BODY CHARACTERISTICSSize and Shape :Algae are range in size, from the invisible (microscopic) to the visible (macroscopic)•Solitary unicellular algaeTheir shape are round, oval, or pear-shapedalgae of this group.The example is Chlorella
•Unicellular algae in colonyCells are dependent on one another for theirsurvival. The protoplast of each cell isconnected to another by pores on the cellwall. The colony shape is like a disc, a ball, ornet.The example is Hydrodictyon which haveshape like a net•Multicellular algaeThere are forms of thread,filament, and sheet-likemulticellular algae.The example is Oedogoniumwhich have filament shapebody.
BODY STRUCTUREAll algae are eukaryotic organisms, their contain chloroplast. There are manyshape of chloroplast . Spherical, bowl-shaped, and belt-shaped.The main pigments in algae is chlorophyll. ADDITIONAL PIGMENTS Carotene Phycobilin Fucoxanthin Xantophylls Phycocyanin Phycoerythrin (Brownish) (Golden) (Bluish) (Reddish)
EUGLENOPHYTAEuglenoids shape is likea bottle. Have disc-shapedeye spot that containsphotoreceptors covered bya layer of red pigment(phycobilin).Is a unicellular organismthat lacks a cell wall. Cut,the cell is covered by anelastic protein calledpellicle.Euglenoid have been identified as photosyntethic organism. However, there areheterotrophic Euglenoids as well.The photosyntethic product is stored as a backup in the form of paramylon (atype of a starch).Have two flagellum. Long and short.Live in freshwater habitats such as ponds or lakes.Reproduction is done asexually by binary fission.
CHLOROPHYTADivision Chlorophyta which is popularly known as green algae, which is thelargest group of algae consisting of approximately 429 genera and 6600species.The characteristic of chlorophyta are:a. Has a pigment found in chloroplasts that are dominated by chlorophyll aand b causing this green algab. Assimilation products in the form of starch in touch with pirenoidpembentukkannyac. Gametes have 2 or 4 flagella of equal length whiplash type located at theanteriord. Sexual reproduction isogami, anisogami, and Oogamie. Each cell has a true nucleus (no nuclear membrane)f. Cell walls composed of cellulose The example of chlorophyta (link)
CHRYSOPHYTAHave a dominant carotene pigment,xanthophyll.They are solitary unciellular algae, such asOchromonas, or living in colony and lackingflagella, or multicellular such as Vaucheria.The cell wall of Chrysophyta containshemicellulose, silicia, and pectin. Example :Navicula.Food in golden algae is stored as fats andcarbohydrates.These algae mostly live in freshwater, with someexceptions that can live in the sea.Reproduction is done asexually by binary fissionor spore formation.
PHAEOPHYTAPhaeophyta are the most complex forms of algae. The cell walls are composed ofcellulose and alginic acid (a complex polysaccharide). Unlike green algae orCholorophyta, they lack true starch. The food reserves contain sugar, higheralcohol and other complex forms of polysaccharides. The members of phaeophytabelonging to Laminarales are called kelps.Kelps are the only algae with a significant internal tissue differentiation. Thoughtrue conductive tissues like xylem and phloem are absent, kelps show some sort ofconductive tissues. Speaking about the reproduction of phaeophyta, they canreproduce by means of both sexual and asexual means. Higher phaeophyta havelife cycle consisting of both haploid and diploid stages, referred to as analternation of generation. The thallus representing haploid stage and diploidstage may be similar (isomorphic) or different (heteromorphic).
RHODOPHYTAThe red algae form a distinct group characterized by the following attributes:eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, using floridean starch as foodreserve, with phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments (giving them their redcolor), and with chloroplasts lacking external endoplasmic reticulum andcontaining unstacked thylakoids. Most red algae are also multicellular,macroscopic, marine, and have sexual reproduction.Most rhodophytes are marine, although there are freshwater species; thesegenerally prefer clean, running water, although there are some exceptions.
PYRROPHYTAFire Algae relates to the fact that somespecies living in the sea, appearfluorescent at night.Some other species are bloomingcertain times of the year (seasonal) andcause the appearance of red tides alongthe seashore. Some species can cause atoxic red tides that kill fish and seaanimals.The color of the fire algae is various. Yellowish-green, green, blue, brown, or redalgae depending on their pigment. Generally, the pigments of fire algae arechlorophyll a and c, xantophyll, dinoxanthin, and phycobilin.Fire algae mostly unicellular, photosynthetic organisms. Have celluloid plate ontheir cell wall. Usually have two flagela positioned laterally at the side or apical (atthe tip) of the cell.Live predominantly in the sea and are known as the major sea phytoplankton.