ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FISHERIES IN
THE INDIAN OCEAN: FROM RESOURCE
SUSTAINABILITY TO REGIONAL SECURITY
Dr Mary Ann Palma-...
Presentation Outline
• Economic and conservation significance of
fisheries in the Indian Ocean
– Patterns of production an...
Fisheries in the Indian Ocean
• Involves numerous countries with diverse economies,
cultures, and fishing practices
• Fish...
Indian ocean fishing area for purposes
of fisheries statistics (FAO)
Eastern
Western
Antarctic and Southern
Eastern
Indian Ocean
• Bangladesh,
eastern India,
southern and
western Indonesia,
western Malaysia,
Myanmar, Sri
Lanka, we...
Western
Indian Ocean
• Red Sea, the
Gulf, Western
and Eastern
Arabian Sea,
Somalia, Kenya,
Tanzania,
Madagascar and
Mozamb...
Antarctic and Southern Indian Ocean
• Enderby-Wilkes, Kerguelen, McDonald,
Crozet, Marion-Edward
Source: FAO Website, Regi...
Source: Generated from FAO FishStatJ, 2014)
Indian Ocean Fish Production, 1950-2012, in tonnes
Catch in the Indian Ocean
Source: FAO, State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012
Trend in Tuna Catch in the
Indian Ocean (Major Species)
Source: Extracted from data provided in the Indian Ocean Tuna Comm...
RECOFI Members Catch in the Gulf and Oman Sea, 2007-2011, in tons
Country 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Bahrain
15 014 14 175 1...
Aquaculture Production
• 6,138,043 tonnes worth US$12.2 billion
for South Asia
• Equivalent to about 8 percent of the
tota...
Comparison
of Regional
Fish Trade
Fish Trade Flows in Indian Ocean Countries, 2007-2011, in tons
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
...
Value of Fish Exports, Selected Indian Ocean Countries, 2009-2012, in USD
IO Country 2009 2010 2011 2012
India 1,412,385,6...
Global vessel size
and distribution
Source: FAO, State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012
Fisheries-related Challenges in the
Indian Ocean
• Inadequate stock assessment
• Poor data collection
• Resource threats f...
Emergence of Other Fisheries Issues
with Regional Security Impact
• Use of fishing vessels for acts of terrorism or
other ...
The Indian Ocean in terms of regional
fisheries policy and management
Regional Fishery Bodies with
Scientific and/or Polic...
RFB Area of Competence Species coverage Members
BOBP-IGO EEZ, High seas All marine fish stocks Bangladesh, India, Maldives...
IOTC Area of
Competence
Source: IOTC Website 2014
Importance of the IOTC in the
region
• Provides a management regime for one of the most
commercially valuable species in t...
Key tuna and tuna-like
species in the IOTC Area
of Competence
Catch (2012) Average Catch
(2008-2012)
Status of Stocks
Alba...
Type_Gear (Multiple Items)
Count of IOTC_no Year_Active
Flag 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2...
Limitations of regional
agreements and arrangements
• Most regional organisations do not have legal mechanisms
that bind m...
Opportunities to Address Fisheries
Issues in the Indian Ocean
• Most commercially valuable fisheries are not overfished
• ...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
For questions and comments
mpalma@uow.edu.au
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IONS Seminar 2014 - Session 2 - The Economic Importance of Fisheries in the Indian Ocean: from resource sustainability to regional security

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Speaker: Dr Mary Ann Palma-Robles, Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security, University of Wollongong

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IONS Seminar 2014 - Session 2 - The Economic Importance of Fisheries in the Indian Ocean: from resource sustainability to regional security

  1. 1. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FISHERIES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN: FROM RESOURCE SUSTAINABILITY TO REGIONAL SECURITY Dr Mary Ann Palma-Robles Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security (ANCORS) University of Wollongong OCEAN LAW AND POLICY MARITIME SECURITY INNOVATIVE WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH OUTSTANDING CAPACITY BUILDING CONNECT: ANCORS
  2. 2. Presentation Outline • Economic and conservation significance of fisheries in the Indian Ocean – Patterns of production and trade • Key issues and challenges confronting the region in addressing the sustainability and security of fisheries resources • Commitments of six regional and sub- regional bodies in the Indian Ocean • Opportunities for the region
  3. 3. Fisheries in the Indian Ocean • Involves numerous countries with diverse economies, cultures, and fishing practices • Fisheries comprise a complex mix of inshore, artisanal, offshore, commercial, traditional, and recreational marine capture fisheries, as well as aquaculture • Contributes to food security, poverty alleviation, and economic development in the region – Up to 50% of animal protein intake in some IO countries – Commercially valuable species from a range of pelagic fish, demersal fish, and crustaceans – Livelihood from downstream industries – Source of foreign exchange and high contribution to GDP in some countries • Subject to different fisheries management approaches and regimes
  4. 4. Indian ocean fishing area for purposes of fisheries statistics (FAO) Eastern Western Antarctic and Southern
  5. 5. Eastern Indian Ocean • Bangladesh, eastern India, southern and western Indonesia, western Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, western Thailand, and Australia • Bay of Bengal, central and oceanic Indian ocean region, western and southern Australia Source: FAO Website, Regional Fishery Bodies, 2014
  6. 6. Western Indian Ocean • Red Sea, the Gulf, Western and Eastern Arabian Sea, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Madagascar and Mozambique Channel, oceanic part Source: FAO Website, Regional Fishery Bodies, 2014
  7. 7. Antarctic and Southern Indian Ocean • Enderby-Wilkes, Kerguelen, McDonald, Crozet, Marion-Edward Source: FAO Website, Regional Fishery Bodies, 2014
  8. 8. Source: Generated from FAO FishStatJ, 2014) Indian Ocean Fish Production, 1950-2012, in tonnes
  9. 9. Catch in the Indian Ocean Source: FAO, State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012
  10. 10. Trend in Tuna Catch in the Indian Ocean (Major Species) Source: Extracted from data provided in the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission Website, 2014
  11. 11. RECOFI Members Catch in the Gulf and Oman Sea, 2007-2011, in tons Country 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Bahrain 15 014 14 175 16 356 13 490 9 915 Iran 329 626 341 980 348 122 368 505 411 897 Iraq 7 572 4 594 5 986 7 118 1 647 Kuwait 4 373 3 979 4 707 4 500 4 500 Oman 151 744 151 910 158 551 163 927 158 566 Qatar 15 190 17 688 14 064 13 760 12 985 Saudi Arabia 40 052 43 509 41 602 39 084 37 420 UAE 96 453 74 075 77 705 79 610 75 147 Total 660 024 651 910 667 093 689 994 712 077 Source: Extracted from FAO, Fisheries Global Information System (FIGIS), 2014
  12. 12. Aquaculture Production • 6,138,043 tonnes worth US$12.2 billion for South Asia • Equivalent to about 8 percent of the total world aquaculture production • Growth rate of 9% per year (volume) and 13% per year (value) between 2000 and 2010
  13. 13. Comparison of Regional Fish Trade Fish Trade Flows in Indian Ocean Countries, 2007-2011, in tons 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Export 12 829 956 14 146 032 13 840 389 15 999 232 19 003 392 Import 3 872 365 4 761 089 4 469 980 5 207 432 6 452 768 Reexport 124 942 136 257 81 544 89 963 83 907 Fish Trade Flows in Pacific Island Countries, 2007-2011, in tons 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Export 614 068 555 817 603 966 653 184 635 812 Import 387 643 397 615 369 013 389 971 413 961 Reexport 4 136 2 126 6 774 11 843 36 114 Fish Trade Flows in Asian Countries, 2007-2011, in tons 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Export 31 387 103 35 120 440 34 406 245 41 635 328 50 439 363 Import 12 029 743 12 277 607 12 337 598 12 939 121 13 535 138 Reexport 471 253 493 200 416 364 479 773 569 478 Fish Trade Flows in African Countries, 2007-2011, in tons 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Export 1 627 906 1 696 691 1 677 177 1 717 998 1 697 565 Import 3 459 160 3 352 554 3 282 902 3 487 198 4 054 158 Reexport 42 094 36 969 39 817 44 920 40 025 Source: Extracted from FAO, Fisheries Global Information System (FIGIS), 2014
  14. 14. Value of Fish Exports, Selected Indian Ocean Countries, 2009-2012, in USD IO Country 2009 2010 2011 2012 India 1,412,385,626 2,163,676,018 3,211,757,854 3,282,148,106 Sri Lanka 179,205,964 171,580,646 195,270,992 204,744,589 Pakistan Data not available Data not available Data not available 292,204,684 Kenya 47,338,646 52,022,411 Data not available Data not available Mozambique Data not available Data not available Data not available 25,786,670 Comparison of India and Thailand India fish import: $68 million Thailand fish import: $2.8 billion Source: UN COMM TRADE Statistics, 2014
  15. 15. Global vessel size and distribution Source: FAO, State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012
  16. 16. Fisheries-related Challenges in the Indian Ocean • Inadequate stock assessment • Poor data collection • Resource threats from: overfishing, pollution, habitat destruction, illegal activities • Extreme environmental occurrence • Post-harvest losses due to lack of capacity • Lack of effective management for small-scale fisheries – Problem of overcapacity • Ineffective domestic fisheries management regime and legal framework • Lack of comprehensive regional approach or framework • Increasing international regulation on fish trade and IUU fishing
  17. 17. Emergence of Other Fisheries Issues with Regional Security Impact • Use of fishing vessels for acts of terrorism or other criminal activities • Involvement of organised criminal groups in illegal fishing, especially for high value species • Alleged harassment of fishing vessels by naval vessels in contested areas • Lack of international and regional legal and policy framework to address the above issues
  18. 18. The Indian Ocean in terms of regional fisheries policy and management Regional Fishery Bodies with Scientific and/or Policy Functions • Bay of Bengal Programme Inter-Governmental Organization (BOBP-IGO) • Regional Commission for Fisheries (RECOFI) • Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA) • Southwest Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission (SWIOFC) Regional Fishery Bodies with Management Functions (RFMOs) • Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) • South Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement (SIOFA) • (SWIOFC) Other regional fishery bodies: CCAMLR, APFIC
  19. 19. RFB Area of Competence Species coverage Members BOBP-IGO EEZ, High seas All marine fish stocks Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Sri Lanka RECOFI Areas under national jurisdiction All living marine resources Bahrain, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE PERSGA The Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal to its end on the Mediterranean, and the Gulf of Aden All elements of the marine and coastal environment Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen SWIOFC Areas under national jurisdiction All living marine resources Comoros, France, Kenya, Madagascar, Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Yemen IOTC High seas and areas under national jurisdiction Tuna and tuna-like species in the Indian Ocean and adjacent seas Non-target species of ecological importance Australia, Belize, China, Comoros, Eritrea, European Union, France, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Thailand, United Kingdom, Tanzania, Vanuatu, Yemen Cooperating Non-Members: Senegal, South Africa. SIOFA High seas All marine fish stocks (non-highly migratory species) Australia, Cook Islands, European Union, Mauritius, Seychelles Other regional bodies: CCAMLR, APFIC, SADC
  20. 20. IOTC Area of Competence Source: IOTC Website 2014
  21. 21. Importance of the IOTC in the region • Provides a management regime for one of the most commercially valuable species in the region and the world • Implementation of fisheries conservation and management measures through monitoring, control and surveillance – Vessel record – IUU vessel listing – Statistical documentation scheme – Port state measures – Regional observers – Compliance monitoring • Future development – Establishment of a high seas boarding and inspection
  22. 22. Key tuna and tuna-like species in the IOTC Area of Competence Catch (2012) Average Catch (2008-2012) Status of Stocks Albacore tuna 33,960 t 37,082 t Not overfished but may be subject to overfishing Bigeye tuna 115,793 t 107,603 t Stock not overfished and not subject to overfishing Skipjack tuna 314,537 t 400,980 t Stock not overfished and not subject to overfishing Yellowfin tuna 368,663 t 317,505 t Stock not overfished and not subject to overfishing Swordfish 26,184 t 24,545 t Stock not overfished and not subject to overfishing Striped marlin 4,833 t 3,011 t Stock is overfished and subject to overfishing Longtail tuna 155,603 t 133,890 t Not overfished but may be subject to overfishing
  23. 23. Type_Gear (Multiple Items) Count of IOTC_no Year_Active Flag 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Australia 78 81 23 21 17 11 10 9 8 13 12 11 11 Belize 105 36 24 8 16 12 8 10 9 5 7 7 6 China 98 92 90 62 62 67 67 67 46 32 20 15 36 France (EU) 16 42 18 18 298 290 42 44 42 35 33 27 Italy (EU) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Portugal (EU) 8 10 2 2 7 14 15 5 6 4 4 3 Spain (EU) 36 17 20 34 41 49 50 39 30 26 34 38 United Kingdom (EU) 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 France (Territories) 1 2 2 2 4 5 5 Guinea 3 3 6 3 3 3 India 3 3 2 2 4 70 77 34 50 64 51 20 Indonesia 754 1171 1201 993 1196 1275 Iran 1016 1109 1206 1307 1270 1251 1233 Japan 500 496 189 170 182 184 227 217 210 140 112 70 72 Kenya 2 2 1 Korea_Republic of 54 155 202 36 28 29 33 24 20 13 7 10 Madagascar 1 5 2 1 2 6 4 8 Malaysia 13 7 14 18 28 62 58 59 43 8 5 Mauritius 7 7 8 8 8 10 8 1 3 4 5 Oman 4 11 24 29 27 8 Philippines 17 33 16 25 12 18 17 17 8 7 3 14 Senegal 1 1 1 3 Seychelles 28 36 80 51 51 43 45 42 50 50 31 39 South Africa 6 12 12 16 9 4 13 14 10 15 13 Sri Lanka 1001 2631 2975 3261 3295 3588 2482 Tanzania 3 4 1 8 Thailand 3 2 4 2 2 8 13 11 6 11 10 5 5 Uruguay 2 2 1 1 Mozambique 1 1 1 Pakistan 10 Vanuatu 4 4 2 Maldives 234 249 Grand Total 844 833 664 643 1241 1946 4145 4459 4779 5045 5988 6591 5578 Number of Active Vessels in the IOTC region Source: IOTC Website 2014
  24. 24. Limitations of regional agreements and arrangements • Most regional organisations do not have legal mechanisms that bind members to ensure implementation of management measures – Only the IOTC has a compliance monitoring system • Limited species coverage • Existence of IUU fishing activities • Organisation functions are limited – Mostly on fisheries conservation and do not have jurisdiction to address transnational crime in fisheries • Underdeveloped involvement of the navy in regional fisheries compliance • Implementation of measures depends largely on the capacity and political will of member states
  25. 25. Opportunities to Address Fisheries Issues in the Indian Ocean • Most commercially valuable fisheries are not overfished • Regional trade advantages – IO countries are net exporters of fish • Increasing access of coastal States to resources of the Indian Ocean • Growing awareness on the nexus between illegal fishing and transnational crime • MCS development – High seas enforcement scheme • Strengthened regional approach to transboundary issues – Better coordination mechanism between relevant subregional organisations – Involvement of key actors (e.g. South Africa, SADC) • Discussion of fisheries issues in broader economic and regional security fora (e.g. IORA) – E.g. fish trade; conflict resolution; transnational crime in fisheries; fishing vessel safety and labour issues
  26. 26. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION For questions and comments mpalma@uow.edu.au

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