. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SUBSISTENCE & COMMERCIAL FARMERS TRADITIONAL/SUBSISTENCE Economic aims MODERN/COMMERCIAL i. ii. Profit maximisation iii. iv. v. Prime aim to provide family food Land & labour main inputs, few capital inputs Diversity of crops grown Aims at maximising gross output & yield per acre Prime aim avoidance of risk; reluctant to innovate Capital & land major inputs; labour a declining input Specialised production Aims at maximising output per head & minimising production costs Innovation
  31. 31. HOW TO OVER COME………
  32. 32. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE • The term sustainable agriculture means an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term: – satisfy human food and fiber needs; – enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends; – make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls; – sustain the economic viability of farm operations; and – enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.
  33. 33. Modern Agriculture Supposed to be Sustainable Agriculture Modern agricultural practices enable farmers to meet ALL three goals of sustainability: conserve and protect natural resources; meet the food and fuel needs of a growing population; and be financially viable for both growers and consumers.
  34. 34. SUSTAINABLE TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES USED IN THE CARIBBEAN • Intercropping & polyculture: symbiotic relations ‘tween plants (shade, rooting systems), plant diversity encourages natural biological control of insect pests, provides year round food supply. • Crop rotation w/ legumes: helps retain soil fertility & year round food supply, (rotations involve red peas, gungo peas, cowpeas, string beans etc)
  35. 35. • Spatial organisation of crops in fields: strip cropping, grass barriers, contour planting – all contribute to soil conservation, planting trees to act as wind breaks • Fallowing: helps restore soil fertility if sufficient time elapses, helps maintain vegetative cover to reduce erosion. • Mulching: helps reduce evapotranspiration & soil loss from wind erosion, adds nutrients to soil, minimises the impact of splash erosion.
  36. 36. • Ramming, fly penning: integrates crops & livestock into household production, reduces potential erosion by trampling, animal faeces manures the land. • Kitchen gardens & food forests: traditional types of agroforestry. • Silvo-pasture: combining food trees w/ pasture e.g. coconuts & cattle.
  37. 37. SOME INTERESTING FACTS……..
  38. 38. THE FARMERS’ SUCIDE AND NAXALISM In the same village, with similar land condition, with same crop, one farmer makes profits, The other commits suicide Not all farmers commit suicide The young farmers are educated They take other means and wed Naxalism Naxalism not a new movement but has taken new roots in many parts of the country. In 2003 – 55 districts, 2004 – 150 districts, 2006 – 170 district – 1/3 of the country covered. Young persons prefer brutalism rather than committing suicide even if that has risk to their life. • Naxalism is a major challenge to democratic system. • Problem not only of agriculture but is a time bomb clicking which can damage the basic fabric of our constitution CONCLUSION: • Over all economy growing – but Agriculture left behind. Agri occupies 60% of total working population disparities between rural and urban growing • With Agri sector some are growing and others left behind. • • • • • • • •
  39. 39. THE PAST EXPERIENCE • • • • • • • • • • Past experience of early 70s Green revolution brought fruits to farmers, but poor small and marginal farmers did not benefit. There were riots in rural areas of our country The Government of India introduced special programme for assistance of small and marginal farmers – SFDA programme.(1975-80) This was followed by Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). (1980) National Extension Programme also strengthened. Focus on individual poor family, particularly farmers and artisans. VLW responsible for providing technical assistance to poor farmers. Special subsidy provided to obtain productive assets and inputs with back up bank credit. The programme has great success –poverty decline – small and marginal farmers benefited. But there were left out more than 20% on average In some areas this proportion is more. The left-out of development process needed continuous attention.
  40. 40. THE LEFT OUT OF DEVELOPMENT PROCESS •                In 90s, focus of IRDP programme shifted Focus changed to non-farm activities It obtained new banner of SgSy & SgRy Poor farmers no longer received special individual attention. Programme moved to non farm activities, Self Help Groups The farmers left out of development process, not paid attention and continued to remain poor. This is a very large segment NSSO report on farmers indicated high debt ratio Andhra Pradesh - 82% Tamil Nadu - 72% Punjab - 65% Kerala - 64% Karnataka - 61% Gujarat - 51% The VLWs and Extension team did not bother about poor farmers. Focus shifted to farmers who can obtain assistance on their own.
  41. 41. FARMERS FINDINGS BY NSS-59TH ROUND PUBLISHED IN JULY 2005 All India Level Awareness of technical and institutional development Farmers liking farming 60% Seed replacement 30% Using testing Labs for seeds, fertilizer etc 2% Accessing knowledge about technology 40% From Extension Administration Input dealers 21% 23% 18%
  42. 42.  Extension Administration did not bother about poor farmers  Lack of control on quality seeds and inputs and basic guidance for selection of crop to be grown in rain fed areas based on soil health.  There can be many other reasons like mortgage of land by farmers to private money lenders/local dealers and so on and so forth.  Left out poor farmers don’t have access to new technology and information  Poor farmers started copying the wealthy farmers who had water resource and new technology, and failed.  Result – farmers suicide
  43. 43. SOME CASE STUDY…….
  44. 44. An upside to slash-and-burn agriculture: According to Kricher, a study in Costa Rica demonstrated that slash and burn does not, in the short run, degrade the soil. Researcher cut, mulched, and burned a site that contained patches of eight- to nineyear-old forest and seventy-year-old forest. Before the burn there were approximately 8,000 seeds per square meter of soil, representing 67 species. After the burn the figure dropped to 3,000 seeds/square meter, representing 37 species. Mycorrhizal fungi survived the burn, and large quantities of nutrients were released to the soil following burning. The remaining seeds sprouted, and vegetation regrew vigorously on the site
  45. 45. THE GUJARAT EXPERIENCE - III      Gujarat provides a replicable experience It is against this background that experiences of Gujarat of last four years need to be seen. Gujarat has achieved sustainable agricultural growth at an average of 11% per annum in recent years.(2001-05) Gujarat, despite constraints of arid and semi arid agro climatic regions and uncertain monsoons, has become number one state in the country in agriculture sector. Gujarat does not have any suicide by farmers on account of crop failure. It does not have Naxalite areas. Initial efforts to spread it in district like Dangs have failed. It is important to realize that prior to year 2000, Gujarat’s agriculture had growth but it was slow. It had a number of years with negative growth. After 2000, the situation changed. Agriculture became stable and picked up momentum.
  46. 46. Thank You

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