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2013 King Hall Day 1 Session 2 - 2
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2013 King Hall Day 1 Session 2 - 2

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2013 King Hall Conference Proceedings

2013 King Hall Conference Proceedings

Published in Education , News & Politics
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Transcript

  • 1. Lessons Learnt? How the Great War shaped Japanese Naval Planning COL Tim Gellel
  • 2. Japan’s entry into the Great War 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance RN’s dilemma … • RN needed IJN help needed to defeat German East Asia Squadron, capture Tsingtao … IJN’s opportunity • To remove German threat • To dominate Yellow Sea and maritime approaches to Peking 11 Aug: To Britain - will seize Tsingtao, with/without your cooperation. 15 Aug: Surrender Tsingtao ultimatum to Germany 23 Aug: Declared war on Germany, Tsingtao siege commenced. 25 Aug: Declared war on Austria-Hungary
  • 3. Tsingtao and Japan Port Arthur Peking Bohai Gulf Hakko-ho Weihaiwei Sasebo Yellow Sea Tsingtao
  • 4. 2 Sep Lungkou Tsingtao 0 50km Weihaiwei 18 Sep
  • 5. IJN at Tsingtao – Land, Air, Sea Naval Artillery Landing Force • 4 x 5cm, 4 x 12cm guns, 494 men Seaplane Tender Wakamiya Maru • 4 Maurice Farman Floatplanes • First naval air attack on land targets • First naval air attacks on ships • First night bombing raid 2nd Fleet • Blockade, landing, sweeping 1st Fleet • Distant covering force, blockade
  • 6. The German Pacific Possessions Oct: IJN seized: • Marianas (Saipan), • Carolines (Truk, Yap, Kusaie, Ponape, Palau, Angaur) • Marshalls (Jaluit) IJN occupation suggested by British Admiralty • Australia lacked capacity • Mahan warned of American “outrage” Japan not initially committed to possession • offered Yap to Australia … • … but retracted that offer after Tokyo riots
  • 7. Indo-Pacific Patrols
  • 8. ASW in the Mediterranean 1917: Feb: unrestricted sub warfare • GBR, FRA request IJN destroyers, recognise Japan’s Pacific mandate Apr: 2nd Special Service Fleet Arrives Malta May: U-63 sinks SS Transylvania, Jun: Austrian U-27 sinks Sakaki • 92 crew: 59 KIA, 24 WIA • 2nd Special Service Fleet expands By Nov 1918: • escorted 787 ships, 700,000 troops • but sank no U-boats 1919: escort 7 German U-boat prizes
  • 9. Dreadnought “Phoney War” 1914: 17 pre-/semi-dreadnoughts 1918: 8 new 14-inch dreadnoughts • “8-8 Fleet” Plan Dreadnoughts’ contribution minimal • 1914: Kongō to Tsingtao, Midway • 1916: 3 battlecruisers on China patrol • IJN rejected British requests for battlecruisers Jutland • “served as the basis for years of study by the [Naval General] staff and staff college” • Confirmed IJN faith in battleship
  • 10. From Victor to Victim IJN Great War commitment significant … • Tsingtao, Indian and Pacific Oceans, Mediterranean, Siberia … but selective, • Dreadnoughts absent, cruisers did not engage/sink enemy ships driven by (national) self-interest ... • Eliminated rival naval threats • Expanded Japanese territory • War-prize U-boats boost IJN sub development … but small compensation for ensuing humiliations • 1919: Britain opposes Japan’s Racial Equality Proposal at Versailles • 1922: forced return of Tsingtao • 1922: withdrawal from Siberia; Britain annuls Treaty, rejects 10:10:7 ratio in Washington Conference
  • 11. Lessons Learnt IJN continued airpower lead • Dec 1941–Jun 1942 IJN carrier ops Pacific, Indian Oceans • Dec 1941: HMS Prince of Wales, Repulse sunk by airpower • Jan 1942: IJN paratroopers seize Menado Jutland did not invalidate … • IJN precept of decisive naval battle, and the battleship’s starring role … but confirmed • “fleet in being” and “decisive battle” doctrines IJN overlooked offensive use of own submarines… • 187 IJN subs only sank 171 vessels … while ignoring defensive ASW • Under-investment in destroyers and ASW weapons • By 1942 merchantmen losses outstripped production • By 1945 90% of merchantmen sunk
  • 12. Summary