Published on

Published in: Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. INTRODUCTION ―Empowerment of women not just a goal in itself ,but key to all global development goals.‘‘Women empowerment refers to:- -increasing the spiritual , political, social, economic strength of women. -developing confidence in their capacities. -having decision making power of their own. -ability to consider a range of options from yes/no, either/or. Empowerment is now increasingly seen as a process by which the ones without power gain greater control over their lives. This means control over material assets, intellectual resources and ideology. It involves power to, power with and power within. Some define empowerment as a process of awareness and conscientization, of capacity building leading to greater participation, effective decision-making power and control leading to transformative action. This involves ability to get what one wants and to influence others on our concerns. With reference to women the power relation that has to be involved includes their lives at multiple levels, family, community, market and the state. Importantly it involves at the psychological level womens ability to assert themselves and this is constructed by the gender roles assigned to her specially in a cultural which resists change like India. The questions surrounding womens empowerment the condition and position of women have now become critical to the human rights based approaches to development. The Cairo conference in 1994 organized by UN on Population and Development called attention to womens empowerment as a central focus and UNDP developed the Gender Empowerment measure (GEM) which focuses on the three variables that reflect womens participation in society –
  2. 2. political power or decision-making, education and health. 1995 UNDP report was devoted to womens empowerment and it declared that if human development is not engendered it is endangered a declaration which almost become a lei motif for further development measuring and policy planning. Equality, sustainability and empowerment were emphasized and the stress was, that womens emancipation does not depend on national income but is an engaged political process. Women are as capable as men of exercising will, controlling desires and taking decisions but males enjoy support of social institutions and women are excluded as the other. Women are often not treated as "ends in themselves" persons with dignity who deserve respect from laws and institutions instead they are treated instrumentally as reproducers, caregivers, sexual receivers, agents of familys general prosperity. Human development report since 1999 demonstrate that practically no country in the world treats its women as well as men according to the measures of life expectancy wealth and education. Developing countries present especially urgent problems where caste and class result in acute failure of human capabilities of women.Empowering women means control over their bodies and becomingeconomically independent, controlling resources like land and property andreduction of burden of work. A society or programme which aims at womensempowerment needs to create and strengthen sisterhood and to promote overallnurturing, caring and gentleness. PACS emphasis on emphasis on womenSHGs as a collective is one such efforts. Beijing conference 1995 had identifiedcertain quantitative and qualitative indicators of women empowerment.
  3. 3. Beijing conference 1995 indicators of women empowerment, qualitative &quantitative:- Qualitative: 1. increase in self-esteem, individual and collective confidence; 2. increase in articulation, knowledge and awareness on health, nutrition reproductive rights, law and literacy; 3. increase an decrease in personal leisure time and time for child care;
  4. 4. 4. increase on decrease of work loads in new programmes;5. change in roles and responsibility in family & community;6. visible increase on decrease in violence on women and girls;7. responses to, changes in social customs like child marriage,dowry, discrimination against widows;8. visible changes in womens participation level attending meeting,participating and demanding participation;9. increase in bargaining and negotiating power at home, incommunity;10. increase access to and ability to gather information;11. formation of women collectives;12. positive changes in social attitudes;13. awareness and recognition of womens economic contributionwithin and outside the household;14. womens decision-making over her work and income.Quantitative indicators:-A. Demographic trends:-• maternal mortality rate• fertility rate• sex ratio• life expectancy at birth• average age of marriageB. Number of women participating in different developmentprogrammesC. Greater access and control over communityresources/governments schemes- crèche, credit cooperative, nonformal education.D. Visible change in physical health status and nutritional levelE. Change in literacy and & enrollment levels
  5. 5. F. Participation levels of women in political process Monitorabletargets for the Tenth Plan and beyond had certain key issues relatedto gender.• All children in school by 2003; all children to complete five yearsof schooling by 2007.• Reduction of gender gaps in literacy and wage rates by at least50% by 2007.• Reduction of IMR to 45 per 1000 live births by 2007 and 28 by2012.• Reduction of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) to 2 per 1000 livebirths by 2007 onto to by 2012.Values Of Empowered Women:1. Self defining--Create her own definition of herself rather than accepting othersdefinition.-View herself as a complete human person.-Develop her own standard and values.2. personal knowledge--Explore and trust own emotions/desires experiences.-Recognize positive/negative characterstics.-Set goals and work towards them.-know self through own creative work.Types of empowerment:-
  6. 6. 1.Social Empowerment 2.Economic Empowerment 3.Political Empowerment SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT Education :-Womens education is extremely important intrinsically as it is theirhuman right and required for the flourishing of many of theircapacities.It is, however, noticed that most programmes for educationof girls and women in India have reinforced Gender roles speciallymotherhood in curriculum as well as impact evaluation.The huge studyof nearly 94% of Indias population done by Drez and others looks atfemale literacy and its negative and statistically significant impact onchild mortality.The questions of power are interlinked and weunderstand that what is necessary is both objective power in terms ofeconomic resources, laws, institutional roles and norms held by othersas well as subjective power in terms of self efficacy and entitlements.Empowerment of women is closely related to formal and informalsources of education. Late 19th century & 20th century reformersadvocated womens education as a principal strategy to answer thewomens question. Many innovative efforts are accelerated after theNPE. In UP a renewal process of correcting gender stereotyping wasinitiated in 1998 looking at textbooks and training besides
  7. 7. infrastructure and community mobilization. There is markedimprovement in girls enrollment and steady decline in dropout rates.Empowering Women through Education "Education is one of the most important means of empowering women with the knowledge, skills and self-confidence necessary to participate fully in the development process." —ICPD Programme of Action, paragraph 4.2 Education is important for everyone, but it is especially significant for girls and women. This is true not only because education is an entry point to other opportunities, but also because the educational achievements of women can have ripple effects within the family and across generations. Investing in girls education is one of the most effective ways to reduce poverty. Investments in secondary school education for girls yields especially high dividends. Girls who have been educated are likely to marry later and to have smaller and healthier families. Educated women can recognize the importance of health care and know how to seek it for themselves and their children. Education helps girls and women to know their rights and to gain confidence to claim them. However, women‘s literacy rates are significantly lower than men‘s in most developing countries. Education has far-reaching effects The education of parents is linked to their childrens educational attainment, and the mothers education is usually more influential than the fathers. An educated mothers greater influence in
  8. 8. household negotiations may allow her to secure more resources forher children.Educated mothers are more likely to be in the labour force, allowingthem to pay some of the costs of schooling, and may be more awareof returns to schooling. And educated mothers, averaging fewerchildren, can concentrate more attention on each child.Besides having fewer children, mothers with schooling are lesslikely to have mistimed or unintended births. This has implicationsfor schooling, because poor parents often must choose which of theirchildren to educate.Closing the gender gap in education is a development priority. The1994 Cairo Consensus recognized education, especially for women,as a force for social and economic development. Universalcompletion of primary education was set as a 20-year goal, as waswider access to secondary and higher education among girls andwomen. Closing the gender gap in education by 2015 is also one ofthe benchmarks for the Millennium Development Goals. EconomicEmpowermentWomen’s Work and EconomicEmpowermentIn nearly every country, women work longer hours than men, but areusually paid less and are more likely to live in poverty. Insubsistence economies, women spend much of the day performingtasks to maintain the household, such as carrying water and
  9. 9. collecting fuel wood. In many countries women are also responsiblefor agricultural production and selling. Often they take on paid workor entrepreneurial enterprises as well.Unpaid domestic work – from food preparation to caregiving –directly affects the health and overall well being and quality of lifeof children and other household members. The need for women‘sunpaid labour often increases with economic shocks, such as thoseassociated with the AIDS pandemic or economic restructuring. Yetwomens voices and lived experiences – whether as workers (paidand unpaid), citizens, or consumers – are still largely missing fromdebates on finance and development. Poor women do more unpaidwork, work longer hours and may accept degrading workingconditions during times of crisis, just to ensure that their familiessurvive.Intergenerational gender gapsThe differences in the work patterns of men and women, and theinvisibility of work that is not included in national accounts, lead tolower entitlements to women than to men. Women‘s lower access toresources and the lack of attention to gender in macroeconomicpolicy adds to the inequity, which, in turn, perpetuates gender gaps.For example, when girls reach adolescence they are typicallyexpected to spend more time in household activities, while boysspend more time on farming or wage work. By the time girls andboys become adults, females generally work longer hours thanmales, have less experience in the labour force, earn less income andhave less leisure, recreation or rest time.
  10. 10. This has implications for investments in the next generation. Ifparents view daughters as less likely to take paid work or earnmarket wages, they may be less inclined to invest in their education,womens fastest route out of poverty. PoliticalEmpowermentThroughout much of the world, women‘s equality is undermined byhistorical imbalances in decision-making power and access toresources, rights, and entitlements for women. Either by law or bycustom, women in many countries still lack rights to: Own land and to inherit property Obtain access to credit Attend and stay in school Earn income and move up in their work, freefrom job discriminationMoreover, women are still widely under-represented in decision-making at all levels, in the household and in the public sphere.
  11. 11. Addressing these inequities through laws and public policy is a wayof formalizing the goal of gender equality. Legal changes, whichmost countries have now implemented, are often a necessary step toinstitute gender equality, but not necessarily sufficient to createlasting changes. Addressing the gaps between what the lawproscribes and what actually occurs often requires broad, integratedcampaigns.Womens political participation has been considered a majormeasure of womens Empowerment. To measure womensempowerment now GEM takes 3 indicators, womens participationin economic, political and professional activities. Within politicalpower what is measured is mainly women in parliament, judiciary orin local bodies. Womens empowerment or disempowerment has tobe seen in all areas physical, socio cultural religious, political legaland economic.It is also now often pointed out that womensempowerment must be seen as a process where in we must considerwomens awareness consciousness, choices with live alternatives,resources at their disposal, voice, agency and participation. Theseare all related to enhancement of womens capabilities and decisionsthey take individually or collectively for themselves. Severalprogrammes in India like Mahila Samakhya have accepted theprocess nature of womens empowerment. The understandings ofempowerment in PACS has also been similar but planning ofactivity, time and budgets to ensure the empowering processes needgreater scrutiny. Womens education, livelihood and personalexercise of agency have to be systematically promoted .
  12. 12. Organisations such as Mahila Samakhya working to conscientiseand organise women in groups and sanghas are able to address theissue of women and their participation in a two fold manner. On theone hand they organise intensive training programmes for womenPRI representatives to make them effective functionaries and on theother hand together own programmes with their members withinthere collectives serve to build a culture of questioning, criticalthinking, collective decision-making and mobilisation on publicissues. A mobilised community of women is thus able to raise issuesof significance to the local community within the meetings, demandaccountably from representatives and administrative officialsregarding financial and procedural matters and intervene withcreative suggestions. Indian Women In ModernTimesGENDER EQUALITYEmpowering WomenDespite many international agreements affirming their human rights,women are still much more likely than men to be poor and illiterate.They usually have less access than men to medical care, propertyownership, credit, training and employment. They are far less likelythan men to be politically active and far more likely to be victims ofdomestic violence.The ability of women to control their own fertility is absolutelyfundamental to women‘s empowerment and equality. When a
  13. 13. woman can plan her family, she can plan the rest of her life. Whenshe is healthy, she can be more productive. And when herreproductive rights—including the right to decide the number,timing and spacing of her children, and to make decisions regardingreproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence—arepromoted and protected, she has freedom to participate more fullyand equally in society.Understanding gender equality and womensempowermentGender equality implies a society in which women and men enjoythe same opportunities, outcomes, rights and obligations in allspheres of life. Equality between men and women exists when bothsexes are able to share equally in the distribution of power andinfluence; have equal opportunities for financial independencethrough work or through setting up businesses; enjoy equal access toeducation and the opportunity to develop personal ambitions. Acritical aspect of promoting gender equality is the empowerment ofwomen, with a focus on identifying and redressing powerimbalances and giving women more autonomy to manage their ownlives. Womens empowerment is vital to sustainable developmentand the realization of human rights for all.Where women‘s status is low, family size tends to be large, whichmakes it more difficult for families to thrive. Population anddevelopment and reproductive health programmes are moreeffective when they address the educational opportunities, status andempowerment of women. When women are empowered, wholefamilies benefit, and these benefits often have ripple effects to futuregenerations.
  14. 14. The roles that men and women play in society are not biologicallydetermined -- they are socially determined, changing andchangeable. Although they may be justified as being required byculture or religion, these roles vary widely by locality and changeover time. UNFPA has found that applying culturally sensitiveapproaches can be key to advancing women‘s rights whilerespecting different forms of social organization.Addressing women‘s issues also requires recognizing that womenare a diverse group, in the roles they play as well as incharacteristics such as age, social status, urban or rural orientationand educational attainment. Although women may have manyinterests in common, the fabric of their lives and the choicesavailable to them may vary widely. UNFPA seeks to identify groupsof women who are most marginalized and vulnerable (womenrefugees, for example, or those who are heads of households orliving in extreme poverty), so that interventions address theirspecific needs and concerns. This task is related to the critical needfor sex-disaggregated data, and UNFPA helps countries buildcapacity in this area.Key issues and linkages 1.Reproductive health: Women, for bothphysiological and social reasons, are more vulnerable than men toreproductive health problems. Reproductive health problems,including maternal mortality and morbidity, represent a major – butpreventable -- cause of death and disability for women in developingcountries. Failure to provide information, services and conditions tohelp women protect their reproduction health therefore constitutes
  15. 15. gender-based discrimination and a violation of women‘s rights tohealth and life. 2.Stewardship of natural resources: Women indeveloping nations are usually in charge of securing water, food andfuel and of overseeing family health and diet. Therefore, they tend toput into immediate practice whatever they learn about nutrition andpreserving the environment and natural resources. 3.Economic empowerment: More women thanmen live in poverty. Economic disparities persist partly becausemuch of the unpaid work within families and communities falls onthe shoulders of women and because they face discrimination in theeconomic sphere. 4.Educational empowerment: About two thirds ofthe illiterate adults in the world are female. Higher levels ofwomens education are strongly associated with both lower infantmortality and lower fertility, as well as with higher levels ofeducation and economic opportunity for their children. 5.Political empowerment: Social and legalinstitutions still do not guarantee women equality in basic legal andhuman rights, in access to or control of land or other resources, inemployment and earning, and social and political participation.Laws against domestic violence are often not enforced on behalf ofwomen. Empowerment throughout the life cycle:Reproductive health is a lifetime concern for both women and men,
  16. 16. from infancy to old age. UNFPA supports programming tailored tothe different challenges they face at different times in life.Experience has shown that addressing gender equality and women‘sempowerment requires strategic interventions at all levels ofprogramming and policy-making.LITERACY RATE:- YEAR FEMALE MALE 1971 22% 46% 1991 39% 64% 2003 48% 70%GENDER GAPS:-  In education half of the students are women.  About 1% of the total women population has college education.Barriers To Female Education:-  Inedequate school facilities.
  17. 17.  Gender bias.  Preference to boys.  ¼ of india‘s population is below powerty line(BPL).Barriers To Female Employment:-  CULTURAL RESTRICTIONS:- -Caste system -purdha system  Lack of employment opportunities:- Contribution Of Various Societies And NGO’S
  18. 18. UNFPA………united nations population fund:-About UNFPA- Our Mission:-UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund, is an international developmentagency that promotes the right of every woman, man and child to enjoy a life ofhealth and equal opportunity. UNFPA supports countries in using populationdata for policies and programmes to reduce poverty and to ensure that every
  19. 19. pregnancy is wanted, every birth is safe, every young person is free of HIV, andevery girl and woman is treated with dignity and respect.Society for Child and Women Empowerment:-A NGO group which was formed and started functioning from 11 Feb. 2011with an area of operation in seven states of India viz. Bihar, Jharkhand,Chattisgarh, West Bengal, Orissa, Madya Pradesh, Maharashtra and some partsof Rajasthan. Society of Child & Women Empowerment is a non - governmentdevelopment organization working on issues affecting the Women andChildren, with a special focus on rural children. It is because ‗Every childdeserves a chance‘ that the organization exists and works towards making thatpossible.S.C.W.E. aims to establish Womens and Child organizations, which help inempowering them to work collectively with more self-confidence for their owndevelopment.S.C.W.E. believes in equality , which can be achieved by empowering womenand Children through organization. It facilitate the process by enabling peopleto be productive and self- reliant.This society Firmly believe and is trying hard with their community-basedefforts to improve basic health of women and children, educational rights,increase access to fundamental rights .Right to life includes right to life withhuman dignity.
  20. 20. What this society do?• Child and Women Empowerment• Vocational Training• Children Education• Health Awareness Programmes• Promote and Establish Health Centres and Educational Institutes This society is Dedicated towards Child and Women Empowerment throughoutIndia.
  21. 21. World food programme:-Smile foundation:- (swabhiman and parivartana)Swabhiman, an initiative of Smile Foundation, aims to bring pride and dignityfor our girl. Swabhiman, meaning self-respect, is a programme designed toenable women to realize their full potential in every sphere, be it home, office orcommunity. This programme helps in enhancing the skills and informationrelevant to make them realize their self-esteem. Again, Swabhiman is not anti-men, but it encourages women to defend themselves and escape from violenceand advocates men to be a part of bringing due dignity for our girl child. India is a land of paradox A land having the distinction of boasting the worlds largest number of professionally qualified women is yet to ensure a life with dignity for the majority of its womenfolk! India‘s male to femaleratio is an alarming 1000:933. Women form half of the country‘s population,yet only about half of them are literate. Close to 1.5 lakh women becomevictims of various crimes annually, as per reported cases. Further, an estimated5 crore women face mental and physical cruelty. Although, the legalmarriageable age for a girl in India is 18 years, our girl child doesn‘t have a saywhen she is going to be a woman!Ironically enough, India has the distinction of having the worlds largest numberof professionally qualified women! India prides in having more women as
  22. 22. "There is a night-and-day difference women havingtraining like this and those not having this. In crisis, theyare the best people to come out as winners.‖-- Dr. Kiran Bedi, IPSdoctors, surgeons, scientists and professors than the United States has. India isalso proud of the Kalpana Chawalas, Indra Nooyis, P T Ushas, Sania Mirzas,Aishwarya Rais, Kiran Majumdar Shaws, Kiran Bedis, to name a few.As a matter of fact gender-based discrimination and societal behavior leading tophysical and psychological harassments, emotional violence bordering oncruelty is never scant in woman‘s basket of woes. Social evils begin at thewomb with female feticides, infanticides, sexual harassments, rape and dowryrelated tortures putting an end to her misery only at the tomb!In order to make the women realize their inner strength and importance in thesociety, Swabhiman has taken a pledge to illuminate their lives with Pride andDignity!Swabhiman, an initiative of Smile Foundation, aims to bring pride and dignityfor our girl. Swabhiman, meaning self-respect, is a programme designed toenable women to realize their full potential in every sphere, be it home, office orcommunity. This programme helps in enhancing the skills and informationrelevant to make them realize their self-esteem. Again, Swabhiman is not anti-men, but it encourages women to defend themselves and escape from violenceand advocates men to be a part of bringing due dignity for our girl child.1st Milestone [Achievements]Swabhiman started getting an overwhelming response from the participants,communities, institutions and organizations alike within a short time of itslaunch in Delhi & NCR. During first year of its launch Swabhiman has reachedout to around 4000 beneficiaries through 50 communities and organizationsWomen of Substance on SwabhimanSwabhiman, in course of its short yet eventful journey, has received real valueaddition as well as accolades from women of substance! These women have settheir own roads in life, and thus set examples for others to excel, have beenassociated with Swabhiman during various activities and programmes.Comments, suggestions and observations from a few of them are as mentionedbelow:
  23. 23. ―Never accept being ‗allowed‘ by others to do something.One must be aware of one‘s right and freedom.‖-- Ms. Feroz Gujral, Model PARIVARTAN(BY SMILE FOUNDATION) Health and hygiene of women andadolescent girls No. of Beneficiaries: 400000Women in India have always faced the discrimination in many spheres of theirlives, health being one of the prominent one. Smile Foundation in support withProctor & Gamble has initiated a programme that aims at ensuring improvedhealth seeking behavior for women with a focus on reproductive health andmenstrual hygiene through training and other information, education andcommunication (IEC) tools. At present the programme is implemented in 4districts of Rajasthan. The programme is being implemented in collaborationwith the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM).
  24. 24. Women empowerment important for a powerfulnation: PatilPratibha Devisingh Patil is the 12th and current President of the Republic ofIndia and first woman to hold the office.[1]The status of women in India hasbeen subject to many great changes over the past few millennia.[2][3] From equalstatus with men in ancient times[4] through the low points of the medievalperiod,[5] to the promotion of equal rights by many reformers, the history ofwomen in India has been eventful. In modern India, women have adorned highoffices in India including that of the President, Prime minister, Speaker of theLok Sabha, Leader of Opposition, etc. The current President of India is awoman.Sep,22, President Pratibha Patil said women empowerment is very importantfor developing India into a powerful nation.“Women empowerment is veryimportant for the development of the nation. If women become powerful, thenation will also become powerful along with them,” Patil said whileaddressing the platinum jubilee celebration of the All India MarwariFederation here. She said just like a car cannot move without wheels, anation cannot also progress without its two wheels — men andwomen.Talking about the business sector, the president said it plays animportant role in the prosperity of the country, but it is even more importantto maintain ethics in business.“…In an era where newer technologicalinnovation is the need of the hour, it is even more important to maintainethics at workplace,” she said. Patil said the characteristic of “unity indiversity” in India has made it unique in the world. “In our country we have
  25. 25. people of various religions, castes, languages. This uniqueness sets Indiaapart from all other countries,” she said.Four Ways To Empower Women:-Women make up slightly more than 50 percent of the worlds population, butaccount for over 60 percent of the worlds hungry.Women hold the key to a future free from hunger and poverty. By supportingwomen’s education, training them as business leaders, equipping them tobecome better farmers and aiding those displaced by conflict, the Women’sEmpowerment Fund is giving WFP and its supporters a new way to help themdo that.As mothers, farmers, teachers and entrepreneurs, a great deal hinges on theirsuccess. Evidence shows that with equal access to education, training andmeans, women can raise the living standards of their families and inject new lifeinto the local economy.Empowering women
  26. 26. ―People often ask me, what can be done to defeathunger? If you had all the resources in the world to end hunger, what would youdo? My answer is simple: empower women, because women are the secretweapon to fight hunger.‖Josette SheeranWFP Executive DirectorWFP is working around the world to make sure women succeed—and now youcan too. Through the Women‘s Empowerment Fund, anyone can choose one offour ways to help women lift themselves out of poverty—and their families andcommunities along with them.1. Help them become business leadersEvidence shows that women in Africa re-invest about 90 percent of theirincome back into their households compared to between 30 and 40 percent formen. Giving women the knowledge and skills they need to run successful farmsand businesses is an efficient way to strengthen poor families.⇒ Find out how women salt producers from Senegal are raising profits whilethey stamp out iodine deficiency2. Help them grown more and better foodWomen produce between 60 and 80 percent of the food in most developingcountries, despite having less access to land and credit than men do. Providingthem with the tools and training they need to raise quality and yields is one ofthe best ways to increase food production in countries prone to hunger.⇒ Find out how an HIV-positive woman from Kenya beat back the virus whileraising her farm yields.
  27. 27. 3. Help them rebuild after conflictsWomen are particularly vulnerable in times of conflict, even as their role asproviders becomes more important than ever. Easing their return home bygiving them the tools and training they need to rebuild can kick-start therecovery process for an entire community.⇒ Find out how food assistance makes recovery possiblefor victims of rape in the Democratic Republic of Congo.4. Help them and their daughters get an educationTwo thirds or the approximately 75 million children deniedan education around the world are girls. Yet studies showthat educated women have healthier children, who are morelikely to live longer and attend schools themselves.Educating women is thus an important first step towards beating poverty andhunger.Approaches that Empower:-To empower women we must:- Educate women. Give them the information they need about their bodies and sex. Information is power and women have the right to receive it. Give women the skills they need to use a condom. Make them condom literate. Provide skills training on communication about sex and foster interpartner communication. Improve women‘s access to economic resources. Ensure that they have property and inheritance rights, have access to credit, receive equal pay for equal work, have the financial, marketing and business skills necessary to help their businesses grow, have access to the agricultural extension services to ensure the highest yield
  28. 28. from their land, have access to formal sector employment, and are protected in the informal sector from exploitation and abuse. Ensure that women have access to health services and that they have HIV and STI prevention technologies that they can control, such as the female condom and microbicides. And support the development of an AIDS vaccine that is safe, effective, and accessible to women and young girls. Increase social support for women who are struggling to change existing gender norms by giving them opportunities to meet in groups, visibly in communities; by strengthening local women‘s organizations and providing them with adequate resources; and by promoting sexual and family responsibility among boys and men. Move the topic of violence against women from the private sphere to the public sphere. This is not a personal issue it is a gross violation of women‘s rights and is has significant negative implications for the health of communities and for economic development. And, to give women a voice, provide them with the opportunity to create a group identity separate from that of the family because for many women the family is often the social institution that enforces strict adherence to traditional gender norms; and promote women‘s decision-making at the household, community, and national level by promoting women‘s leadership and participation.ConclusionLet me conclude by urging all of us to ensure that the term empowerment ofwomen becomes more than just a linguistic icon whose meaning is inverselyproportional to its use! Empowering women and guaranteeing them theireconomic and social rights is not an option. In the AIDS epidemic it preventsdeaths. It ensures that one of the greatest barriers to the health of populationsand to economic development is eliminated – gender inequity. Empoweringwomen is not a zero-sum game. Power is not a finite concept. More power towomen does not translate into less power for men. Empowering women,strengthening their agency as actors and decision-makers in their own lives, and
  29. 29. guaranteeing their rights increases the power of women, as well that ofhouseholds, communities, and entire economies.Concluding the topic ,I would like to say that , our so called ―SOCIETY‖ and―FAMILY‖ are formed by the combination of both man and women, so theyshould get equal consideration, after all both are HUMAN BEINGS then WHYSO MUCH OF DIFFERENCE?????????? webliography:-