WideWide BandgapBandgap SemiconductorSemiconductorg pg p
Materials for Improved PerformanceMaterials for Improved Performa...
OutlineOutlineOutlineOutline
 Challengesg
 Proposal
 Semiconductor Materials
 Physics of semiconductor materialsPhysic...
ChallengesChallengesChallengesChallenges
 High power transmitters currently require the use of microwave
vacuum tube devi...
ChallengesChallengesChallengesChallenges
 However large area devices have inherently high capacitance and
low impedance, ...
ProposalProposalProposalProposal
 Wide bandgap semiconductors such as SiC (Silicon Carbide), GaN
(Gallium Nitride) and re...
ProposalProposalProposalProposal
 GaN HEMTs (High electron Mobility Transistors) in
ti l i i l l h i hparticular are an i...
Semiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor Materials
A j b k h h i h d l f i d A ...
Semiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor Materials
 The DC and RF performance c...
Semiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor Materials
 Desirable material properti...
Physics of SemiconductorPhysics of Semiconductor MaterialsMaterialsPhysics of SemiconductorPhysics of Semiconductor Materi...
Current Technology StatusCurrent Technology StatusCurrent Technology StatusCurrent Technology Status
 The current technol...
Current Technology StatusCurrent Technology StatusCurrent Technology StatusCurrent Technology Status
 GaAs HBT :
M R l d ...
Current Technology StatusCurrent Technology StatusCurrent Technology StatusCurrent Technology Status
Wid b d FET (AlG N/G ...
Why Heterostructures are so
Important in Microwave Transistors ?
 The development of heterostructures in the 1980s offere...
BasicBasic HeterostructureHeterostructure PhysicsPhysicsBasicBasic HeterostructureHeterostructure PhysicsPhysics
 A heter...
Modulation DopingModulation DopingModulation DopingModulation Doping
M d l i d i ff i d i d i Modulation doping offers an...
Modulation DopingModulation DopingModulation DopingModulation Doping
 Modulation doping allows the free carriers concentr...
Modulation DopingModulation DopingModulation DopingModulation Doping
 The most commonly used materials systems for modula...
Band Bending and Carrier Transport
P ll l HParallel to Heterojunctions
 Inspection of this figure shows that the conducti...
2DEG Mobility2DEG Mobility
I i i f d d AlG A d d d G A l In structures consisting of doped AlGaAs and undoped GaAs layers...
HEMTs: StructureHEMTs: StructureHEMTs: StructureHEMTs: Structure
 The main application of heterostructures is in High Ele...
HEMTs: StructureHEMTs: StructureHEMTs: StructureHEMTs: Structure
 It can be seen that electrons have to tunnel from the N...
GaNGaN HEMTsHEMTsGaNGaN HEMTsHEMTs
 AlGaN and GaN have breakdown fields greater than EC > 10^6V/cm
Th k t th dditi l h i ...
AvailabilityAvailabilityAvailabilityAvailability
 Nitronix
 M/A-COM M/A-COM
 RF Micro Devices
C Cree
 Toshiba
 Fuji...
Research inResearch in GaNGaN HEMTs: anHEMTs: an
OverviewOverview
 The research work illustrated in this thesis focussed ...
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PresenWide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials for Improved Performance Microwave Power and Radar Applicationtation

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Wide bandgap semiconductors such as SiC (Silicon Carbide), GaN
(Gallium Nitride) and related heterostructures are characterised by
a much higher breakdown voltage and therefore they may allow fabrication of devices with an order of magnitude improved RF output power compared to traditional solid state devices.

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PresenWide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials for Improved Performance Microwave Power and Radar Applicationtation

  1. 1. WideWide BandgapBandgap SemiconductorSemiconductorg pg p Materials for Improved PerformanceMaterials for Improved Performance Microwave Power and RadarMicrowave Power and RadarMicrowave Power and RadarMicrowave Power and Radar ApplicationApplication GaN HEMTs and Amplifiers Author : Navid Khoob Email : Navidkhoob@hotmail.com@
  2. 2. OutlineOutlineOutlineOutline  Challengesg  Proposal  Semiconductor Materials  Physics of semiconductor materialsPhysics of semiconductor materials  Current Technology Status  Heterojunctions  Modulation Doping Modulation Doping  Band Bending and Carrier Transport  2DEG Mobility  HEMTs Structure  GaN HEMTs  Availability  Research in GaN HEMTs
  3. 3. ChallengesChallengesChallengesChallenges  High power transmitters currently require the use of microwave vacuum tube devicesvacuum tube devices.  This is due to the fact that solid state devices are limited in the DC l h b l d h l h dvoltage that may be applied across their terminals when compared to vacuum devices.  Such limitations are the direct consequence of the inherent critical field for breakdown that the semiconductor can sustain.  A limited DC voltage means that high RF power operation can only be achieved with large DC and RF currents, which require large area devices.
  4. 4. ChallengesChallengesChallengesChallenges  However large area devices have inherently high capacitance and low impedance, which limit the operating frequencylow impedance, which limit the operating frequency.
  5. 5. ProposalProposalProposalProposal  Wide bandgap semiconductors such as SiC (Silicon Carbide), GaN (Gallium Nitride) and related heterostructures are characterised by h h h b kd l d h f h lla much higher breakdown voltage and therefore they may allow fabrication of devices with an order of magnitude improved RF output power compared to traditional solid state devices.  They have been the object of an extensive amount of research in the last decade and have now made their debut in the semiconductor devices market.
  6. 6. ProposalProposalProposalProposal  GaN HEMTs (High electron Mobility Transistors) in ti l i i l l h i hparticular are an increasingly popular choice when power, linearity and robustness are required.
  7. 7. Semiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor Materials A j b k h h i h d l f i d A major breakthrough in the development of semiconductor devices was the introduction of heterojunction growth technology which allows complex multiple layer device structures to be fabricated and optimized for maximized device performancefabricated and optimized for maximized device performance.  Technologies which permit the growth of epitaxial layers of precise thickness and impurity doping concentration (e.g. MBE and MOCVD) have been developed and allow the fabrication of devices with layer thickness of only a few angstroms.This level of control permits devices with frequency performance well over 100–300 GHz to be fabricated.
  8. 8. Semiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor Materials  The DC and RF performance capability of semiconductor devices is fundamentally dependent upon the electronic thermal andfundamentally dependent upon the electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties of the materials from which the devices are fabricated.  An overview of materials properties and their significance is presented along with the current technology status and a comparison of merits and demerits of various classes of devices.
  9. 9. Semiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor MaterialsSemiconductor Materials  Desirable material properties include a large energy gap, Eg (eV), a low value of dielectric constant εr high thermal conductivity κlow value of dielectric constant, εr, high thermal conductivity, κ (W/ºK-cm), and high critical electric field for breakdown Ec (V/cm).
  10. 10. Physics of SemiconductorPhysics of Semiconductor MaterialsMaterialsPhysics of SemiconductorPhysics of Semiconductor MaterialsMaterials  Wide bandgap energy allows a material to withstand high internal electric fields before electronic breakdown occursfields before electronic breakdown occurs.  A low value for this constant may reduce the capacitive loading and allows larger area devices to be fabricated for a specified impedance Increasedlarger area devices to be fabricated for a specified impedance. Increased area permits larger RF currents and higher RF power to be generated.  The thermal conductance needs to be as high as possible in order toThe thermal conductance needs to be as high as possible in order to extract heat from the device efficiently. Diamond and SiC are excellent thermal conductors and have been used as substrates for GaN HEMTs.  Finally, the critical electric field for electronic breakdown should be high. One of the attractive features of the wide bandgap materials is a high value for the critical field for breakdown, which is typically an order of i d h h f i l i dmagnitude greater than that of conventional semiconductors.
  11. 11. Current Technology StatusCurrent Technology StatusCurrent Technology StatusCurrent Technology Status  The current technology status and a comparison of merits and demerits of various classes of devices.demerits of various classes of devices.  GaAs MESFET :  M Matured technology, simple device, low cost especially ion- implanted GaAs.implanted GaAs.  D Not well suited for operation above 20 GHz.  C Still important in both low-noise and power applications  GaAs HEMT : GaAs HEMT :  M Meanwhile matured technology. High operating frequency, low noise figure, reasonable output power  D Commonly a no ally on device (needs a negative gate voltage to D Commonly a no ally-on device (needs a negative gate voltage to switch off), limited output power at high frequency.  C Most popular are the GaAs pHEMTs, conventional AlGaAs HEMTs are less importantHEMTs are less important
  12. 12. Current Technology StatusCurrent Technology StatusCurrent Technology StatusCurrent Technology Status  GaAs HBT : M R l d i li h h ( l l b i M Relaxed requirements on lithography (no lateral submicron structures necessary) high linearity, high output power density  D Application in very low-power circuits problematic because of h h lhigh emitter turn-on voltage  C Popular device for power amplification in cellular phones  InP HEMT :  M Very high operating frequencies and frequency limits. Lowest noise figure of all microwave transistor types  D Expensive technology D Expensive technology  C Application still limited to low-volume high-performance markets
  13. 13. Current Technology StatusCurrent Technology StatusCurrent Technology StatusCurrent Technology Status Wid b d FET (AlG N/G N HEMT SiC MESFET)Wide bandgap FETs (AlGaN/GaN HEMT, SiC MESFET) :  M Highest output power density of all microwave FETs. Highg p p y g operating temperatures, high breakdown voltage  D Expensive and immature technology. Reliability still an open questionq  C SiC MESFETs commercially available but limited to X-band, AlGaN HEMTs commercially available atWiMax frequencies. Targeted application: power amplification at GHz frequencies.g pp p p q
  14. 14. Why Heterostructures are so Important in Microwave Transistors ?  The development of heterostructures in the 1980s offered the opportunity of tremendous progress in the performance of microwave transistors.  Such structures are now a key component in modern high performance microwave devices such as  HEMTs (High Electron MobilityTransistors) and HEMTs (High Electron MobilityTransistors) and  HBTs (Heterostructure BipolarTransistors).
  15. 15. BasicBasic HeterostructureHeterostructure PhysicsPhysicsBasicBasic HeterostructureHeterostructure PhysicsPhysics  A heterostructure is a structure consisting of at least two layers of different semiconducting materials with distinct bandgaps The interfacedifferent semiconducting materials with distinct bandgaps.The interface between two of these layers is called a heterojunction or heterointerface.
  16. 16. Modulation DopingModulation DopingModulation DopingModulation Doping M d l i d i ff i d i d i Modulation doping offers an important advantage in device engineering since it provides a mechanism by which the free carrier concentration within a semiconductor layer can be increased significantly without the introduction of dopant impuritiessignificantly without the introduction of dopant impurities.  Although conventional doping techniques can significantly increase the free carrier concentration and conductivity of a semiconductor, but :  Ionized impurity scattering  Reduction in the carrier mobility and speed of the device
  17. 17. Modulation DopingModulation DopingModulation DopingModulation Doping  Modulation doping allows the free carriers concentration to be increased significantly without compromising the mobilityincreased significantly without compromising the mobility.  In a modulation-doped heterostructure, the free carriers are ll d f h dspatially separated from the dopants.  The spatial separation of the dopants and free carriers reduces thep p p deleterious action of ionized impurity scattering.
  18. 18. Modulation DopingModulation DopingModulation DopingModulation Doping  The most commonly used materials systems for modulation doping are GaAs and AlGaAsare GaAs and AlGaAs.
  19. 19. Band Bending and Carrier Transport P ll l HParallel to Heterojunctions  Inspection of this figure shows that the conduction band edge in the GaAs layer is strongly bent near the heterointerfacethe GaAs layer is strongly bent near the heterointerface.  The band bending is a consequence of the electron transfer.  Within this potential well spatial quantization effects occur.
  20. 20. 2DEG Mobility2DEG Mobility I i i f d d AlG A d d d G A l In structures consisting of doped AlGaAs and undoped GaAs layers, the electrons parallel to the heterointerfaces can have a much higher mobility compared to that in the doped bulk GaAs layers.  Experimental results show that the 2DEG mobility is higher than the bulk mobility over a wide range of temperatures.  A high mobility and a high 2DEG sheet density are design targets for HEMTs, which is why InGaAs layers with high In contents arey y g widely used in high-performance HEMTs.
  21. 21. HEMTs: StructureHEMTs: StructureHEMTs: StructureHEMTs: Structure  The main application of heterostructures is in High Electron MobilityTransistors (HEMTs).MobilityTransistors (HEMTs).  The high electron mobility and the low noise associated with the 2DEG are very useful for high-frequency and low-noise2DEG are very useful for high frequency and low noise applications.  The 2DEG created at the AlGaAs-GaAs heterojunction makes theThe 2DEG created at the AlGaAs GaAs heterojunction makes the HEMT channel.  A gate in the form of a Schottky contact is created between theA gate in the form of a Schottky contact is created between the source and drain, to provide the means of controlling the device current. 
  22. 22. HEMTs: StructureHEMTs: StructureHEMTs: StructureHEMTs: Structure  It can be seen that electrons have to tunnel from the N+GaAs source into the N+AlGaAs layer and tunnel again from the drainsource into the N+AlGaAs layer, and tunnel again from the drain end of the 2DEG back into the N+AlGaAs layer.  This introduces significant source and drain resistances, which adversely affect the high speed and noise performance of theadversely affect the high-speed and noise performance of the HEMT.  Refer to HEMTs tutorial 2011, Bristol University, F. Forneti  Solution  A number of modifications to source and drain contacts have been introduced to minimize the adverse effects of the source and drain resistances.
  23. 23. GaNGaN HEMTsHEMTsGaNGaN HEMTsHEMTs  AlGaN and GaN have breakdown fields greater than EC > 10^6V/cm Th k t th dditi l h i l h i hi h i t i AlG N/G N Thanks to the additional physical mechanisms which exist in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction yields a two- dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with a sheet charge density on the order of ns~ 1013 cm^2.  This is a factor of five times larger than is obtained with the traditional AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction.
  24. 24. AvailabilityAvailabilityAvailabilityAvailability  Nitronix  M/A-COM M/A-COM  RF Micro Devices C Cree  Toshiba  Fujitsu
  25. 25. Research inResearch in GaNGaN HEMTs: anHEMTs: an OverviewOverview  The research work illustrated in this thesis focussed primarily on frequency ranges which may be used for civil radar applicationsfrequency ranges which may be used for civil radar applications.  Nevertheless the practical applications which would benefit even more considerably from GaN technology are military radars which operate in higher frequency bands in particular X (8 12 GHz) Kuoperate in higher frequency bands, in particular X (8-12 GHz), Ku (12-18 GHz) and Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz).  Testing and Characterising : Future research work will therefore aim at testing and characterising GaN devices which may beaim at testing and characterising GaN devices which may be operated in such frequency ranges.  Packaging : In order to operate at high frequency the devices need t b k d t id th id bl b d idth li itito be unpackaged to avoid the considerable bandwidth limiting effects caused by the parasitic elements associated with packages.

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