The Living WorldFourth EditionGEORGE B. JOHNSONCopyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduc...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.1 The Diversity of LifeBiology...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.2 Properties of LifeBiology is...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.2 Properties of LifeAll living...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.2 Properties of LifeAll living...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayReview the ConceptsName the 6 Ki...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.3 The Organization of LifeLivi...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.4
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.4
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.4
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.3 The Organization of LifeEach...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.4 Biological ThemesThe living ...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.4 Biological Themes1. Evolutio...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.4 Biological Themes3. Cooperat...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.4 Biological Themes5. Homeosta...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayReview the ConceptsList the leve...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.5 How Scientists ThinkDeductiv...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.5 How Scientists ThinkInductiv...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.5
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.6 Science in Action: A Case St...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.6 How CFCs attack and des...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.6 Science in Action: A Case St...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.7 Stages of a Scientific Inves...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.7 Stages of a Scientific Inves...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayObservationFig. 1.7QuestionHypot...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayReview the ConceptsWhich two way...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.8 Theory and CertaintyA theory...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.8 Theory and CertaintyNote:To ...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.8 Theory and CertaintyThe scie...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.8 Theory and CertaintyThe limi...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.9 Four Theories Unify Biology1...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayThe Gene Theory: Molecular Basis...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.12 Thegene theory
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayThe Theory of Heredity: Unity of...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayThe Theory of Evolution: Diversi...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.15The treeof lifeCrocodil...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayThe Theory of Evolution: Diversi...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayKingdomsPresently recognized:a. ...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.16ProkaryotesSimplest and...
Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayReview the ConceptsContrast Theo...
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  1. 1. The Living WorldFourth EditionGEORGE B. JOHNSONCopyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayPowerPoint®Lectures prepared by Johnny El-Rady1 The Science of Biology
  2. 2. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.1 The Diversity of LifeBiology is the study of living thingsLiving things can be divided into six kingdomsFig. 1.1Archaea Bacteria ProtistaFungi Plantae Animalia
  3. 3. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.2 Properties of LifeBiology is the study of lifeBut what does it mean to be alive?Living organisms and many non-living thingsshare three propertiesComplexityMovementResponse to stimulation
  4. 4. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.2 Properties of LifeAll living organisms share five basic properties1. Cellular OrganizationAll living organisms are composed of at least one cell2. MetabolismAll living organisms use energy3. HomeostasisAll living organisms maintain stable internal conditions
  5. 5. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.2 Properties of LifeAll living organisms share five basic properties4. Growth and reproductionAll living organisms grow and reproduce5. HeredityAll living organisms possess a genetic system that isbased on DNADeoxyribonucleic acid
  6. 6. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayReview the ConceptsName the 6 Kingdoms of life and theircharacteristicsList the 5 characteristics of life
  7. 7. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.3 The Organization of LifeLiving organisms function and interact witheach other at many levelsThese levels are organized in a hierarchy ofincreasing complexityCellular LevelOrganismal LevelPopulational Level
  8. 8. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.4
  9. 9. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.4
  10. 10. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.4
  11. 11. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.3 The Organization of LifeEach higher level contains novel propertiesnot present at the simpler level of organizationThese properties are termed emergentpropertiesThey are a consequence of the structuralorganization that is the hallmark of lifeThey characterize many aspects of theliving world
  12. 12. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.4 Biological ThemesThe living world is organized by major themesIndeed, five general themes unify and explainbiology as a scienceRefer to Table 1.1
  13. 13. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.4 Biological Themes1. EvolutionThe genetic change in a species over timeIt is a result of a process termed natural selectionVariation may also be caused by artificial selection2. The Flow of EnergyAll living organisms require energyThe sun is the source of energy for ecosystemsPlants capture energy via photosynthesisThey then act as an energy source for other organisms
  14. 14. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.4 Biological Themes3. CooperationCooperation between organisms is critical forevolutionSymbiosis occurs when two organisms of differentspecies live in direct contact4. Structure Determines FunctionBiological structures are well suited to theirfunctionThis is true at every level of organization
  15. 15. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.4 Biological Themes5. HomeostasisAll living organisms act to maintain a relativelystable internal environmentMaintaining homeostasis requires a lot ofsignaling back-and-forth between cells
  16. 16. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayReview the ConceptsList the levels of organized hierarchy ofincreasing complexity of living organimsName the five general unifying themes ofbiology as a science
  17. 17. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.5 How Scientists ThinkDeductive ReasoningUsing accepted general principles as a “guide” toexplain specific observationsIt is the reasoning ofMathematicsPhilosophyPoliticsEthicsIt is also how a computer works
  18. 18. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.5 How Scientists ThinkInductive ReasoningDiscovering general principles throughexamination of specific casesIt is used by scientists to develop hypothesesabout how the world works
  19. 19. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.5
  20. 20. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.6 Science in Action: A Case StudyIn 1985, a scientist discovered low levels ofozone in the upper Antarctic atmosphereThe culprit was later revealed to bechlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)Coolants in air conditions; propellants in aerosolsCFCs condense into tiny ice crystalsWarmed by the sun, they attack anddestroy ozone
  21. 21. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.6 How CFCs attack and destroy ozone
  22. 22. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.6 Science in Action: A Case StudyThe ozone layer protects us from the sun’sultraviolet (UV) rays1% drop in ozone  6% increase in skin cancersIts depletion is a serious world problemSo governments have rushed to correct thesituationThere is now a worldwide reduction in CFCproductionThe ozone layer will recover by mid-21stcentury
  23. 23. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.7 Stages of a Scientific InvestigationThe scientific process can be divided intosix stages1. ObservationCareful observation of a process or phenomenon2. HypothesisGuess regarding the observationIf more than one guess, alternative hypotheses areformed3. PredictionExpected consequences based on the correcthypothesis
  24. 24. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.7 Stages of a Scientific InvestigationThe scientific process can be divided intosix stages4. TestingThe hypothesis is tested through an experiment5. ControlsA factor that influences a process is called a variableIn a control experiment, all variables are held constant6. ConclusionBased on the results of the experiment, a hypothesisis either accepted or rejected
  25. 25. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayObservationFig. 1.7QuestionHypothesis 1Hypothesis 2Hypothesis 3Hypothesis 4Hypothesis 5PotentialhypothesesExperimentRejecthypotheses1 and 4Hypothesis 5Hypothesis 3Hypothesis 2RemainingpossiblehypothesesExperimentRejecthypotheses2 and 3Last remainingpossible hypothesisHypothesis 5PredictionsExperiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Experiment 4Predictionsconfirmed
  26. 26. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayReview the ConceptsWhich two ways can scientist approach thesolution to a problem?List the six stages of the scientific process
  27. 27. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.8 Theory and CertaintyA theory is a set of hypotheses that have beentested many times and not rejectedIt indicates a higher degree of certaintyHowever, there is no absolute truth in scienceSo the acceptance of a theory is provisional
  28. 28. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.8 Theory and CertaintyNote:To scientists, a theory represents that ofwhich they are most certainTo the general public, a theory representslack of knowledge or a guess
  29. 29. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.8 Theory and CertaintyThe scientific “method”A series of logical “either/or” predictionstested by experiments to reject alternativehypothesesThis trial-and-error testing was once viewedas the way scientific progress is madeHowever, science is not done this way!Insight and imagination are necessary togood scientific examination
  30. 30. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.8 Theory and CertaintyThe limitations of scienceIt is limited to organisms and processes thatcan be observed and measuredSupernatural and religious phenomena arebeyond the scope of scienceThere are also practical limitsScience cannot be relied upon to solve allproblems
  31. 31. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display1.9 Four Theories Unify Biology1. The Cell Theory2. The Gene Theory3. The Theory of Heredity4. The Theory of Evolution
  32. 32. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayThe Gene Theory: Molecular Basis of InheritanceThe information that determines what anorganism is like is encoded in its genesGenes are located along DNA moleculesRefer to Fig. 1.11The entire set of DNA instructions thatspecifies a cell is termed its genome
  33. 33. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.12 Thegene theory
  34. 34. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayThe Theory of Heredity: Unity of LifeThis theory was first advanced by GregorMendel in 1865It basically states that genes of anorganism are inherited as discrete unitsLater, other biologists proposed thechromosomal theory of inheritanceGenes are physically located onchromosomes
  35. 35. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayThe Theory of Evolution: Diversity of LifeThis theory was first advanced by CharlesDarwin in 1859It attributes the diversity of the living worldto natural selectionAn essential component of this theory is thatevolution involves “descent by modification”All living organisms are related to oneanother in a common tree of life
  36. 36. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.15The treeof lifeCrocodiles aremore closely-related to birdsthan to otherreptiles
  37. 37. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayThe Theory of Evolution: Diversity of LifeBiologists divide all living organisms intothree great groups, termed domainsBacteriaArchaeaEukarya
  38. 38. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayKingdomsPresently recognized:a. Bacteria- primitive organizationb. Archaea - primitive organizationc. Protista- one-celled organisms.c. Fungi- molds, mushrooms.e. Plantae- plants.f. Animalia-multicellular animals.
  39. 39. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayFig. 1.16ProkaryotesSimplest and most diverse;Gave rise to the other three eukaryotickingdoms
  40. 40. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displayReview the ConceptsContrast Theory and HypothesisWhat is a scientific law?Explain the limitations of science.Name the Four Theories Unifying Biology

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